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1 






f 



THE 







YoL XL Mew Series 



YoL. III. Old Series 



JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 



1 898 

Ml4 



XI 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
REV. ARTHUR T. PIERSON, D. D. 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

REV. J- T. GRACEY, D. D. REV. D. L. LEONARD, D. D. 

REV. F. B. MEYER, B. A. 

MANAGING EDITOR 

D. L. PIERSON, M. A. 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT, REV. C. C. STARBUCK 



FUNK AND WAGNALLS COMPANY 

N^W YORK I^ONDON 

1898 







. ^ 



Coiyyiight, X89B 

BT 
PUNK & WAGNAU^S COMPANT 



Printed in the United States 



XSf^ 



«. * 



THE 



Missionary Review of the World! 



I • 



VoIm XXI. No. 1.— aw 8eriM JANUARY^— Vol. XI. No. l.—Neto Series. 



SPIKITUAL MOVEMENTS OF THE HALF CENTURY.— 
THE REVIVAL OF THE PRAYER-SPIRIT. 

BY THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF. 

The piTot of piety is prayer. A pivot is of double use : it acts as 
a fastener and as a center; it holds in place, and it is the axis of 
revolution. Prayer is the double secret: it keeps us steadfast in faith, 
and it helps to all holy activity. Hence, as surely as God is lifting 
His people in these latter times to a higher level of life, and moving 
them to a more unselfish and self-denying service, there will be a new 
emphasis laid upon supplication, and especially upon intercession. 

This revival of the praying-spirit, if not first in order of develop- 
ment, is first in order of importance in every really onward advance. 
Generally, if not uniformly, prayer is both starting point and goal to 
every movement in which are the elements of permanent progress. 
Whenever the church is aroused and the world's wickedness arrested, 
somebody has been praying. If the secret history of all really 
spiritual advance could be written and read, there would be found 
some intercessors who, like Job, Samuel, Daniel, Elijah, like Paul 
and James, like Jonathan Edwards, William Carey, George Muller 
and Hudson Taylor, have been led to shut themselves in the secret 
place with God, and have labored fervently in prayers. And, as the 
starting point is thus found in supplication and intercession, so the 
final outcome must be that God's people shall have learned to pray, if 
there is not to be rapid reaction and disastrous relapse from the better 
conditions secured. 

These convictions have so been inwrought into the mind of the 
writer by patient and long continued study of the religious history of 
the race, that there seems to be no seal of permanence upon any move- 
ment, however spiritual in appearance and tendency, which does not 
sooner or later show a decided revival of the praying spirit. 

* TbJs periodical adopts the Orthography of the following; Rule, recommended by the Joint action 
of the Aonericaii Philological Association and the Philological Socii'ty of England :— Change d or 
c4 ilaal to t wlien ao pitHioaxiced, except when the e affecta a precedhog sound.— Publuhxbs. 



2 SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OF THE HALF CENTURY. [January 

There is a divine philosophy behind this fact. Onr greatest need 
is to keep in close touch with God. Our greatest risk is the loss of the 
sense of the divine. We are in a world where every appeal is to the 
physical senses and through them. Reality is in direct proportion to 
the power of contact. What we see, hear, taste, touch, or smell — 
what is material and sensible — we can not doubt. The present and 
material absorbs attention and appears to us solid, substantial : but 
the future, the ini material, the invisible, the spiritual, seem vague, 
distant, illusive, imaginary. Practically the unseen has no reality and 
no influence upon the vast majority of mankind. Even the unseen 
God is less a verity than the commonest object of vision; to many He, 
the highest verity, is really vanity, while the world's vanities are prac- 
tically the highest verities. 

God's great corrective for this most awful inversion and perversion 
of the true relation of things, is prayer. " Enter into thy closet." 
Why? There all is silence, secrecy, solitude, seclusion. Within that 
shut door, we are left alone. All others are shut out, that the suppli- 
ant may be shut in — with God. The silence is in order that we may 
hear the still, small voice, that is drowned in worldly clamor, and 
which even a human voice may cause to be unheard or indistinct. 
The secrecy is in order to a meeting with Him who seeth in secret 
and is best seen in secret. The solitude is for the purpose of being 
alone, with One who can fully impress us with His presence only when 
there is no other presence to divert our thought. The place of seclu- 
sion with God is the one school where we learn that He is, and is the 
rewarder of* those that diligently seek Him. As Dr. Plummer used to 
say, the closet is "not only the oratory, it is the observatory,'' not for 
prayer only but for prospect — the wide-reaching, clear-seeing outlook 
upon the eternal! The decline of prayer is the decay of piety.; when 
prayer ceases altogether, there is spiritual death, for prayer is the 
breath of life to every child of God. 

To keep in close touch with God in the secret chamber of His 
presence, is the great underlying purpose of prayer. To speak with 
God is a priceless privilege; but what shall be said of having and 
hearing Him speak with us ! We can tell Him nothing He does not 
know; but He can tell us what no imagination has ever conceived, no 
research ever unveiled. The highest of all possible attainments is the 
knowledge of God, and this is the practical mode of His revelation of 
Himself. Even His holy word needs to be read in the light of the 
closet, if it is understood. " And when Moses was gone into the taber- 
nacle of the congregation to speak with Him, then he heard the voice 
of one speaking unto him from off the mercy seat that to as upon the 
ark of testimony, — from between the two cherubims, and he spoke 
Unto him." Nu. vii. : 89, 



139S,^ TUB RE\TVAL OF THB PaATBR SPIRIT. 3 

And, where there is this close touch with God, and this clear 

msight mto llis name which is His nature, and into His word which 

is Ilia will made known, there will be a new power to walk with Him 

in holinesa and work with Him in service. " He made known His 

ways unto Moses, His ads unto the children of Israel." The mass of 

the people stood afar off and saw His deeds, like the overthrowing of 

Pharaoh's hosts in the Bed Sea; but Moses drew near into the thick 

darkness where God was; and in that thick darkness he found a light 

such as never shone elsewhere, and in that light he read God^s secret 

plans and purposes, and interpreted His wondrous ways of working. 

All practical 

POWER OVER SIN AKD OVER MEN 

depends on closet communion. Those who abide in the secret place 
with God show themselves mighty to conquer evil, and strong to work 
and to war for God. They are the seers who read His secrets; they know 
His will; they are the meek whom He guides in judgment and teaches 
His way. They are His prophets, who speak for Him to others, and 
even forecast things to come. They watch the signs of the times and 
discern His tokens and read His signals. We sometimes count as 
mystics those who, like Savonarola and Catharine of Siena, claim to 
have communications from God; to have revelations of a definite plan 
of God for His Church, or for themselves as individuals, like the 
reformer of Erfurt, the founder of the Bristol orphanages, or the 
leader of the China Inland Mission. But may it not be that we stum- 
ble at these experiences because we do not have them ourselves ? Have 
not many of these men and women proved by their lives that they 
were not mistaken, and that God has led them by a way that no other 
eye could trace ? 

But there is another reason for close contact with the living God 

in prayer — a reason that rises perhaps to a still higher level. Prayer 

not only puts us in touch with God, and gives knowledge of Him and 

His ways, but it imparts to us His power. It is a touch which brings 

virtue out of Him. It is a hand upon the pole of a celestial battery, 

and it makes us charged with His secret life, energy, efficiency. 

Things which are impossible with man are possible with God, and 

with a man in whom God is. Prayer is the secret of imparted power 

from God, and nothing else can take its place. Absolute weakness 

follows the neglect of secret communion with God — and the weakness 

is the more deplorable, because it is often unsuspected, especially when 

it has never yet been known by us what true power is. We see men 

of prayer quietly achieving results of the most surprising character. 

They have the calm of God, no hurry, or worry, or flurry; no anxiety 

or care, no excitement or bustle — they do great things for God, yet 

they are little in their own eyes; they carry great loads, and yet are 



4 8PIRITT7AL MOTBMENTS OF THE HALF CENTUBT. [JanuaTY 

not weary nor faint; they face great crises, and yet are not troubled. 
And those who know not what treasures of wisdom and strength and 
courage and power are hidden in God's pavilion, wonder how it is — 
they try to account for all this by something in the man, or his talent, 
or tact, or favoring circumstances. Perhaps they try to imHate such 
a career by securing the patronage of the rich and mighty, or by 
dependence on organization, or fleshly energy-ror what men call 
"determination to succeed" — they bustle about, labor incessantly, 
appeal for money and cooperation, and work out an apparent success, 
but there is none of that Power of God in it which can not be imi- 
tated. They compass themselves about with sparks, but there is no 
fire of God; they build up a great structure, but it is wood, hay, stub- 
ble; they make a great noise, but God is not in the clamor. Like a 
certain preacher who confest that, when he felt no kindling of inspired 
thought and feeling, he walkt up and down the pulpit, and shouted 
with all his might — they make up for the lack of divine unction and 
action by carnal confidence and vehemence. There is a show of 
energy, resolution, endeavor, and often of results, but behind all this 
a lamentable and nameless deficiency. 

Nothing is at once so undisputable and so overawing as the way in 
which a few men of God live in Him and lie in them. The fact is, 
that, in the disciple's life, the fundamental law is " not I, but Christ 
in me." In a grandly true sense there is but one Worker y one agent, 
and He divine; and all other so-called " workers " are instruments 
only in His hands- The first quality of a true instrument \^ passivity. 
An active instrument would defeat its own purpose; all its activity 
must be dependent upon the man who uses it. Sometimes a machine 
becomes uncontrollable, and then it not only becomes useless, but it 
works damage and disaster. What would a man do with a plane, a 
knife, an axe, a bow, that had any will of its own and moved of itself ? 
Does it mean nothing when, in the Word of God, we meet so frequent 
symbols of passive service — the rod, the staff, the saw, the hammer, 
the sword, the spear, the thrashing instrument, the flail, and in the 
New Testament the vessel ? Does it not mean that a willful man God 
can not use; that the first condition of service is that my will is to 
be so lost in God's as that it presents no resistance to His and no 'per- 
sistence beyond or apart from His, no assistance to His. George 
Mailer well says that we are to wait to know whether a certain work 
is Ood^s; then whether it is ours, as being committed to us; but even 
then we need to wait for God's way and God's time to do His own 
work, otherwise we rush precipitately into that which he means us to 
do, but only at His signal, or we go on doing when He calls a halt. 
Many a true servant of God has, like Moses, begun before his Master 
was ready, or kept on working when his Master's time was past. 

There is one aspect of prayer to which particular attention needs 



.1S98.^ THE REVITAL OF THE PRATER SPIRIT. 5 

to \)e called, because it is strongly emphaBized in the Word, and 
Ytecause it is least used in our daily life : we mean intercession. 

This word, and what underlies it, has a very unique use and mean- 
ing in Scripture. It differs from supplication, first in this, that sup- 
plication has mainly reference to the suppliant and his own supply ; 
and again because intercession not only concerns other Sy but largely 
implies the need of direct divine interposition. There are many 
prayers that allow our cooperation in their answer, and imply our 
activity. When we pray, " Give us this day our daily bread,^' we go 
to work to earn the bread for which we pray. That is God's law. 
When we ask God to deliver us from the evil one, we expect to be 
sober and vigilant, and resist the adversary. This is right; but our 
activity in many matters hinders the full display of God's power, and 
hence so our impression of His working. And the deepest convic- 
tions of God's prayer-answering are wrought in cases where we are in 
the nature of things precluded from all activity in promoting the 
result. 

*It will, therefore, be seen that the objection which often hinders 
our praying, or praying in confidence of results — namely, that we are 
entirely helpless to effect any result — is 

THE GRAND REASON FOK PRAYING; 

and when such praying is answered, the evidence of God's working is 
irresistible. It is when we are in trouble and refuge fails us, when we 
are at our wits' end, that it becomes plain that He saves us out of our 
distresses. Unbelief is always ready to suggest that it is not a strange 
thing if a prayer for the conversion of another is answered, when we 
have been bending every energy toward the winning of a soul ; and 
we find it very hard to say how far the result is traceable to God and 
how far to man. But when one can do nothing but cry to God, and 
yet He works mightily to save, unbelief is silenced, or compelled to 
confess, this is the finger of God. 

The Word of God teaches us that intercession with God is most 
necessary in cases where man is powerless. Elijah is held before us 
as a great intercessor and the one example given in his prayer for rain. 
' Yet in this case he could only pray. There was nothing else he could 
do to unlock the heavens after three years and a half of drought. 
And is there not a touch of divine poetry in the form in which the 
answer came ? The rising cloud took the shape of " a man's hand,* 
as though to assure the prophet how God saw and heeded the suppliant 
hand raised to Him in prayer! Daniel was powerless to move the 
king or reverse his decree ; all he could do was to " desire mercies of 
the God of heaven concerning the secret;" and it was because he 
could do nothing else, could not even guess at the interpretation 
when he knew not even the dream — that it was absolutely sure that 



6 BinuiTUAL MovBMBNTS OP THE HALF CENTURY. [January 

Ood had interposed, and so even the heathen king himself saw and 
felt and confest. All through history certain crises have arisen when 
the help of man was vain. To the formal Christian, the carnal dis- 
ciple, the unbelieving soul, this fact, that there was nothing that man 
could do, makes prayer seem almost a folly, perhaps a farce, a waste 
of breath. But to those who best know God, man's extremity is God's 
opportunity, and human helplessness is the argument for praying. 
Invariably those whose faith in prayer is supernaturally strong, are 
those who have most proved that God has wrought by their own con- 
scious compulsory cessation of all their own effort as vain and hope- 
less. 

George Miiller set out to prove to a half -believing church and an 
unbelieving world that 

GOD DOES DIRECrTLY ANSWER PRAYER; 

and to do this he abstained from all the ordinary methods of 
appeal, or of active effort to secure the housing, clothing, and feeding 
of thousands of orphans. Hudson Taylor undertook to put mission- 
aries* into Inland China, by dependence solely upon God. He not 
only asks no collections, but refuses them in connection with public 
meetings. He and his co-workers are accustomed to lay all wants 
before the Lord, whether of men or money, and expect the answer, 
and it comes. The study of missionary history reveals the fact that, 
at the very times when, in utter despair of any help but God's, there 
has been believing prayer, the interposition of God has been most con- 
spicuously seen — how could it be most conspicuous except amid such 
conditions ? 

One of the most encouraging tokens of God's moving in our days 
is, therefore, wliat, for lack of any better terms, we have called the 
revival of the prayer-spirit. • This is very noticeable in the numer- 
ous "prayer circles" and "prayer covenants," which have been formed 
within ten years past. In Great Britain particularly, intercession has 
been unusually emphasized of late. The Keswick movement has been 
more conspicuous for prayer than for anything else. The whole 
atmosphere of the convention has been laden with its fragrance, and^ 
the intervals between the meetings are very largely filled up with pri- 
vate supplications, or with smaller gatherings of two or three or more 
who seek further converse with God. There are organizations for 
prayer alone — some whose members do not know each other, or meet 
in common assemblies, but whose only bond is a covenant of daily 
supplication for one another and for objects of mutual interest. Any 
one who will read the two volumes in which is told that wonderful 
story of the China Inland Mission, will find that beyond all else believ- 
ing prayer is brought to the front, as the condition of all success. It 
fell to the writer of this paper to spend some weeks at the Mission 



1898.] THE BEVrVAL OP TITE PRATER SPIRIT. 7 

Home, in London. From morning till night there was one sacrifice 
of praise and prayer, and at least once a week, with the map of China 
in fnll sight, the various missionaries and stations are mentioned hy 
name, individually, the peculiar circumstances being made known, 
which incite to earnest, sympathetic supplication. And thus, both in 
larger and smaller circles of prayer, the spirit of intercession has a 
markt reviyal. 

This is doubtless the most hopeful signal apparent above the hori- 
zon, and it is a signal calling God's people to a new life of unselfish 
and believing prayer. Every church ought to he a prayer circle; but 
this will not be, while we are waiting for the whole body to move 
together. The mass of professing Christians have too little hold on 
God to enter into such holy agreement. May the writer venture a 
suggestion — the fruit of long and prayerful thought — to his brethren 
in the ministry, and to all who yearn for a revival of the prayer-spirit ? 
It is this, that 

IK EVERY CHURCH A PRAYER CIRCLE 

be formed, without any regard to numbers. Let the pastor unite with 
himself any man or woman in whom he discerns peculiar spiritual life 
and power, and without publicity or any effort to enlarge the little com- 
pany, begin to lay before God any matter demanding special divine guid- 
ance and help. Without any public invitation — ^which might only draw 
unprepared people into a formal association — it will be found that the 
Holy Spirit will enlarge the circle as He fits others, or finds others fit, to 
enter it — and thus quietly and without observation the little company 
of praying souls will grow as fast as God means it shall. Let a record 
be kept of every definite petition laid before God — such a prayer circle 
should be only with reference to very definite matters — and as God 
interposes, let the record of his interposition be carefully kept, and 
become a new inspiration to believing prayer. Such a resort to united 
intercession would transform a whole church, remove dissensions, rec- 
tify errors, secure harmony and unity, and promote Holy Ghost admin- 
istration and spiritual life and growth, beyond all other possible 
devices. If in any church the pastor is not a man who could or would 
lead in such a movement, let two or three, who feel the need, meet and 
begin by prayer for him. In this matter there should be no waiting 
for anybody else; if there be but one believer who has power with God, 
let such an one begin intercessory prayer. God will bring to the side 
of such an intercessor others whom He has made ready to act as sup- 
plieators. 

Not long since, in a church in Scotland, a minister suddenly began 
to preach with unprecedented power. The whole congregation was 
aroused and sinners marvelously saved. He himself did not under- 
stand the new enduement. In a dream of the night it was strangely 



8 SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OF THE HALF CENTURY. [JanuarV 

suggested to him that the whole blessing was traceable to one poor old 
woman who w^as stone deafy but who came regularly to church, and 
being unable to hear a word, spent all the time in prayer for the 
preacher and individual hearers. In the biography of C. G. Finney 
similar facts are recorded of " Father Nash," Abel Cleary, and others. 
In 1896 I met in Newport, England, a praying circle of twelve men, 
who had met for twenty-five years every Saturday night to pray for 
definite blessings. Not a death had occurred in their number during 
the whole quarter century. The first impulse leading to this weekly 
meeting was interest in Mr. Spurgeon's ministry. They felt that with 
his great access to men he had need of peculiar power from above, 
and on the Sabbath following their first meeting, he began to preach 
with such increast unction as attracted general notice. Examples 
might be multiplied indefinitely. But the one thing we would make 
prominent is this: that above all else, God is calling His people to 
new prayer. He wills that " men pray everywhere, lifting up holy 
hands without wrath and doubting;" that,^r5^ of all, supplications, 
prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men.* 
And if this be done, first of all, every other most blessed result will 
follow. God waits to be askt. He has the fountains of blessing 
which he puts at the disposal of his praying saints. They are sealed 
fountains to the nngodly and the unbelieving. But there is one Key 
that unlocks even heaven's gates; one secret that puts connecting 
channels between those eternal fountains and ourselves, that key, that 
secret, is prevailing prayer. 

In London an enterprising newspaper has a private wire connect- 
ing with Edinburgh, in order to command the latest freshest news 
from the Scottish Athens. One night the clerk, who was out to col- 
lect local items, returned late and could not get in — he had forgotten 
to take his night-key. He thought a moment. It was of no use to 
knock at the door — the only fellow-clerk in the building was too far 
away to hear him. He stept to a neighboring telegraph office and 

sent a message to Edinburgh : *^ Tell that I am at the street door 

and can not get in.'' In twenty minutes the door was unfastened and 
he was at his desk in the office. The shortest way to get at the vian in 
the fourth story was by Edinburgh, How long will it take us to learn 
that our shortest route to the man next door is by way of God's 
throne ! God has no greater controversy with his people to-day than 
this, that, with boundless promises to believing prayer, there are so 
few who actually give themselves unto intercession. 



f ( 



And there is none that calleth upon Thy name. 

That stirreth up himself to take hold of Thee." — Isa. Ixiv.: 7. 



•ITiin. n.;l,8. 



1898. J THE PRSfiBNT SITUATION IN ASIA. 9 

THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ASIA. 

BY ROBERT E. SPEER, NEW YORK CITY, 
Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. 

It is a common belief among men who are living in the East, and 
who are, without bias, studying its future, that the Pacific is to sup- 
plant the Atlantic as the great sea of commerce and the ocean theater 
of the world's life and movement. The populousness of the lands 
bordering the Pacific on the west, the wealth of their undevelopt 
resources, the magnitude of their markets, the greatness of the empire 
that is growing up around Australia, the inexhaustible richness of the 
Spanish-American States, and the promises made by the powerful 
infancy of our Pacific commonwealths, leaving out of view the yearn- 
ings of European states to gain seats of influence and residence in the 
old East that is becoming the newest West, are but a few of many 
grounds on which these men rest their belief that the great scenes of 
future history will be enacted around the Pacific. There is much to 
lend color to such views. We mistake in thinking of Asia as wholly 
effete. It is covered with the wrecks of great historic movements. 
Onr antiquities are as the play of children compared with its hoary 
age. The forces which have made many of its peoples are spent. But 
the peoples of Asia are great peoples, and their old life, while devoid 
of aspiration, of progress, of fertility, has schooled them into a pati- 
ence, an endurance, a frugality, a sense of human weakness, that may 
prove, when the new forces that are at work begin freely to play upon 
them, an equipment of infinite value, the very qualities needed to 
enable them to do what has not yet been done. 

The new forces have been powerfully at work the past year, and 
the new year begins with the situation in Asia more interesting than 
ever to the friend of human progress and the student of history. 
Superficially the reactionary influences seem, in the main, to have 
prevailed. Underneath, the solid, progressive forces may be seen not 
only to hare held their own, but to have gained in the great struggle 
which has begun. Some would reckon Russia among the retrogres- 
sive influences ; but Russia stands for order, protection, law ; and her 
industrial ambition means that her political absolutism is construct- 
ing its own limits, while emancipation in some form, which must 
come, may make Russia's influence not so unfavorable to the higher 
interests of the Asiatic peoples as has been usually supposed. Sunnee 
Mohammedanism in the person of the pseudo Calif, Abdul Hamid, 
has risen from the low estate into which it was believed to have been 
brought, and the Sultan, from being the sick man of Europe, has 
gained new health and power with which further to curse the nations. 
The new year sees both Unssia and Turkey more securely entrencht 



10 THE PRS8ENT SITUATION IN ASIA. [January 

than ever in Asia; and in tlie case of the former, at leasts in a position 
of unassailable strength in fields on which a few years its hold was 
slight. 

On the other hand, the influence of Great Britain, which, while in 
the main directed with purest selfishness toward the absorption and 
development of trade, has also ever been the most righteous and just- 
spirited influence in Asia, is declared by many British residents and 
papers in Asia, to have declined. The weak and vacillating course of 
Sir Nicholas O'Connor during the Japanese-Chinese war certainly did 
weaken the influence of Great Britain in both China and Japan, while 
it played into the willing hands of Russia. And the appointment, two 
years ago, of Mr. Byron Brennan practically to investigate the condition 
of British trade, and his commission, with a sort of pontifical authority, 
indicated the British belief that they were in danger in just that sphere 
which is dearest to them, and whose protection and enlargement has 
ever been the particular care of British foreign policy. Many long 
for the old swash-buckler days of Sir Harry Parkes, forgetting that 
the Asiatic nations have past through a generation of the most effec- 
tive discipline in the ways of western governments since then, and have 
learned some good lessons in that same school which taught the Sultan 
to play chess with tlie suspicions and distrusts of tlie European states. 
In matter of fact, the solid influence of Great Britain has not declined 
so much as the influence of other European governments, and the wit 
and skill of the Asiatic governments have increast. The old supre- 
macy and daring aggression are gone. The telegraph renders the 
Asiatic stage too open to the gaze of civilization to allow the old tac- 
tics ever to be employed again. Still, even a relative decline of British 
power means a less favorable political atmosphere in which to initiate 
and foster missionary movements toward enlightenment and liberty 
and life. 

But, whether the atmosphere bo favorable or unfavorable, the mis- 
sionary movements will be maintained and enlarged. It is Avaste time 
to meditate on their decline or withdrawal. Through whatever diffi- 
culties, against whatever odds, at whatever heavy cost of money and 
life, the missionary movement means to do its work in Asia until its 
work is done. And steadily during the past year it has prest on its 
way. Temporary diminution of receipts has led it to re-examine its 
methods and to increase their efficiency. Each year's experience has 
shown it how more fully to avoid all irritation of the people, and to 
win their friendship and confidence. Political confusion has given it 
the opportunities for which it is ever looking to show the people that 
it is free of all political entanglements, and is a clear and untrammeled 
enterprise, whose kingdom is not of this world. From Turkey to 
Korea the year has witnessed the solidifying of the foundations of 
missionary work, and its quiet and steady progress in numbers and 



18A8.] THE PnBBEHT BITUATION IK ASIA. 11 

power, vhile it cloaea with the forceB of decay and retrogresaioii 
emergiug in many places, aud in some apparently predominant. 

In Fernia the new Shah has sUowq himself incompetent to deal 
with the problemB confronting him. When lie degraded the Sadr-azam, 
the powerful prime minister, and reorganized the cabinet, some 
thought that he was showing the master hand of which PerHia is in 
need; but all later developments have corroborated the first impres- 
sion of his weakness.' There is no hope for Persia in the Kajar 
dynasty, nor in any force or party witliiu the state. The timidity 
witli which Muzaffr-i-din bogau his reign led to the abandonment, 
during the year, of hia proposed trip to Vichy on acconnt of kidney 
tronble, and it seems to be leading him now to adopt a weaker atti- 



tnde with regard to the mollahs, and to hold, with looser grasp, the 
lines of control over the more distant sections of hia empire. Uo. re- 
cently apiKiinted a Berparast, or governor, for the non-Moslems of 
Hamadan, with instnictions to warn them against being misled by the 
missionaries, who were the more dangerous hecanse of their kindly 
acts of charity and beneficence. This may have been only a sop to 
the ecclesiastics, hot such sops have become too numerous. How weak 
the government's authority is has been well shown hy the recent pro- 
paganda of the Greek Church among the Ji'estorians. For years the 
N'cstoriaus have lookt for political succor from some foreign source. 
Thev coquetted with the Catholics in the hope of French protection, 



12 THE i*REfiBN'r SITUATION IN ASIA. [January 

then with the Anglicans, looking toward England. Long ago, tho, 
they saw how vain were these reliances, and have heen turning toward 
Russia, wondering when the Greek priests would como. Last spring 
they came, and hundreds flock t to them, hailing them as their deliver- 
ers. Under the illusion that they were now secure, they taunted the 
Moslems, boasted of their security and the coming day when their 
heels would be on the necks of their Mohammedan masters, and the 
lands of the faithful would be their portion. The Moslem authorities 
were dumbfounded, and not knowing how true the pretensions of the 
new proselytes to the Russian Church were, hesitated to take venge- 
ance, or to enforce the old order. Feeling their way, however, they 
have discovered that Russia is not ready yet for any active interfer- 
ence, and the last state of these poor Kestorians is now far worse than 
the first. It is to the credit of the solid work done by the American 
missionaries, that the great majority of the members of their churches 
resisted the allurements of the Greek priests, and kept a temperate 
mind. The whole episode, taken with many others illustrating the 
general weakness of the country, the rottenness of the village system, 
the injustice and extortion of the whole scheme of taxation, and the 
incapacity of Persian and Turk alike have increast the longing of 
many Mohammedans as well as confirmed the desire of all non-Mos- 
lems for the intervention of Russia or England. There are some 
strong men in Persia, most of them as unscrupulous and wicked as 
they are strong. Some of them might develop, for a little while, an 
apparently stable government, but 

• PERSIA IS ROTTEN. 

Her village population has great possibilities under a just govern- 
ment, but it is absolutely futile to hope for a just government from 
any dynasty that can be establisht in Persia, or as long as the Moham- 
medan ecclesiastics have influence over administration or are left with 
any of the large judicial authority they now possess. Whoever hopes 
for progress or righteousness from Islam in this or the coming cen- 
tury, is expecting grapes from thorns or figs from thistles. There is 
no political hope for Persia save in Russia or England, and there is no 
moral or social hope save in that vital regeneration which only 
Christianity of all the forces in the world can effect. As Mr. Curzon, 
no favorable critic of missions, declares : 

''Those philosophers are right who argue that moral must precede material and 
internal exterior reform in Persia. It is useless to graft new shoots on to a 
stem whose own sap is exhausted or poisoned. We may give Persia roads and 
raih'oads; we may work her mines and exploit her resources; we may drill her 
army and clothe her artisans; but we shall not have brought her within the pale 
of civilized nations until we have got at the core of the people, and given a new 
and a radical twist to the national character and institutions." 

• 

It must be admitted that in Persia and Turkey the mission outlook 



t m - t WW 



1898.] THE PBESBNT SITUATION IN ASIA. 13 

16 not bright. The abandonment of Mosul as a mission station greatly 
weakens the force at work in Mesopotamia, all of the lower and central 
portions of wbich now are toucht only from Bagdad by a small force 
of C. M. S. missionaries on the sonth and from Mardin on the north. 
The magnificent work of the American Board of Missions has been 
tried as by fire. In Arabia there has been general quiet^ but the few 
Scotch missionaries at Shiek Othman, near Aden^ and the Americans 
at Bnzrahy Bahrein, and Muscat are as drops in a bucket. The chief 
grounds of assurance regarding missions in the lands of Islam must 
be found in a prophetic vision of the future, and in a calm faith fed 
by the very spirit of Islam, and vindicated daily, that there is one 
God, and that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and the Savior of the 
world, and that he will be the Savior of Islam because there is none 
other. Islam simply can not endure modern life and light. When 
these are turned full upon it, the old religion of a nation of Arab 
tribes, full of the shackles of a narrow life, yet full of the bigotry of 
a universal claim, must crumble of its own contradictoriness. 

What shall be said of that great territory between Persia and the 
west, India and Tibet on the east, Russia on the north, and the Per- 
sian Gulf on the south ? Where are the heroes who will essay to 
enter this field ? What is to be its destiny ?* Is it to be barren and 
waste, curst by the jealousy and anger of the two great empires that 
glare across it at one another ? The past year has seen no advance 
made toward the evangelization of these lands — Afghanistan, Beluchis- 
tan, Turkestan, and Bokhara, which, however, is Bussia. 

THE CONDITIOK OF INDIA. 

In India famine has followed plague, and war and unrest have 
followed famine. Plague slew its thousands, and threatened to turn 
Kurrachee and Bombay into cities of the dead. Famine slew its tens 
of thousands, and filled the Northwest Provinces with agony and 
suffering, in comparison with which the quick fatality of the plague 
was merciful. How many died of famine or plague, many will say, 
but none can know. Of what account are the numbers when set 
against the millions who remain, as sick and hungry almost as the 
multitudes who have gone ? On the heels of these miseries have come 
new mutterings of discontent, now exposures of the dark tides that 
are always running under Indian life, new difficulties on the north- 
west frontier. And many speak as always of the cruelty, the oppres- 
sion, the tyrannical impositions of the British power. Which is both 
untrue and unjust. All that any power on earth but Christianity 
could do for India, England has done. But what is that ? Pine 
roads, a great and non-religious educational system, newspapers, 
enlightenment, political equality and equality before the law, railroads, 
abolition of cruelties and enormities practist in the name and under 



14 TUB FRKBBNT SITUATION IN ABiA. [Jaimarj 

the sanction of religion, national peace, amd order, theae are great 
blessings, and some of them run deep; but equality and enlighten- 
ment and justice and righteousness run just as deep in India as the 
layer of British integrity extends, and no deeper. Uelow that, and 
that is not far, all the principles of Oriental life, so distorted, so evil, 
eo wondrously persistent, rule with unsliakeu sway. To think of 
India as civilized, and to propose to deal with it so, is to toy with 
high explosivea, A new mutiny, if it ever cornea, would show the 
spirit of the old in the same opalent extravagance of savage and 
treacherous brutality. Wliyshould this be so? Simply because Eng- 
land's work has been on the sur- 
face of Indian life. New institu- 
tions, new courts, new laws, all 
these are the expressione, not the 
creators of a spirit. England has 
not given India a new moral 
spirit or a character of integrity, 
because she could not. AVhen she 
might have done so, if she could 
have done it at all, by a system 
of free Christian education, she 
refused to do so, politically she 
was not fit to do so. India will 
not be a better India than was" 
revealed in the days of Chandra 
Japta, of Akbar, of the Sepoy 
Rebellion, until the only force in 
the world that can do it gives to 
■oit or THJt oiMaKs, BENJBEB. iKDtA. India a HOW charactcr. Julian 

Thli li the tmaee ot the BLvcr God. whlcb i< it .t ■, . .■ 

covered It high water, Hawtlioriic s testimony, growing 

out of his study of the famine 
conditioTis, warmly corroborates the judgment that irresistibly 
obtrndes itself. He says: 

"The only salvation of India, even from Ihe ccoaomlc point of view, is, in the 
opinion ot those wlio liave longest and most deeply studied it, its Chriatiaoiia- 
tion. Hindu idolatry and Islam are Ihc blights that nrc destroying the country. 
The paralysis of caste on the one side, and the fetters of bigotry on the oLhef. 
delay civilization and obscure enlighten men t. England has cot fulfilled her duty 
to the bouIb of licr dependents; and, therefore, as Edwardcs foresaw, ber admin- 
istration has measurably failed to rehabilitate their minds and bodies. . . . 
Let her iuepirc India with a veritable Christian faitb, and nine-tenths ot the 
present difficuliies would spontaneously cease." 

It will be for the peace of India and of Asia to recognize this. He 
who contributes to enlarging the missionaries' work in India during 
the coming year, is not only saving souls from death ; he is strengthen- 
ing the only force that is working for the life and redemption of the 



1898,] THK PBE8KKT BITCiTION IM ABIA. 15 

world. WhstcTer else is ^one for India, in plague prevention or 
famine relief, or seoulur education, is but external and tertiary. 

The King of Siam hae been visiting Europe during part of the 
jear. Perhaps the pleasant intercouree he had, as it is reported, with 
President Fanre of France, accounted for tlie absence of serious 
trouble over the boundaries between Siamese and French territorj, 
tboDgh the Siamese appear to have made some aggressions. Much 
may be hoped from the vieit. The work of the missionaries is held in 
as higii favor as ever and explorations by Dr. McGilvary and Dr. 
Peoples in the extreme north, above the Laos States, reveal a great 
country and accessible peoples whom missious have not yet reached. 

China has moved slowly during the year; but it is a great thing to 
more one-fourth of the human race at all. Politically there has been 
litUe change. Kussia holds such a position with reference to Man- 



charia as to be able to absorb that territory whenever she is ready to 
do so, and her sharp, decisive action, during the war, in securing 
Chinese territory from Japanese appropriation, and in pursuing one 
clear, strong line of policy commanded the respect and confidence of 
the Cliineae government. In the south, France wants Hainan, and 
makes little concealment of the desire, while the opening of the West 
river t« trade pours British influence into Kwang tung, Kwangsi and 
Vnniian, and so places an effGctivo bar across the northward advance 
of French aggression from Tonqnin, while it establishes a belt of 
British control, in fact, along the northern boundaries of Tonquin, 
Bonnah and Assam. British commerce and so British influence are 



iJ, 



-:t>w ir^d^Mnmain: n. he- -wn .ctsu "Tule^ if <J^na — eke 

"Le IlL^nisa ^«H.*:er]r ^we ;T:at ^gcik; ii>iv.r.g a new missiucu aati oa die 
•w^ -.e. i^ itii-rL-rFL^ ir^fiin^ ieefs^ :«> jure aieiluv^^t a irrle. The 
•^T-rrcaji kezTPSeKn. -r:uji -!:Jlt..wTp*i ::ie niamer of rhe RlienLjfa. inis- 
a- •TUfcTTst*. L.-wF'^i^j-. 3iar it^i rrie *iainh*^mi^ -lusnlirr Lac*) heat. From 
P^rsmc ::-*T L :nis- jressur? jjl* iffen r*xerreti on pm^lnt.'iol aadiori- 
"Ik-» ~t» •^r^TT.^r* ijL-iIIiie* :i»r ^iie smttT of Fn^iitri and western 
A-it^L-**: ail -3. nLMi" ^^rr^vrin-v:* ?acn schools have been esCAbiisiit. 
riie Zarr-TTAt Tiu^r-fSirr jr TIeirsiii ander Mr. Tennev has been 
•SLjinr^-L fctii. T^wiir*! irra ^nuienca. geemg to he on *jiiii foaada- 

i!t*R£^ ±. -jacas^'n fi«r ?r:.r iwi !ia» zrown ap in die Doria. Sjfi»»Lj 

— ^ > ^ ^ 

.uivt filt^jfr* Tiija »^rr :r jtp dironged widi pupils^ and even 
-Ui»ae wiLt a u» T 'r^ 'i\ir i:iv^ a reputsidon. for solid work, bjive also 
learr trnn mil iliu* -* ";tr!^ :,^-!:^'r ^in-Iinon co new progperitnr. The 
raiir'iitit tr^m. TTt^rc-in uu* jt— n pashc uo widiin rhree miles of the 
jTir*.^ if ? -:iinir. *nd ^ne zi-'^ir line rr^jni Peking u.) Hunkow. and fn>m 
ZliJ2-i »«¥ J.1 .inr.. n *em2* a? be nurtv well afismretL Fniij .^hni and 
ro*- m:tr^ -.' «'7t»r5nr:i ttfi .iav» KiiJWT. liiac raev are powerful, bat not 
prwfrfil ^!iiMi^-L 7» 5?and atriiiii?t "ii»? ieman»is of progreaa. Birycles 
•iZL^i j'r*'iri rf^roii^innr ir« inL? jc -iie j'^nn^ L'liinese of sport^m^n- 
Iikd- :aiir,-^ I'L T ler •i"**^ T.ian r^e .'ou^ 7«'rs. S>me chink the foan- 
^.iLZis 'f ilie z^*a^ Li^rj at* ajfii* :;«' be »nene«L Is is noc 30. China 
ie 3i»''~_z.T- '*'iT li»*r •*»n":r^ j^-^frruneiT is -i:mpc. and lacks the caps- 
'\^r^ z*\ leik* :"ie irriz-rr fcw^krL wii-Ie "lie De*:rle are the same in 
'* .uijra»:r*^r ilnu ij.«^j "ia"=~* ^'^fr been* T^ere will be ebb and flow in 

w'TI •«* 51 :i!eeiirHi >t r«t4fc::-':i-arr fiZiw Fennacent chancre for the 
'j^^'rr w.n :r.ij nine w::i rt^mjjif-: :zizr»:v.*cient of ohamcter and 
::.*: T.iT 1:0- • in-^-je life -jf :*••* r>?*ir^zi::i^, ressoratiFe forces of 
C'..r.**.A-.'.T. If :'.-rr^ is ar.v Lirier ^isk ic. the world to set before 
*>:,*-. (.:. ;r' :. :'..jci iLif, . f s:::o-:::j^ r^ie mini .>f China, which has been 
VfrTf,.\'4 a', i r.arlr:::r.r :i::.> i:* rr^^f^r^t aniaxing distortion through 
u,\ry ^:/;r.:*;ri«, to iLe n::L i of Cliri^;. it has sot been disooTered yet, 
uu.t-yA it \* to xth io'iT^'l in ibe M.'»hAninieriAn missionarr problem^ and 
t^<j prvJarnation of relirioiis li'^^^rty in the lands of Islam wiU give 
iff Ut'.^ jirohlern a toiallv new face. 

h umy U; rlonbte^^I whether, on the whole, the mission cause in 
(Ihina \y,x». csf^r ?K?fore had so successful year as this last. The move- 
uu'ui in Vuh-Vum may be discounted by some in suspicion of the 
uuiSUt^n of the inquirers, on whom the power of foreign nations 
nhttwh in f li<. ptinlHhmonts inflicted for the outrages at Kucheng has 
luiuUi II (Uwn imprension; but such a criticism is of second causes only, 



1898.J THB rRRSEHT 81TCATI0M IS ASIA. 17 

aad not of results. A great gathering of sincere Oiristisna will be 
the fniit of this movement. The growth in Mitnclmria seema to con- 
tinne without abatement. The missions are pressing out into new 
territory. The work in Gontheaetern Hunau, carried on for several 
years without ostentation, seems to be better establisht, several 
churches having been gathered there, and persecution having been 
brought to an end for the present. Generally throughout the Eighteen 
Provinces missions have surrendered nothing, but have strengthened 
their stakes and enlarged their bordera. 

In the misnioiis in Japan the worst seems to be past. The reac- 
tion which had its roots chiefly in rationalism and nationalism has 
tried the churches severely, and has sifted out a great deal of chaiT. 
Now, the general ^ 
testimony is, that 
tbe people want 
pure and positive 
presentation of 
the Gospel, and 
not the arid spec- 
ulations and va- 
garies which, for 
awhile, many 
were in danger of 
EuppoBJDg consti- 
tuted that real 
and adapted 
Christianity for 
which Japan was 

seeKing. l n e ^ cmusTiiii school *t iumkini), cnniA. 

dangers which 

assail the Japanese church have by no means been left behind, how- 
ever. The new indnstrialiem which has increast the product of man- 
ufactured goods so as to absorb trade formerly in foreign hands, and 
which is represented by imports in 1895 of yen* 138,074,842, as 
compared with yen 37,0^7.38 in 1886, and of exports in 1895 of yen 
136,180,328, as compared with yen 48,870,532 in 1880, has made the 
commercial spirit the spirit of the country. While the elaborate and 
thoroughly organized system of government education pours out 
steadily it« irreligious torrent of influence. Combined with this is 
tbe spirit of war, which has been fed and nourisht the past year 
among all the people who are toucht by the modern movements at all, 
and which is striving toward the end of doubling both army and 
navy within the next decade, in preparation, the young Japanese 
will tell you, for tbe meeting they propose to have some day with the 

* A yea la squal lo about SO cenW gold. 



18 THE PKBSBNT SITUATION IN ASIA. [JanuarV 

Russinn power^ whicb, with its advancing railroad across Siberia, its 
Asiatic fleet, and its one hundred thousand troops at Vladivostock, so 
ominously overshadows thero, and so sharply checkt them in their 
designs upon China and robbed them of the foothold upon the Con- 
tinent — one of the most disavowed but most desired fruits of the war. 
The flurry over the Hawaiian question in the summer soon died 
away. Every level-headed Japanese knew that it was nonsense to 
offend the United States, which buys nearly one-half of their exports. 
But there has been not a little friction, and a great deal of talk about 
friction between foreigners and Japanese in the ports. The mission- 
aries, as a rule, make no such complaints. Their relations with the 
people are now well adjusted. The difficulties arise with those who 
80 distrust the Japanese that the prospect of coming into force of the 
revised treaties is most unpalatable to them. They do not wish to 
be subject to Japanese laws and courts. On the whole, the year has 
been one o^ comparatively sober and solidifying progress in Japan. 
The people are enamored now of industrialism and military power as 
the real secret and gist of civilization, but many are coming to recog- 
nize that a nation is fouling the springs of all true power and sta- 
bility which traduces religion and trains men to live as tho there were 
no God and no law of God. But this mad self-deception is only 

A STAGE IN japan's PROGRESS. 

The country is honestly seeking for what is best, and its fickleness 
is due to its superficial judgments, which lead it with apparent 
captiousnesa from one thing to another, before the first has been 
thoroughly tried. When the people find what is the best, and see it, 
they will be stable enough. One who knows them as well as any one 
living, writes privately regarding them: 

'* One often hears the Japanese charged with extreme fickleness, especially in 
comparison with the Chinese. This charge, I think, requires to be somewhat 
qualified. During the feudal regime^ for about three centuries, they surely were 
BufiSciently steady and conservative. The Chinese as a nation have not yet 
emerged from that kind of stagnancy, whereas the Japanese have entered on the 
path of human progress. The present generation of Japanese lives and moves in 
an age of change in all departments of life, in an age of transition from the old 
to the new. In things material as well as immaterial, they are making for some- 
thing better and something higher than what they were, and had by heredity and 
transmission from of old. The Japanese are quick witted, and apt to jump to a 
conclusion without sufficient knowledge or examination; hence, they readily enter 
upon a thing qmte new to them. It does not take them long to find out that they 
have made a mistake, or, perhaps, they are disappointed, while at the same time 
it is likely that another " good thing " has attracted their attention. And so they 
go in for that, and so on. But, by-and bye, when they have finally hit upon the 
right thing, they are quite steady and often splendidly persevering." 

The process of galvanizing the national religions into some sort of 
vital obstruction to Christianity has been carried on vigorously during 



Wi.'\ TUB FBKBENTaiTlATlON IN ASIA. 19 

1S9T. Societies for adapting ShiiitoiRtn to modern philosophy, and 
{oi sdvancing the intereet of the worship of the firfhers of the empire, 
hsTe been formed. The Bnddhist papers have been full of forebod- 
inga la to the effect of throwing the whole country open to foreign 
residence. " What will happen," they ask, " when the BJmple-minded 
coontrj folk, with their quiet and trustful faith, are brought face to 
face with this disturbing, scrutinizing, iconoclastic spirit of western 
civilization? Would that the treaties had not been revised, and that 
the people had been left in the peace of their ancient ways! " To 
prepare for this change the more advanced Buddhists, who have 
already adapted their ethics and 
philosophy to the needs of the 
new situation, are seeking now 
for some adaptation in prepara- 
tion for the struggle with modern 
science. In the missions, the 
rupture between the ultra liberal 
men in the Eumiai churches and 
the American Board misEions has 
been made complete. The Church 
of Christ now stands first in 
evangelical membership, and with 
the cooperation of the seven mis- 
Bions which work with it, has 
decided to take what it believes 
to be a large step forward in the 
matter of self-support. Its prac- 
tical position is, that no church 
(boold be organized that can not 
be Belf-supporting, and that 
chnrches already organized on a 
different basis shall be given two 

years iu which to attain eelf-sup- i Bi-DnniBT pilokih in japan. 

port or forfeit their privileges as 

fully organized churches. Deeply in sympathy with the nationalistic 
aspirations of Japan, and strongly affected still by the influence of 
liberalism and scepticism pouring in from America and Europe, the 
native preachers of all the churches are struggling toward firm evan- 
gelical foundations, and the people are everywhere demanding such 
preaching as supplies them with true spiritual bread and drink. The 
Unitarian propaganda is not gaining any power. Mr. Clay Mac- 
Caulay, its leading American representative, declared at the seventy- 
second anuirersary of the American Unitarian Association in Boston 
lately, that the Unitarian body is more widely known in that country 
than snj other foreign religious body, and that the name Unitarian 



20 THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ASIA. [JaUUBiy 

has become incorporated into the Japanese language as signifying 
reason in religion. 

It is an interesting comment on this, that in reporting their work 
to the Rev. Henry Loomis, of the American Bible Society, for his 
annual table of statistics, the Unitarian missionaries omitted this last 
year the one church they had reported the year before. What had 
become of it ? Did it become incorporated into Japanese Buddhism 
or eclecticism ? 

Light and shade have played over Korea with inconstant alterna- 
tion during 1897. The new year begins with the mission outlook 
brigliter than can be described, and with the dark clasp of Russia 
tightened to mastery. On the evening of October 7, 1895, Japanese 
influence was absolutely supreme in Korea. But it was an external 
power imposed, which had wrought great reforms in the most obtuse 
and provocative way, but had built up no party in the state to whose 
interest it was to sympathize with Japanese authority. Early in the 
morning of October .8, 1895,, the queen was slain at the direct instiga- 
tion of Viscount Miura, the Japanese minister. It was a stupid 
blunder, showing the complete diplomatic puerility of the Japanese 
representatives. By sunrise, the influence of Japan in Korea had been 
wiped away as floods sweep away straws. Japan had won and Japan 
had undone. The king fled to the Russian legation, and so without 
the lifting of her hand, Russia found Korea separated from China, 
cleaned somewhat and a little purified, and placed in her lap by the 
blunder of Japan. The war with China was undertaken by Japan 
to secure the independence of Korea. So she boasied. She was estab- 
lishing civilization in the East. To start Korea on the highway of 
emancipated enlightenment was her great aim and ambition. And 
now she has closed her first chapter with the utter collapse of these 
pretensions, and has succeeded merely in doing a piece of not very 
clean work for Russia. As long as Mr. Waeber was the Russian Min- 
ister, and Mr. McLeavy Brown, an Englishman, was suj^erintendent of 
the customs and adviser of the treasury, there was not much to fear. 
Mr. Waeber was a broad-minded, honest man, who wisht for the good 
of Korea, and did a gre^t deal to this end. llis wife was a Lutheran, 
and they showed no unfriendliness to evangelical missions, while 
Mr. Brown, with absolute veto power over all expenditures save those 
of the royal household department, was a guarantee of integrity 
and honesty, and an assurance of such progress as could be made 
against the odds of a worthless king, an opera honffe government, and 
as corrupt a set of officials as could be found outside of Persia and 
China. However, Mr. Waeber was promoted to be Minister to Mexico, 
and in September Mr. Speyer, a man of different methods, with whom 
it was believed the interests of Russia would have precedence over 
those of Korea, was transferred from Tokyo to take his place. Does the 



18K,] TUB PHKSBKT SITUATION' IN ASIA. 21 

fruit begin to appear ? A recent telegram annonncea tlie remoTal of 
Mr. Brown, and from tiaie to time news comes of slight increaaea of 
th« stuS of Kussian officers, who now have charge of the Korean 
troopa. It Mr. lirown lias indeed been removctl, it is as heavy a blow 
ascaold well be struck at the cauae of progrcsa in Korea, altho even 
hevaa anable to Btay the tide whicli was already running back to the 
oldduyaof oRice buying and selling, nnjuat, irregular taxation, offi- 
cial Bqneezing, and geueral corruption. In any event, J89S opens with 
the reactionary tendencies dominant in politics and goYernment in 
"Chosen." 

Buddhism has no hold in Korea, when compared with Japan or 



Asia, or Burmah, or Siam. Wliat religion the people have is Sham- 
anism, and Shamanism unorganized, un articulated, with no frame- 
work of bone or gristle ia a very flabby opponent to such a force as 
Christianity launches against it. The spirits proved quite inefficient 
in the China-Japan war, and the spread of Christianity has embold- 
ened many to tiirow aside their fear of them, even while unprepared 
M yet to accept the high requirements of Christian discipleship. A 
great transformation has past over the country since the war, destroy- 
ing the old spirit of exclnsivism and distrust, which seems to have been 
the inevitable fruit of Confucianism everywhere, and disposing the 
people with peculiar favor to missionaries, especially from America, 
which has had the good fortune to be well represented diplomatically, 
and whoBO political disinterestedness, at least, is in a measure under- 



22 "rejoice, yb heavens!" [January 

stood. The missionaries have been helpt by these conditions, but 
have known their superficial vahie too well, had they not been aiming 
at altogether different results, to do other than ground their work on 
solid spiritual foundations. Nowhere else in the world have I met 
native Christians of more joyous and simple faith, who were more 
vividly reproducing in our own time the apostolic days, when " the 
word of the Lord had free course and was glorified *' ; and " there 
were added to the Church daily such as were being saved," visibly 
delivered from day to day from the grip of old errors and evils, and 
led on into evident light and life. Over and over again we thought 
of the exclamation which in the early days of Christianity was in the 
mouths of the heathen, " Behold, how these Christians love one an- 
other ! '* It is scarcely to be doubted that there will come, perhaps soon, 
a time of great trial and sifting in the Korean Church. The new year 
dawns, however, on a wonderful opportunity to reach an open people. 

The Siberian railway slowly creeps across Asia, working from both 
the east and the west. Russia has ^een given a coaling station at 
Fusan, and an open port is hers on the Gulf of Pe-chi-li when she 
wishes it. Germany is pressing her trade, and before the end of the 
year several Yiew Japanese steamship lines, or old lines enlarged, are 
promist to bind Japan more closely to America and Europe. 

This is a rapid view of the conditions with which the new year be- 
gins in xYsia. The forces of men flare and fall. The old faiths of men 
are declining, or so far surrendering to the pressure of the new times 
as to betray themselves and to compromise their true principles in tlie 
effort to meet Christianity on ground where it is invincible. But 
throughout Asia the great movement of missions has forged steadily 
on. Nothing can stay it — neither its own blunders nor the apathy 
of hojne Christians; neither slander, nor misunderstanding, nor oppo- 
sition, coldness of heart or warmth of passion. A cool, just measure- 
ment of the situation leaves as a conviction more firm far than that of 
designs and power of the Eussian government, this of the pertinacity, 
the virility, the permanency of the enterprise which begins this year 
under brighter auspices than ever, and which believes in the face of all 
doubt and denial, that it is the movement of God upon the nations. 



"REJOICE, YE HEAVENS ! "—Rev. xii. : 11, 12. 

REV. F. B. MEYEK, B. A., LONDON, ENGLAND. 

We will not attempt to locate in the prophetical chart, the incident 
referred to in this paragraph; whether it has been fulfilled, or has yet 
to be fulfilled, is immaterial to our present purpose. The easting 
out of Satan is not confined to any one incident in the history of 



1898.] ** REJOICE, YB HEAVENS !" 23 

redemption, but is, probably, a long process which commenced when 
Jesas said: " Now shall the Prince of this world be cast out/' (John 
xiL: 31), and will reach its consummation, when he shall have been 
driTen from heaven to earth, from earth into abyss, and from the abyss 
into the lake of fire and brimstone. The principles, therefore, which 
appear at any one stage of the casting out of the old serpent, the 
deceiver of the whole earth, are applicable universally, and we may 
obtain valuable lessons for our own share in the process, by carefully 
studying the statement, that ^' they overcame because of the Blood of 
the Lamb, and because of the word of their testimony, and they loved 
not their life even unto death.'' 

One point of exegesis must be settled before we can feel the full 
force of this sublime announcement. We are told that they overcame. 
Who are these ? Obviously, not Michael and his angels, for it could 
be hardly said of these celestial combatants that they overcame because 
of the Blood of the Lamb, and because of the word of their testimony, 
nor, that they loved not their lives unto the death. The pronoun evi- 
dently points to the previous noun, the brethren, who had been accused 
before their God day and night. And who were these brethren, con- 
cerning whom the great voice in heaven speaks ? Can they be other 
than the saints who were dear to God, and who, face to face with the 
fury of magistrates and crowds, stemming manfully the hatred and 
opposition of their times, were bearing persecution and reproach in 
every city of the known world ; and without knowing it, by their vic- 
tories, were bringing success along the entire line of the hosts of 
light. 

THE SOLIDARITY OF THE ABMIES OF GOD. 

The conflict throughout the universe between good and evil is one. 
The saints on earth are brothers in arms with Michael and his angels. 
£ach soul, however lonely and obscure, plays an important part in the 
issue of the fight, jnst as sometimes an entire position may be gained 
or lost by the fidelity or otherwise of a single sentry at his post. 

For a moment let us consider this great conflict. It must have 
begun with the first uprising of pride and rebellion in Satan's heart, 
when for the first time he abode not in the truth. There was, prob- 
ably, war in heaven long ages before it broke out in the glades of 
Eden. It may even be that the earth herself bears marks of that an- 
cient conflict, though it became more markt and determined when 
man's destiny became the gauge of battle. It may appear some day 
that much of the carnage of creation, the ferocity of the tiger and the 
hawk, the violence of the hurricane, and the casualty of the earth- 
quake, are due to a disturbance introduced into God's creation by the 
sin of the archangel, who had been appointed the vicegerent and 
prince of the world, but who violated the first law of his creation, by 
assuming the prerogative of independence. It is enough, however, for 



24 "rejoice, ye heavens I" [January 

us to learn the consideration of the malign effect 6t his fall on nations 
for the more certain and scriptural conception of its effect on man. 

The inner thought of the fall was the successful assertion on the 
part of Satan of his superiority over the new creature which God had 
built up from the dust of the eai-th. By a lie he seduced him from the 
allegiance which he had so often plighted when he walked the glades 
of Eden in converse with his creator; and in that first act of disobe- 
dience Satan acquired a supremacy over Adam and his race which he 
has never failed to press to its utmost capabilities. 

Since the fall, the government of man has been hold by the prince 
of the power of the air, who is also the God of this world, and the 
entire system of idolatry, which is co-extensive with the family of 
man, is in its essence, demon-worship. This is clearly stated by the 
apostle, " This, 1 say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they 
sacrifice to demons and not to God " (1 Cor. x. : 20), a statement 
which is corroborated by the universal witness of missionaries, that 
the whole system of Fetishism, is really demon- worship, and that the 
gifts of idol-votaries, are really presented to propitiate the evil* 
spirits, which in their experience are only too much to be feared. 

It is probable that heathenism is the dark veil beneath which the 
prince of evil enshrouds himself and his trusted emissaries. Daniel 
tells how the angel that came to him had been resisted and stayed by 
the Prince of Persia, in evident allusion to some strong evil spirit 
which had delayed his progress (Dan. x.). And Ezekiel uses of Tyre 
words that, in their full meaning, are only applicable to the dark 
spirit that ruled the city (Ezek. xxviii.). In perfect harmony with 
these two statements, the Apostle tells us that our warfare is not 
against flesh and blood, but against the rulers of the darkness of this 
world, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in heavenly places 
(Eph. vi.). Putting all these statements together, are we not clearly 
taught that before headway can be made in the evangelization of any 
country, or the overthrow of any idolatry, the strong man who holds 
his goods in peace, has to be bound by the cords of faith and prayer. 
Probably, if the story of missions could be written from the heavenly 
standpoint, we should find that each advance was simultaneous with 
some casting out of the evil spirits that had been too long entrencht 
in the dark superstitions and idolatries of the heathen — the casting 
out which was due to the faith and prayer of humble saints, who may 
have been removed from the scene of conflict by vast spaces of land 
or sea. 

This thought may be carried even further. It is almost certain 
that behind every strongly entrenched wrong in Christian laws, such 
as the liquor-interest, the betting-ring, the gigantic system of impurity 
which holds its myriads in thrall, we have to deal not with flesh and 
blood, but against evil spirits that hold and rule the hearts of men. 



1898.] " RBJOICE, YB HBAYEIYS ! *' 25 

Hence the necessity of having spiritual men engaged in the con- 
flict. II we are contending with spirits^ it is preposterous to use carnal 
weapons, such as rhetoric and human learning. You can only conquer 
spirit hy spirit. And no man can hope to succeed in this fight, who 
has not already learnt the secrets of the oYercoming life, and applied 
them successfully for the regimen of his own spirit. 

Hence the importance also of prayer, hecause in this >oly exercise 
lonely souls are able to throw their weight into the conflict, and the 
supplication or intercession offered in loneliness and solitude may 
avail to turn the scale in some distant place, as an ounce-weight cast 
into the scale, where two hundredweights are in balance, will make the 
one preponderate over the other. 

Heaven and earth are in close sympathy. The angels rejoice over 
one sinner that repenteth. Satan is beheld falling from heaven, when 
a handful of humble disciples cast out a few demons, and perform a 
few other miracles. The heavens are bidden to rejoice, and Satan is 
cast out of some position of advantage, because the brethren on earth 
overcome with the blood of Jesus, and the word of their testimony. 

Do not undervalue yourself. Do not underestimate the effect of 
your successes or failures. The position of every grain of sand affects 
to some extent the position of every other sand grain throughout the 
world. The weight of every asteroid reacts on the balance of the 
spheres. The addition of every drop of moisture is felt on every tide 
on every beach around the world. We can not be neutrals in the great 
fight. If we are not for Christ we are against Him; if we do not 
gather with Him, we scatter abroad. It will make a real difference in 
bringing in the kingdom of God, whether we have fouglit a good fight, 
and finished our course. Let us, therefore, appropriate the memor- 
able resolve of S. J. Mills, of the Haystack Covenant, so to live as to 
make our influence felt to the remotest part of the world, and not here 
only but through all worlds, and all ages, to the glory of Christ, so that 
through us may come salvation, and the power, and the kingdom of 
our God, and the authority of His Christ. 

THE ESSENCE OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN GOOD AND EVIL. 

By every. artifice which Satan can employ, moral beings, whether 
among the ranks of angels or men, are being blinded to the secret of 
blessed and healthy existence. In order to win and help his power, 
he endeavours to show that there is no policy comparable to that of 
self-pleasing. To be one's own master, to follow the sway of inclina- 
tion, to do good things from a selfish motive, to oppose even the power 
of Satan, because of the price to be paid with self-interest, this is tlie 
policy to which he uses all his arts to persuade. In the first tempta- 
tion he told Eve and her husband that the tree was to be desired to 
make them wise, and its fruit would make them become as gods. 



26 -KEjoicE, YEHBAVEN6I" [Januarj 

In the temptation of our Lord, Satan strove to show that He had a 
perfect right to gratify appetite, to act on impulse and presume on 
the Father'r care, and to acquire the Kingdom by methods of self- 
pleasing, from which tlie cross and shame were eliminated. 

In our Lord's words to Peter, when he answered his suggestion to 
spare Himself by the severe command, " Get thee behind me, Satan; " 
we may infer that in his apostle's advice, the Lord detected the same 
spirit against which He had so often contended in his conflicts with 
the evil one. The great enemy of man was always suggesting to the 
Son of Man that He could achieve his life-purpose by easier methods, 
than by laying down his life. 

When on the evening of His death, the Master said: "The Prince 
of this world cometh, and hath nothing in Me," His consciousness 
of the certainty of victory was determined by the knowledge that He 
had no will or way or purpose of His own, to which the evil one could 
direct his suggestions, or from which would emanate the leaet likeli- 
hood of yielding to his power. 

The Christ spirit is, therefore, forever victorious over all the power 
of the enemy. It is as impervious to the attack of evil, as carbolic 
acid is to tlie fructification of spores of disease. When a spark comes 
to the ocean, it finds nothing in the briny waves on which to feed or 
kindle, and when the spirit of selfishness appeals to a nature in which 
there is nothing but perfect love, in which there is absolute selfless- 
ness, it rolls back paralyzed and conquered. 

If we may dare to say it, the Divine Man has establisht in Him- 
self a perfect antidote to the power of evil. The spirit of love and 
life and entire devotion to the will of God in the service of man, is a 
rock on which the waves of hell break in clouds of spray. And 
just in proportion as we imbibe tliat spirit, are inoculated with that 
nature, and partake of that rock-like character, we, too, shall be more 
than conquerors. Good is love, the highest good is the most perfect 
love, and love is selflessness. There is none good but One, that is God, 
and God can not be tempted with evil, because He is good, and in Him 
is no darkness at all, no taint of self. 

Evil is in some form or another the manifestation of the self- 
principle in which is darkness, hatred, misery; hell. 

Christ in our nature has lived a life of perfect selflessness and love. 
Thus He has overcome the power of the enemy, and is raised far 
above all principality and power and might and dominion. Through 
the ages He is living a life of pure and intense benevolence, good- 
ness, love. Selflessness is regnant in our King; through Him love 
reigns over all spheres, and is carrying forward its blessed victories to 
the overthrow of the empire of darkness. And in so far as we ally 
ourselves with him, substitute His nature for our own, repeat in our 
poor life something of the mighty music of His matchless nature. 



1898.] "RBJOICE, YE heavenb!'* 27 

we, too, shall overcome. The Christ-spirit in us will master the selfish 
spirit of the devil. Love must gain supremacy over hate. Those that 
follow the cross, and count not their lives dear to the death, must 
finally tread on all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall hy any 
means hurt them. " Ye are of God, little children, and have overcome 
them, because greater is He that is in you, than he that is in the 
world." 

THE THREE-FOLD TALISMAN OF VICTORY. 

Tlie Blood of the Lamb. — The one sufficient answer to the accusa- 
tions of the great accuser before God, is the propitiatory death of the 
Lamb of God, for which the word Blood is the sufficient synonym. 
Let him say what he will against us, and he can hardly exaggerate the 
truth, there is one sufficient and satisfactory reply, " The Blood of 
Jesus Christ, God's Son, has cleansed our hearts, and blotted out the 
handwriting that was against us, and contrary to us." There is 
nothing more to be said.- This word ends the strife. 

But, probably, there is even a profounder meaning. The Blood of 
Christ stands for His perfect love. His entire subordination to the 
will of His Father, His supreme devotion to the great cause of human 
salvation. And in so far as we drink of that blood, and are baptized 
into that spirit, and even fill up that which is behind of the sufferings 
of Christ, we learn the secret of perennial victory, and are able to 
stand in the evil day. We possess a thin red line that keeps the enemy 
at bay. In preaching it we let loose a principle throughout the world, 
the principle of selfless love even unto death, before which the powers 
of hell can not stand. 

Again, as we proclaim the Blood of Christ, and all it means to the 
children of men, we emancipate them from the dread of the conse- 
quences of sin, which is Satan's most potent instrument of thraldom, 
we secure peace from the terrors of conscience, and the accusations of 
a broken law, and we inspire them with desires to learn the secret of 
love as selfless, self-sacrifices as perfect. Thus we overcome by the 
Blood of the Lamb. 

The Word of our Testimo7iy. — We are sent to the world to resist 
the devil's lie, by bearing witness, as our Master did, to the truth. 
There is no such way of defeating error, as by presenting truth along- 
side. Suppose the artists of a given era are possest with false con- 
ceptions of nature, and of painting, a great critic may arise, who shall 
detect and criticise their mistake, but his words will not produce the 
same effect as if he were to present nature on his canvas with the faith- 
ful portraiture of a true witness. Let him hang his picture on the 
wall, and without a word of comment, it will show the inaccuracies 
and inaptitude of the school he desires to dispossess. 

Such is the vocation of Christ's servants. When Satan presents 
men with a travesty of true peace, making it to consist in circum- 



28 RKCKNT MI88IONART BOOKS. [Jauuary 

stances and surroundings, we are called upon to show it consists in a 
state of heart, which outward conditions can not affect. When Satan 
makes joy consist in the hilarity of perfect health, or the stimulation 
of the stage, the music-hall, the dance, it is for us to bear witness that 
the unseen and eternal are the only true ministrants of enduring glad- 
ness. To this end we were born,. and for this we came into the world 
that we might bear witness to the truth, and in doing so, refute the 
lies with which Satan deceives the whole world. Finally, the con- 
science which is within every man must recognize the voice of the true 
Shepherd, and reject the false for the true. 

Tlie Prodigality with which the Saints regard their Life. — "They 
loved not their life even unto death." In the great war we must 
follow our Master in absolute self -surrender. The resistance against 
evil must be carried even to blood. Like Paul, we must be willing to 
be poured out as a libation. There must be but one purpose — to do 
the will of God; one aim — to deliver men from the power of the devil ; 
one supreme and over-mastering love to which no hardships are too 
great, no expenditure too costly. Like our Master, we overcome in 
apparent failure, we conquer in apparent defeat, we are crowned and 
ascend the throne when our enemies think they have put out our 
name from under heaven. 



EECENT MISSIONARY BOOKS. 

BY THK EDITOR-IN-CHIEF. 

What furnishes a more abundant proof of the prominence of mis- 
sions in the present age than the number, variety and value of the 
books and periodicals which either treat of mission work directly or 
recognize in it a factor too mighty to be disregarded ? The Litera- 
ture of Missions is fast assuming a manifold form and a yet more 
manifold bearing; not only historic and biographic, it is becoming in 
effect also apologetic — presenting in itself a body of evidence that 
makes cavillers appear irrational and even ignorant, and proving 
Christianity to be of God by its divine effects. 

The mere mention of good books issued during the past few years 
along the lines of missionary enterprise or in some way linkt with 
the work of a world's evangelization, would require more space than 
is consistent with the pressure of other matter. But we here bring 
to the reader's attention some books which have been submitted for 
review, or have in other ways' compelled attention by their high merit 
and excellence. 



1898.] 



KECENT MISSIONARY BOOKS. 29 





We give here a partial list of recent books bearing on missions, 
some of which have been already referred to in these pages, but are 
now mentioned in a classified list, for more convenient reference. 

I. Qettbral. 

Christiiin Missions and Social Proi;re8s..Jas. S. Dennis Fleming H. Revell Co. $2.50 

Strategic Points in theWorld^s ConquestJno. R. Bf ott Fleming H. Revell Co. $1 .00 

Concise History of Missions £. M. BIIbs^ D.D Fleming H. Revell Co. .76 

Short History of Missions. (5th Ed. ) .... Dr. Geo. Smith T. Clark, Edinburgh . . $1 .00 

Hand Book of Missions A. McLean Chn. Pub.Co.,St. Louis .50 

Picket Line of Missions By Eight Authors Eaton & Mains f l.uO 

In Ltuids Afar Edited Dr. E. E. Strong. . . A. B. C. F. M $1.25 

A Century of Christian Martyrs Rev. F. S. Harris Jas. Nisbet, London . . . .75 

ChUdUfe in Mission Fields Barby & Smith fl.OO 

Methodist Episcopal Missions. 8 Vols. .Reid-Gracey Eaton & Mains v^*^ 

Church Missionary Society Workers . . . Emily Heaaland Jas. Nisbe t, London ... 

Hist. Sketches Presb. Missions. (New Ed. ) Pres. W. B. F. M 

Philip Melanchthon David J. Deane Fleming H. Revell Co. 

The Growth of the Kingdom of God. . . .Sidney L. Qulick Fleming H. Revell Co. 

Chosen of God Rev. Herbert W. Lathe... Fleming H. Revell Co. 

Dictionary of Treatment. Wm. Whitte, M.D H. Renshaw, London. . 

Autobiography of Chas. F. Deems, D.D . By His Sons Fleming H. Revell Co. 

U. Afbica. 

Chronicles of Uganda R. P. Ashe Randolph & Co., N. Y. |1.50 

Seven Years in Sierra Leone A. T. Pierson Revell &Ck> $1.00 

Wm. & Louisa Anderson. (Old Ca]abar).l)Vm. Marwick . . .' And. Elliot, Edinburgh 

Madagascar of To-dav R4iv. W. E. Cousins Fleming H. Revell (jo. 

Madagascar Before the Conquest James Sibree MacmilTan & Co 

Africa and the American Negro Prof. J. W. E. Bowen . ... Gammon Theo. Sem . . . 

Pioneering in Morocco Dr. Robt. Kerr, M.D H. R. Allenson, N. Y. . 

David Livingstone. (New Edition). ... Dr. W. G. Blaikie Fleming H. Revell Co. 

III. TURKET AND PeBSIA. 

Letters from Armenia Prof. J. Rendell Harris. .Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.25 

(Conversion of Armenia W. St. Clair Tisdall Fleming H. Revell Co. f 1.40 

Turkey and the Armenian AtrociMes. . .E. M. Bliss Hubbard Pub.Co.,Phil. $2.00 

Persian Life and Customs. Rev. S. G. Wilson Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.95 

IV. IlCDIA. 

Twelve Indian Statesmen Dr. Qeo. Smith John Murray, London. 

Missionary Pioneers in India Jno. Rutherford And Elliot, Edinburgh 

Life of T. Valpy French. 2 Vols Rev Herbert Birks John Murray, London. 

In the Tiger Jungle Jacob Chamberlain, D. D. . Fleming H. Revell Co 

Chn. Service Among Educ'd Bengalese. R. P. Wilder Gazette Press, Lahore 

Letters from Ceylon Fannie Gregson Marshall Bros., Lon 

V. China. 

A History of China Dr. S. Wells Williams Chas. Scribner's Sons.. 

A Cycle of Cathay Rev. W. A. P. Martin, D.D.Fleming H. Revell Co. 

26 Years of Miss'y.Work in China Mrs. Grace Stott Am. Tract. Soc., N, Y. 

Eye-Gate» or Native Art in the Evangel- 
ization of China Dr. Wm. Wilson Partridge & Co., Lon. .60 

China and Formosa Rev. Jas. Johnston Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.26 

Sister Martyrs of Kucheng Letters of Miss Saunders. Fleming H. Revell Co. |l.50 

VI. Korea. 

Korea and Her Neighbors. Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop. Fleming H. Revell Co. $2.00 

« 

VII. Japan. 

The Gist of Japan R. B. Peery Fleming H. Revell Co. 

Rambles in Japan Canon Tristam Fleming H. Revell Co. 

From Sunrise Land Amy Wilson-Carmlchael. . Marshall Bros., Lon. . . 

Religions of Japan Rev. Dr. W. E. Grlffis Chas. Scribner's Sons.. 

VIIL Islands of* the Sea. 

Hawaii, Cur New Possessions Jno. R. Mustek Funl . & Wagnalls Co. . 

Pioneering in New Guinea Jas. Chalmers Fleming H. Revell CJo. 

Een Yaar op Reis in Dienst DerZendig.Fe Leon Cachet Amsterdam 

IX. Ambbican Indians. 

On the Indian Trail Rev. Edgerton R. Young. Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.00 

Conquest of the Sioux D. C. Glunan Carlon & HoUenbeck . . .75 

X. Europe. 

Robt. W. McAU Mrs. McAU Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.60 

Christian Life in Germany £. F. Williams, D.D Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.50 







30 RKCKHT MisHioNARv BooKB. [JsHiiary 

The foremost in rank is " Christian Missions and Social Progiess,'' 
before referred to in these pages. Tlie extent and magnitude of this 
work may be inferred from the fact that the one volume so far issued, 
embraces over 4G0 pages octavo, and a second, of like dimensions, is 
be'Dg prepared. This work gives evidence of no hasty preparation. It 
will take first place among sociological treatises on missions, which 
are not nnmerons. It is scholarly, as became lectures first given in 
the halls of colleges and seminaries of learning, and is made doubly 
attractive by its artistic and nniquc 11 hi strati on s, over sixty pages be-' 
ing thus adorned ; wliile its value is greatly enhanced by the pains and 
patience expended in securing accurate statistics— a department where 
exactness is so difficult to attain. This book every student of missions. 



<Bj coun«y of Fleming H. Itcmll i:u. rrom "ClimUiui HlHtom ud Sociil Progre«.-) 

and of Christianity, will want to study; no other so broadly covers the 
field of its special survey. 

The contributions to missionary bin<ira}>liy are remarkably com- 
plete. If any man of modern times deserves to rank among tlie biog- 
raphers of good and great men, surely it is Dr. George Smith, whose 
golden pen has given such masterly portraits of Duff and Carey and 
Wilson and Martyn and Ileber. Hero we have his latest, jiist at hand 
— " Twelve Indian Statesmen "— -Cliarles Grant, Henry and John Law- 
rence, James Outram, Donald Mcljcod, Henry M, Durand, Colin Mac- 
kenzie, Herbert Edwardes, John C. Marshman, Henry Maine, Henry 



1898.] RECENT MI6810NAKT BOOKS. 31 

Ramsay, Chas. Aitchison — the empire-builders of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. All but the first, the biographer knew personally, and some of 
them intimately. Dr. Smith has rare power of historical analysis and 
synthesis. He separates, classifies and combines, with equal skill. He 
sees events and men in their succession and in their procession. His 
eye takes them in, in the individuality that belongs to each, and sees 
the providential relation that each sustains to all; and thus he becomes 
a true philosopher of missionary history. This new volume we hope will 
have an American edition. Those who would test its value should 
read for example the splendid monograph on John Lawrence, the 
third of these pen portraits. The description of the great pageant at 
Agra on Kov. 20, 186G, is itself a masterpiece of word painting. 

" The Life and Correspondence of Thos. Valpy French, First Bishop 
of Lahore," is in two volumes, each embracing 400 pp., octavo, superbly 
gotten up and a credit to author and publisher alike. This biography 
verifies the 'saying, that the world knows nothing of its greatest men. 
Bishop French was a C. M- S. missionary in North India for 18 years, 
and bore remarkable resemblance to Henry Marty n. One was honored 
by Oxford, the other by Cambridge; both were men whose one aim 
was to be holy and useful ; both labored among Mohammedans and 
both finally left India and died in Arabia in the service of missions to 
Moslems. Bishop French's grave, like Keitli Falconer's, is both a 
milestone and a stepping stone for missions to the Arabs. 

Here we may add a word about " Brief Sketches of C. M. S.Workers," 
containing 25 biographical sketches in one volume of over 300 pages, 
which are both readable and valuable. How could it be otherwise 
where you have a gallery of portraits of Henry Venn, Dr. Krapf, 
Bishop Crowther, A. M. Mackay, and others like them ! 

" William and Louisa Anderson " is a record of life and work in 
Old Calabar. Mr. Anderson we have personally known and loved for 
his own, as well as his work's sake, and his wife was, indeed, an hel])- 
meet for him. This godly man had the rare honor of having presented 
to him a ** Jubilee " address from the U. P. Foreign Mission Board of 
Scotland, on the completion of his fiftieth year df mission work. The 
presentation was made by our dear friend, Hon. Duncan McLaren, in 
1890, In 1892 Mr. Anderson visited his relatives in America, and at 
the advanced age of 80 years, still kept preaching. Also on his return 
to Scotland, where we last saw him we found him as ready as ever to 
go back to Old Calabar, and having all the enthusiasm, if not energy, 
of youth. On September 29th, 1895, he actually sailed for the beloved 
home of his life's labors. He had his heart's desire, but it also 
proved to be the closing scene. After his death some facts came to light 
that illumine his saintly character. For instance, after his retiring 
allowance of £120 annually was voted him, he "complained (?) that it 
was too large '' and askt that half of it might be given to the aged 



32 RECENT MISSION A liY BOOKS. [JaDuarv 

ministers' fund and the foreign mission fund ! This is a fair specimen 
of the man, one of the noblest missionary patriarchs we have ever seen, 
and one who reminded us of Robert Moffat. 

"The P'-cket Line of Missions/' is the happy name of a book con- 
taining nine sketches on Livingstone, Mackay of Uganda, Keith-Fal- 
coner, Sia Sek Ong, Dr. Kenneth Mackenzie, Bishop Thobnrn, Mary 
Reed, John Williams and John Hunt. These sketches are from eight 
different pens — with an introduction which has on it the marks of that 
Johannean man. Bishop Ninde. Eaton and Mains have given a cheap 
but most attractive book to the Epworth Leaguers, in these portraits 
of the Advance Guard. The spirit of holy heroism burns in the book 
and is contagious. Variety is consulted, as may l)e seen when the 
difference is considered between tlie great missionary explorer of 
Africa and the humble convert of China, or between Mary Reed in 
India, and Keith Falconer in Arabia; and every Christian reader may 
find his " affinity " here, and* get a new impulse and inspiration. 

Among other biographies, not bearing directly on missions, we may 
mention " Philip Melanchthon," a delightful sketch of the "John " of 
the Reformation; and "Scripture Photographs,'^ by Dr. J. Elder Cum- 
ming, who never writes a poor book or preaches a dull sermon. (Drum- 
mond's Tract Depot, Sterling.) 

"The Chronicles of Uganda" is a specimen of the historical books 
which deal with special fields. This country, in the interior of the 
dark continent, is the cynosure of all eyes. Never, since apostolic 
days, has there been a miracle of missions surpassing what has 
occurred there within fifteen years, and particularly within the last 
five. It seems beyond belief that since Bishop Hannington was shot, 
such revolutions have taken place: and such transformations in the 
whole religious aspect of the loeople. Uganda is the great modern 
answer to doubts about the living God and the living Book of God. 
Mr. Ashe, in his " Chronicles," has given an interesting and valuable 
record of the religious and political conditions and changes of the 
country. The book abounds in well selected half-tone illustrations. 

"Twenty six Years of Missionary Work in China ^* is a book of 
which Hudson Taylor says he found not a dull line in it. Mrs. Stott 
has a right to be heard. She has something to say : it is a story of 
faith, prayer, and patience. When her husband fell at his post, she 
bravely took up his work and carried it on, even to tho preaching; 
and the mission she conducts is so well shepherded that Mr. Taylor 
finds it practicable to let it alone, scarcely supervising it. Those who 
think a prayer-hearing God is dead, or that the old Gospel is, like 
Samson, blinded and shorn, should read Mrs. Stott's charming story. 

" China and Formosa " is from the pen of a man well known to 
many as the Secretary of the World's Conference of Missions at Exeter 
Hall in 1888, as well as by his missionary work and writings. He is 



1898.3 RECENT MISBIONART BOOKS. 33 

careful^ scholarly^ able, with modesty as great as his merit. There 
are some men whose imagination holds the brush when they paint; 
Mr. Johnson^s fancy does not play with fact, or robe it in illusive attire. 
He is a mathematician in preciseness and accuracy, and his book is 
one on which the reader may rely. But, with all its carefulness of 
statement, it is by no means lacking in all that means an interesting 
volume. Numerous illustrations add their charm to the narrative. 

" Prom Sunrise Land " come the letters of a charming woman, put 
into the usual beautiful form in which the publishers present matter 
to the public. Those who read this book become companions of a 
most lovely worker for God in her daily ministries in the Sunrise 
Kingdom, and are taken into her confidence. There is no attempted 
" style ** or eloquent " periods *' — simple as she is, is the story she tells, 
but it is full of the aroma of Christliness. 

" Letters from Ceylon ^^ deserves to go side by side with Miss Car- 
michael's book. The two are alike, and the authors are not unlike, 
but this sorrowful contrast is suggested — our dear brother. Rev. J. Gel- 
son Greggson, has laid his daughter to sleep in Chilan, and her hus- 
band (Mr. Liesching) followed her less than a month later. These are 
the last letters that this saintly woman's hand will ever write. 

A valuable account of mission work in Java is " Een Yaar op Reis 
in Dienst Der Zendig," covering a department of mission work which 
needs just such a full presentation. The book has 800 pp., and glows 
with fine illustration. We hope some good translation may make it 
accessible to English readers. It is a matter of regret that so much 
valuable matter should be lockt up in the chambers of a foreign tongue. 

If the writer be permitted to mention his own work in this con- 
nection, ** Seven Years in Sierra Leone '' is the story of W. A. B. John- 
son's marvelous labors, between 1816 and ]823. The fact that the 
original memoir is out of print, and that the narrative is of almost 
nnequaled interest, constrained the Edijtor of this Review to put it 
forth in this new form, which he hopes may bring it to the knowledge 
of many, and prove a divine impulse to a like holy life. 

** Rambles in Japan *' and " The Gist of Japan,'' both beautiful and 
artistic pieces of presswork, are what they claim to be — only that the 
^rambles'' are by no means rambling. If anything more than has 
been written could be said about this little empire near the sunrise, 
it is here suggested. History changes so fast in Japan where a sudden 
Bennaissance has 6ome to pass, that while a book is going through 
the press, events make it half antiquated. The ^^ Gist of Japan '' is 
an excellent digest of what one wishes to know in regard to the coun- 
try, people and missions. 

The book market presents also some very useful and marvelously 
eondenst text books, such as the '^ Handbook of Missions,'' (Bethany 
Beading Course Committee, Cleveland, 0.), whose writer is himself 



Z^ Ksrz3T m^s£»X3JLT »>:««. [Janaarj 



an aole mi.^^lo'^ATT s^^r^eiArr. a:ii »-:! r »li«: •>f a T-.Inine of fourteen 
** Mii*:or.ArT Ai :r»erv=*i^:~ •• :i. '••is '•^iiiz ei^ai.; ai-«i fined to 

**TE.e Sh.^rt Hiiiorr of CLri^ilii. Ml^^i :l5~ is* -; in a fifth edition. 
Of eoorse, everr 5t::-i»^r.; of mLsci' 'l.5 La* ;li:: a:.i zlow omes a new 
**Coricl=-& HLsiorr of MissioL^." wi,: h la ks *'•■-; as muv-b informa- 
tion into O**) vtk d-«-iri:-:n:o as "^an of:^:i r^ f--::r-i TLis will be a 
laTorire leii bi»k and is or.e of ;Le mv-Irm Lrlr'S to stadv. eminently 
snit^ to the ssa lent ToI-n;eers ar. i o;hrr? wL-* want ff'-.'.'r'/rt I'/i /wrro. 

Not ererr rtonl, however, can or o::r'r:t to r* so Ci"»ndensed; and 
it ij a matter of great aa:lsfai-ti«.»n to st* Ih-. KeM's ^ Mis^iuns of the 
M- E. CLnrch ^ enlarsreil bv oar tree Tokefellow. Dr. G racer, into 
three rolumes of 5<"<> pp. eaoh. Here is an enoyol-^pedia of Mr/hoflht 
MUsionarr Societies and tbtfir work, a:.-i it is well worth it8 theme 
and gifted author and edii*_»r. It is ecf'i«fllisht with maps. 

**IIL5torical Sketches of Preshrterian Missions "* is an old friend in 
a new drens. It always was first-rate and is now. if |K>ss]ble, belier in 
ita new and enlarged e<lition. 

"The Growth of the Kingdom of Gt-»d,'^ is an attempt on the part 
of a missionary to the Island Empire, to present, primarily before 
Japanese young men, the proof of Christianity's power in the world. 
The l>Oijk is confessedly an apologetic: it exhibits the growth of God's 
mustard seed — in numlters, understanding, practice, and influence 
among the nations where it has been planted. The chnrts are a dis- 
tinctive feature. Mr. Gulick puts the results of his study in a 
form to be easily grjtspt and retained. 

*'In Lands Afar'' is a series of sketches already charmins^ the 
younger readers of the Missionary lierahly gathered now in a preserv- 
able form for reference. Those n he have been accustomed to find in 
the Herald a feast of fat things will know what a banquet is here 
spread. 

" Christian Life in Germany '^ is a much-needed book, treating of 
one of the great thought centres of the world; what happens there 
concerns the race. Dr. Williams has sought to acquaint us with this 
nation, to give the key to the life of a great people, especially intel- 
lectually, morally, socially, and religiously. Ue helps us to under- 
stand them, to sympathize with the sceptical tendencies and to inter- 
pret the socialistic sentiment so prevalent. We have been especially 
interested in his sketch of Pietism and the " Inner Mission," but we 
have as yet found not a page that had no charm about it. Whether 
or not one agrees with Dr. Williams, he always finds that the writer's 
converse is uplifting and instructive. 

** A Dictionary of Treatment '' is a comprehensive therapeutic index 
of 1000 pp., a copy of which the author has sent free to fifteen hun- 
dred missionaries, as a help and guide in medicine and surgery, where 



1898.] KBOUiT MiBBioNARy BOOKS. 35 

often skiUfnl attendance is not at hand. It is the work of a lifetime 
to present such information in a form so portable and useful; and it ie 
a noble eerrice to humanity to send such a book as a free gift to the 
ends of the earth. 

" Eye-Gate or Native Art in the Evangelization of China," is the 
title of a unique and attractive book recently prepared by William 
Wilson of the China Inland Mission. The object of this book is two- 
fold, appealing alike to missionaries in China and to those at home 
interested in the spread of Christ's Kingdom in heathen lauds. 

Missionaries, in China as elsewhere, realize the value of Scripture 
prints, magic lantern illustrations, etc., to instruct native Christians. 



Among those nnfamiliar with Christian truth such means are of little 
value and often prove a positive hindrance because the foreign char- 
acter of the picture distracts the mind from the truth. In "Eye-Gate," 
Scripture stories and parables are illustrated with pictures designed 
and executed entirely by a Chinese artist, so that these are Chinese 
in every detail^ One of these illustrations we reproduce here. 

These pictures are printed in colors and were originally painted in 
large cartoons suitable for opon-air preaching. The subjects delineated 
comprise The Prodigal Son, The Good Samaritan, Noali nud the 
Flood, The Horrible Pit, and ITie Miry Clay and Tlie Burden ot Sin. 
Each subject includes several scenes, and is accompanied by an 
eiplanatory key. The book contains, in addition, several cliapters on 
the progreflB and prospects of missionary work in China. 



36 MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [Januarj 

IL— MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. 

JULIAN HAWTHORNE ON INDIA.— I. 

The Coemopolitan presents a vivid and awful picture of the horrors of famine 
and plague in India, in the valuable series of papers publisbt in the Julj to the 
November numbers from the graphic pen of Julian Hawthorne, the Cosmopolitan* 9 
special commissioner to India. Hr. Hawthorne was deeply imprest with what he 
saw and heard, and has written in candid, clear and convincing manner of har- 
rowing conditions prevailing, the inadequate methods of relief, and the outlook 
for the future.* We are obliged to reserve perhaps the most striking part of Mr. 
Hawthorne's account for our next issue. He says in part : 

■ 

The Plague City 

(Bombay) is built on a round flat — an island— the greater part of which hardly 
rises above high water mark, and even sinks below it here and there; but an 
acclivity, about one hundred feet in height, called Malabar Hill, occupied by the 
government house and the bungalows of wealthy people, extends in the form of a 
promontory into the western sea. 

The populatiou of the "Bazaar," or native town, is about nine hundred 
thousand, but the buildings containing it are crowded together in a very small 
area; some single houses are occupied by as many as two thousand persons. The 
site of the Bazaar is the least salubrious on the island. To the north is spread 
out the European quarter, with large and handsome public buildings. The 
streets are wide, connecting immense squares or open places. They are con- 
stantly swept and watered. Everywhere passes to and fro a mixt and incon- 
gruous population, Asiatic and European, naked and clothed. The thermometer 
in Bombay seldom shows a temperature above ninety-eight degrees, but the 
atmosphere is always miasmatic and feverish, and the humidity makes the heat 
far more debilitating than the scorching suns of the arid interior country. No 
white man living in Bombay can ever be or feel entirely well. The air is poison- 
ous. The poison may act quickly or slowly on individuals, but it always acts. 

I began my investigations with a drive through the Bazaar, or native quarter. 
The narrow, irregular streets lie between queer buildings, misplaced, uneven, 
grotesque, salient with odd features; some low, some high, their fronts and roofs 
balconied, hooded, gabled, crowding upon the sky, the eccentric lines of structure 
defined in various colors; over them glared down the blinding Indian sun, casting 
strange shadows. Upon the door- jams were painted innumerable red circles and 
crosses— plague and death. These sinister marks were by no means restricted to 
the poorer houses, many of the most pretentious were scarred with them. Death 
unseen and silent was all about me; it burrowed in the soil; it hid in the walls; 
it hovered in the air; it lurkt in the squalid nudity of the swarthy figures that 
thronged the narrow ways, squatted at the street corners, croucht within the 
shadows of booths. Hunting down the plague is a ghastly business. The cir- 
cumstances and details of the pursuit could hardly be more redolent of horror and 
loathsomeness. 

A house was markt down for visitation in the midst of the Bazaar. You 
could not see anything of it from the street; it was screened by other houses; but 
it was large enough to contain six hundred people. It was built round an interior 
court, perhaps five and twenty feet square; the four walls inclosing it went stag- 



• Send fifty cents to The Cosmopolitan^ Irvington, New York, for July to November 
numbers, and read these articles in full.— Ed. 



1^98.] JULIAK HAWl^HORNfi ON IKDU. 3*^ 

gering upward, story above story, so that we seemed to stand at the bottom of a 
well. But what a well! The place even here, beneath the open sky, smelt like a 
cesspool. The ground under foot was boggy and foul, it was composed of dung 
and rotten matter of all kinds, and upon investigation proved to extend down- 
ward to a depth of no less than five feet. This huge and festering mass of coagu- 
lated filth bad been accumulating uncheckt, deep down in that pit of human 
habitations, for fifty years past. The heat, quite apart from the poison of the 
atmosphere, was stifiing and intolerable; there could never be any movement of 
air in this place, nor could the sunlight penetrate its hideous depths. But the 
windows of three-score living-rooms opened upon it, and this was the atmosphere 
which the inhabitants drew into their lungs day and night. 

The i)eople who crept and peept about the place assured us that sickness of 
any kind was quite unknown in this savory retreat. At the same time they 
admitted that several families were at that moment on a visit to their friends in 
the country, and had lockt up their apartments. Hereupon orders were given 
to inspect the house from top to bottom, and to break open all closed doors unless 
keys were promptly forthcoming. 

The harvest of disease and death reapt in that single house was terribly large. 
Eveiy room entered was dark, and the breath that came from it was unbreathable. 
Some were empty; three contained each but a single occupant — two were dead 
and one was dying. In one room, at the end of a stifling and lightless corridor, 
down which we liad groped and stumbled, feeling along the filthy walls for pos- 
sible doors, we found a mother and her baby lockt in and left to die alone. The 
woman was barely able to move, but with her last strength she covered with a 
fold of her sari the body of her infant, lest it should be seen and taken away from 
her. There was no food or water in the room; there was a number of rats, all 
dead. The ^oor was uneven with the compacted grease, rubbish, and excre- 
mentitious filth of years, and in the dull fiash of the lantern there could be dis- 
cerned an obscure scuttling of obscene insects, disturbed at their banquet. 

Now, the family and neighbors of this mother and her child had complacently 
lockt them up there in the darkness and horror to die a lingering and tortured 
death ; they had done so with the victim's full consent, and the reason was that 
both parties to the transaction preferred such an end to accepting the light, air, 
cleanliness and devoted nursing which the government offered them. If caste, 
superstition and ignorance can bring the descendants of a mighty race to this, 
what lower depth remains for them? And is this the ultimate goal of our clever 
contemporary Theosophists? One wishes the Mahatmas would come to Bombay 
and demonstrate to these turgid English how much better than Christianity is the 
esoteric doctrine. 

How many hospitals there may now be in Bombay I know not. New ones 
were being added weekly and almost daily while I was there. Three big ones in 
different quarters of the city would have been enough; but the difficulties of caste 
had to be met, and each person relegated, so far as possible, to his or her own 
kind. The cooking must be done either by persons of the same caste as the 
patients or higher — I suppose the Brahmans could have cooked for anybody 
except for some of themselves. No doubt one might be too sick to know 
whether they were being profaned or not; but it is wonderful to note how vital 
the caste instinct is in this people; it seems to die, if at all, only just before the 
body, and not seldom it might be said to survive it. 

The so-called Servants' Hospital, on made land adjoining the docks, consists 
of four sheds, made of matting stretcht on Bamboo frames and whitewasht. 
These constituted the hospital wards. A range of smaller huts behind them 
served to accommodate the friends of the patients, the workers, the dispensary 



3S MtsetoxAKT Dtettrr iwPABTifKHT. [Janaarj 

and the kitclmi; Ifae dead-hoOBe wu remored a few rods to the nortli. The 
■xpect of all wu clean and aiij. Each ward ctmtained four beda and couM bare 
lieid nuDj mure. The Duraei — men and womeD, native and European — pftst 
from ail to cot. taking temperature, dnaalDg buboe, adjusting coveringB, giving 

In the Orat ward laj a middle-aged Hindu, with ■ blanket drawn up to bis 
■bnutden, anil a piece o( wbite moaquilo-netling thrown over bis face to shield 
him from Ibe flies. He was drawing his breatb with difficulty, in BtcrtoiWU 
gaaps, which heaved up the folds of the blanket under wtaicli his wasted t>ody 
lay. Tbe stlendant pulled aside Ibe netting, there were patches of black on bis 
pincht brown face, his ejea were open and shining, but flit; he did not notice us 
or cbaoge his posture. "He will die before suaset,''remarkt the doctor, replacing 
tbe netting; "the disease has taken the poeurocHiic form in his case." 



So far OS a visitor could judge, fill the arrangements and procedure of this 
litllo hospilal were an well-conceived and as efUcienl as they could be. All wa» 
done tliat could be dune for the people. Ofti^n the latler'some for treatment too 
lale; oflcn thej refused medicine or inoculation, and by fitrthe greater part of 
them die— there is no euro for the plague. But the almost hoiieless fight Is stead- 
fastly maintained; and, at least, It is better that tlie victims should die here than 
In the hideous Hurrnutxliugs which they would choose for themselves. 

The newly slartwl government hospital at Pare], given for the purpose by 
Loni Sandluimt. la a liugr. irregular building, with spreading wings and a lofty 
coUimual portico. Tliis plaec had been for many years the palace and headquar- 
ters of the governors of Bombay, but for a long time past had stood unoccupied, 
tlio governors preferring more salubrious quarters on the seaward promontoij of 
Malabar Hill. 

A. ui)tlv<> attendant with whon) I tnlkt, said that altho the people were so 
unwilling to come to hospltitls, yet after having been brought there they became 
unwilling to leave. Mnuy arrive, he said, who have not got the plague; but 
their houses havn been dcslroyed and their furniture and clothing burnt; 
they have nowhere in go : their relatives were dead or had got away to the 
country. 



1898.] julian hawthobnb on india. 39 

Starving India. 

The only persons of white blood who know what is actually going on are the 
missioiiaries, for they go about quietly everywhere, see everything, and can not 
be deceived or put off the scent by the native subordinates. Nor are the latter 
much concerned to deceive them; for they know that what a missionary says 
would not be accepted by the government if it contradicted the reports of its own 
agents. A missionary, in the eye of the government, is a worthy but sentimental 
and unpractical personage, whose sympathies are readily workt upon, and who 
knows nothing of political economy. The weight attaching to their assertions is, 
therefore, the government thinks, entitled to the respect which belongs to good 
intentions, but to little more. Now, anything further from the truth than is this 
prepossession on the part of the government it would be hard to conceive. It was 
my great good fortune to be thrown with the missionaries from the start, and I was 
able to compare their methods and knowledge with those of the government people. 

Let me most emphatically declare that the •English in India are doing all that 
wisdom and exi>erience can devise, and heroic energy and devotion execute, to 
combat and diminish this stupendous calamity; they are sparing neither time, 
money nor life itself. But whatever they do as a government is voided of a 
moiety or more of its effect by the strict necessity they are under to employ 
native subordinates. The moment their white backs are turned, the native sub- 
ordinates pocket a part (as much as is safe, and often rather more) of the money. 
It is impossible to stop this wholesale robbery, for the simple reason that there 
are not white men enough in India for that purpose. The area affected by the 
famine is nearly half as large as the United States; the means of transport are 
stiU inadequate to enable one to reach the greater part of it; and the climate is 
terrible beyond the belief of any one who has not experienced it. No white man 
can live in the plains of India; all he can do is to survive until he can get away 
to the hills, or back to England. 1 

Millions, literally, of the people starve to death without the government hav- 
ing any knowledge thereof. Eight millions — eight times the population of New 
York, nearly twice that of London, have already died of the famine in India. 
Think, if you can, of this number of persons slowly turning into skeletons and 
dying for lack of food — and no one knowing anything about it. And were it not 
for the herois and unselfish efforts that England is making, this stupendous total 
would be multiplied by two, or even three. Nor does the mortality by any means 
stop with the immediate deaths; for millions will be left, after the famine proper 
is past, with no means of cultivating crops — their bullocks have died, and their 
tools have been sold for food. And millions more will have been so weakened 
that their constitutions can never recover from the shock; they will droop month 
after month and year after year. Children especially, after having reacht a certain 
stage of hunger, never recover; they will not appear upon the books that record 
the mortality of the famine, but they will die of the famine none the less, even 
tho when they die they may be in the midst of plenty. 

There is one thing we can do to help India, and only one — we can send 
money. If we would (and how easily we could) raise a hundred million dollars 
here, and cause as much as possible of it to be distributed through the various 
missionaries on the ground, we would almost dispose of any further danger of 
starvation in India. The missionaries do not work through native officials; the 
money they distribute is given by them directly into the hands of the starving 
persons themselves. Of course, the number of missionaries is very limited, 
and the number of persons they can reach is correspondingly so. But with means 
in their hands, the area of their activity would be greatly increast. Let each of 



40 MiBBioNART DIGEST DEPABTMENT. [January 

us remember tliat one dollar, properly applied, will keep a human being alive in 
India for a month. How many of us can afford to let that one dollar stay in our 
pockets, or go in tips to waiters, or in peanuts at a baseball match, or in cocktails 
and cigars? A score of persons have died in India of starvation while you have 
been reading the above passage. , 

Jubbulpore was my first stopping place. I drove through the native city — 
a crowded, huddled up, uneven mass of buildings, looking older and more primi- 
tive than Bombay. The inhabitants throng the winding streets and the houses, 
and squat or sit directly in the roadway in great numbers, getting up and moving 
aside reluctantly to let my ghari pass. They are more, and more generally, naked 
than the Bombay people. In the grain-market section of the town quantities of 
grain were spread out on the streets, with venders and buyers squatting beside 
and upon it. The latter were mostly bony remnants of human beings; the former 
were uniformly plump and often fat. Near a fountain, surroimded by worship- 
ers, sat an old fakir, his face smeared with ashes, his hair matted with filth, clad 
in a dirty twist of a rag; he was mating raw grain with an expression of crazy 
self-complacency. Further on was a Hindu temple, with two or three priests 
under the portico, calm and clean. At the door of a mud hut a lusty young woman 
sprawled naked on her back, nursing a naked baby, which scrambled over her 
bare stomach. There were many women whose arms and legs were loaded with 
silver bangles; and many more who tottered along on bony limbs, and were 
recognizable as women only by stature and head-dress. 

After tiffin, Mr. Johnson, the resident American missionary, drove me to the 
relief -camp and poor-house, where are kept persons who are unable, from weak- 
ness or disease, to labor on the government relief works. All are under the 
supervision of white inspectors, one of whom should visit them daily. 

Wo first entered an orphanage, being met at the gate by a native supervisor, 
a shrewd and hard-looking oriental of sixty. There were hundreds of children, 
mostly under ten, standing or sitting about the large inclosure; they had lost their 
parents either by death or desertion — for at a certain stage of starvation the 
parental instinct disappears, and fathers and mothers abandon their offspring 
with a terrible apathy. Indian children are normally active, intelligent and 
comely, with brilliant eyes, like jewels. A few of these little creatures, who had 
been taken in before starvation had gone too far, lookt fairly well; but the major- 
ity—death walkt among them and would sooner or later carry them away. You 
could count the ribs in the least emaciated of them; but there were scores of 
figures there upon which I could scarcely endure to look. The abdomen, espec- 
ially in children, is often largely distended, and tight as a drum, as if overloaded 
with food; and I have heard persons, looking at photographs of such, remark 
that these, at any rate, must have had a hearty meal. But it is not food, but the 
lack of it, which causes this distension; there is disease of the liver, which 
becomes enormously swollen with wind. A child who reaches this condition 
hardly ever survives. The contrast between this abnormal rotundity and the 
emaciation of the limbs, chest and back is grotesque and horrible. As for the 
faces of these children, nothing childlike remains of them. The dark skin is 
stretched on a fleshless skull; the lips are mere skin, and shrink back from the 
teeth, the eyes glimmer dimly in hollow sockets, unless, as is often the case, they 
have been eaten away by the ophthalmia, which is among the consequences of 
starvation. Creatures thus reduced are not seldom fed by the native supervisors 
on insufficiently cooked or even raw grain— the result is diarrhea, dysentery and 
cholera, of which every camp of this kind contains many cases. Well, this is 
starvation I 

From the orphanage we went to the general poor-house; here were men and 



1898.] THE PBOGBB88 OF CHKI8TIANITY. 41 

older children. They had lost, literally, everything. All was gone — ^all, except 
the rag which bound their loins. They showed us their hands, worn with toil, 
but now bloodless and shriveled. They showed us their bellies— a mere wrinkle 
of empty skin. Twenty per cent, of them were blind; their very eyeballs were 
gone. The joints of their knees stood out between the thighs and shinbones as in 
any other skeleton; so did their elbows; their fleshless jaws and skulls were sup- 
ported on necks like those of pluckt chickens. Their bodies — they had none; 
only the framework was left. A certain portion of them lookt in better condi- 
tion than the others; but it was at best a sorry exhibit. Yet this Jubbulpore 
poor-house is considered one of the best conducted of them all. 

We went to the women's poor-house. There were fewer women than men; I 
askt the missionary why. " They die quicker/' was his reply. I can not portray 
their aspect; everything womanly had disappeared, and with it all womanly 
modesty. We began to make the round of the sheds. Most of the women here 
were lying down and could not rise; they tried to lift their heads and mutter some- 
thing; but the effort was too much, and they fell back. The missionary, used to 
trying sights, turned abruptly away, and said to me in a choking voice, "Let's 
get oat of this." One can endure the sight of a great deal of pain and misery, if 
one is capable of relieving it; but otherwise it is hard. 

I went home with the good missionary, who had invited me to spend the 
night at his bungalow; and when, before we went to bed, he knelt down and 
askt God to bless the poor heathen, I silently joined in the prayer with all my 
heart. 

(To be Concluded in Fefymary,) 



THE PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY. 
Rbv. R. M. Pattebson, D. D. 

In the year 1000 the number of nominal Christians in the world was com- 
puted at about only 50,000,000; in 1500, 100,000,000; in 1700, 155,000,000; in 1800, 
250,000,000; and now, in a world population of about 1,430,000.000, 477,000,000. 

As to the different governments of the world and the people whom they rule, 
nearly 800,000,000 of the 1,430,000,000 inhabitants of the world are under Chris- 
tian governments. The progress, at first slow, has been with an ever-increasing 
ratio. 

As to the different forms of Christianity. In the year 1700 there were 90,- 
000,000 of the inhabitants of the world under Roman Catholic governments; 
33,000,000 under Greek, and 32,000,000 under Protestant; and now the number 
under Protestant is about 450,000,000 of the 800,000,000 who are under Christian 
governments. 

As to the United States, the latest reports (of 1896) give 25,424,333 as the 
number of communicant members in all the churches of all kinds, and about 10,- 
000,000 chUdren in all the Sunday Hschools, which figures seem to leave a large 
proportion of the population beyond all direct ecclesiastical connection, not con- 
nected in any way with any of the churches or schools, tho, of course, many of 
those who are not members of any church may be in families some of whose 
members are in the churches and schools and attendants upon the services, and, 
in some measure, under their influence. 

The contrast between the little Ante-Pentecostal Church in Jerusalem of 120 
members and the millions upon millions among almost all nations now is great in 
the arithmetical figures, but the Omniscient One alone knows the number of the 
saved for eternity— the multitude of true and obedient believers in the crucified 



42 MISSIONARY DIGEST DiPARTMBNT. [JaDUarj 

Jesus, and the incomparably greater multitude still of all the infant dead, who 
have been taken to the glory of heaven during the terrestrial strife and progress. 
And as to the intellectual, moral, social, restraining, elevating influence which 
Christianity has had upon society at large in the nations it has reacht, and not 
merely upon those who have been eternally saved through it, what human pen 
can describe it all? — Condensed from Treasury of Beligiaus Thought, 



PENTECOSTAL TIMES IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

Last year (1897) George Weavers, of Tabor, Iowa, XJ. S. A. , a plain man of 
God, with little education of this world, but a faithful student of God's Word, 
and a man of much prayer, has been used by the Holy Spirit to begin the work 
which since his departure for America in February has swept like a mighty tide 
over the whole mission (Natal). There is no leader of the movement except the 
Holy Spirit. Sometimes He uses a missionary to utter His message, and some- 
times He uses a school girl or boy, or calls an ignorant kraal girl just out of 
heathenism. No matter what the instrument, men listen and act as though their 
lives depended on it. 

The revival has swept through our schools with great power. The 180 girls 
at Inanda Seminary have been shaken like leaves in a tempest. The boys in 
Amanzimtoti Seminary have been wonderfully stirred. Sleep was abandoned to 
afford time for confessions. The teachers stood amazed to see the work which 
they had struggled so hard to accomplish, done so easily and thoroughly by the 
Spirit's power. The Inanda church, where a division had arisen that split the 
church from end to end with fearful hatred and lying, has been through the Are 
of the Holy Spirit's searching until men have forgotten their personal animosity 
in their fear for their personal salvation, and now seems welded together in 
brotherly love and service. In the entire history of the mission there has been no 
such awakening among the people. 

WONDERFUL WORK IN NATAL. 

Mrs. Cowles sends the following account of the work in the Boys' Normal 
School at Amanzimtoti: — 

''The work of the Spirit became manifest on Saturday eve, March ISth, in 
the boys' Prayer Meeting. The next day, Mr. Cowles in his usual Sunday evening 
talk to the boys, took repentance for his subject. When Mr. Cowles dismist 
the boys he askt any who would like to talk to him to come to his office. The 
room was soon crowded and adjournment was made to the boys* study. Then 
began a never to be forgotten scene. Such confessions I such a pouring forth of 
sins I Lying, stealing, social vice, immorality of every sort. Every sin, except 
murder was confest. The meeting continued until 3 a. m., and that was the 
beginning' of this wonderful work. After several meetings of confession, there 
came a great crying unto the Lord for forgiveness, followed by earnest seeking 
for the gift of God's Holy Spirit— His indwelling. Then came the conviction that 
ere this blessing could come, wrongs as far as possible must be righted and repara- 
tion made. 

"Avery markt feature of this movement on all the stations has been the 
giving up of the use of tobacco, it being included in the same category as love 
charms and evil medicines. We hear of piles, literally btahels of pipes, snuff 
boxes, and charms, being brought into the meeting, and atone of the stations they 
have had a great public burning of these implements of Satan. That God's 
spirit could not dwell in a polluted temple has been a foregone conclusion. The 
fullness of blessing the boys felt they must have. For this they wrestled with 



1898.] PENTSCOBTAL TIMB8 IN SOUTH AFRICA. 43 

God in prayer, and many whole nights were spent with Him, till the rising bell 
at 5.30 called them to study or to chop wood or draw water. It seemed almost 
impossible for the boys to do anything but pray and study the Bible, so a whole 
day was given up to prayer and fasting. Football and their favorite debating 
society have given place to the prayer-meeting, and every evening between sup- 
per and 7 o'clock study hour there is a voluntary resort to the hillside back of the 
house, and this recreation hour is spent in calling upon God. 

" As a result of this constant and earnest seeking, many have received great 
blessing. Their hearts are fairly on fire with love to God. They love the word. 
One boy, hugging his Bible lo his heart, exclaimed, '* O, this is the book for us 
now! We have had enough of other books. The Bible, oh, only the Bible 
now ! " With God*s Spirit in their hearts, His Word in their hands, the boys 
began immediately to ask if they might not go out to tell their friends of their 
changed lives, and induce them also to give up all for Christ. And so every Sun- 
day morning more than half of our school scatter in little bands all over the hills 
to take the glad message to their heathen friends. Some start at 4 a.m., return- 
ing at 7:80 p.m., having walkt thirty miles or more. 

" They are truly converted. Their danger lies in their emotional and imagina- 
tive disi>osit]ons. They measure their religion by their feelings. We need divine 
wisdom to guide them right " 

Miss Phelps writes of God's wonderful work 

AMONG THE ZULU GIBLS 

at Inanda. The school has 168 boarders. Each class spends half of the time in 
lessons, and the other Iialf in work in the laundry, sewing-room, garden, or in 
general housework. A large number of these come directly from the kraals, and 
many come unable to read, and most of them without clothes. Some had been 
aroused to seek the Lord at their homes in attendance upon special service, and 
had found pardon and peace. 

The first signs of the deeper interest were noticeable in connection with some 
very serious talks by Dalita, a native teacher, and one or two of the older girls. 
One Sunday evening the teachers heard loud crying and sobbing, and on going 
to them found nearly the whole school in an almost uncontrolable state of emo- 
tion. After awhile, a number made definite confessions of sin, and this was God 
working in our midst before he sent Elder Weavers to l)e the instrument of bring- 
ing many souls into the kingdom of Heaven. The arrow of conviction went 
deeply into many hearts. And with strong crying and tears, confessions of sin 
were made before God and men. 

The weeks and months that have gone by since this blessed work began have 
borne witness of the genuineness of it. Some have been much used of God in 
strengthening and helping their mates, and they have been an inspiration and a 
support to their teachers. They see that a Christ life within them must touch 
their lives everywhere, in the class-room, and at the laundry, as well as in the 
prayer-meeting. The deep concern of the girls for their friends in heathen dark- 
ness, and the earnest desire to tell the good news to others have been noticeable. 
Some have gone to the kraals or out-stations to tell the people what God has done 
for them, and in several cases the Lord has blessed their words, and sinners, old 
and young, have confest their sins and turned to the Lord. — Mission Neios Letter, 
publisht at Wellington, South Africa. 

From The South African Pioneer we also take the following account of this 
wonderful work as described by Rev. W. C. Wilcox : 

Last year I could hardly see a ray of light in the dark clouds that seemed 
to overshadow us. But this was only the darkness which preceded the dawn. 



44 HI88IONARY DIGBST DBFARTMBNT. [JaUUary 

I think God has been preparing the people and missionary for it, in various ways. 
The scourge of locusts which had destroyed the food of the people for two sea- 
sons, had been taken by many as a judgment of God for their sins. Then there 
was the rinderpest threatening to come in at almost any day. The missionaries 
also had been quickened by the " Keswick " Convention held at Durban last 
year. So there were in many ways the signs of a shower. An early morning 
prayer- meeting had been begun on this station, which was surprisingly well 
attended for the time of the day. Just at this time God sent Elder Gkorge 
Weavers from America. He at first attempted to preach without interpretation, 
and there were very few who understood him, yet it was evident that the Spirit 
of God was present from the start, and after a few days, as he began to have his 
sermons interpreted, the revival took hold of the people with great power. It 
was especially characterized by great grief for sin, confession, and resjtitution, 
and the forsaking of sinful habits and customs. At one time the feeling rcacht 
to such a pitch that the meeting was kept up all night long and all of the follow- 
ing day. Many laid aside snuff, pipes, heathen medicines, and ornaments. Two 
heathen men cut off their head rings. Many would about as soon have consented 
to have their heads taken off, as it is a mark of rank and honor among the men. 
One man confest to a murder. All this was at Mapumulo. But a similar work 
had begun at Umvoti. We also w>ent over into Zululand to another station in 
our connection. Here again we saw the same manifestations of divine power. 
We only stopt about a week in Zululand, but when we came back we brought 
with us fifteen snuff boxes, one hemp horn, three pipes, three bottles of heathen 
medicines, all of which had been renounced in the meetings. One old woman 
claimed to have had her appetite for tobacco taken away from her in a remark- 
able manner. A witch doctor confest his deeds, and promist to give up his prac- 
tice. 

The revival did not stop, as so many do, when Elder Weavers had returned 
to America. It went on in many places with even greater power than before. 
From Inanda it spread to Adams, where is the boys' school, and they being 
aroused carried it on to Infumi and other outstations. Kot only the boys but 
many girls and even children were used of God to spread this new salvation as it 
was called by many. It was carried up to Table Mountain (Natal), where there 
was a wonderful work done notwithstanding most violent opposition from the 
adversary and some of his minions. As this account must be brief I may not go 
any further, but let me give here a summary of some of the results. 

(1). First, great spiritual blessings to the missionaries. Many of us have 
come into a deeper experience than we have ever known before, and have come 
to realize the truth of doctrines which we have held before more as theory than 
as an actual experience. 

(2). Increast number of meetings. On some of the stations there have been 
as many as ten meetings a week kept up now for over six months. 

(8). Increast attendance. Notwithstanding the greater number of meetings 
the attendance is much better and the interest deeper than when there were fewer 
meetings, and at the present time there seems to be no flagging in interest. 

(4). Peace and harmony in the church, long standing feuds and quarrels 
having been made up. In many cases these were made up simply by gathering 
together and continuing in prayer till God gave them to see eye to eye. 

(5). Increast contributions. Notwithstanding the almost total loss of crops 
and the blocking of traffic by the rinderpest quarantine, the contributions to the 
Lord's work have been largely increast. Many have gone away to Johannesburg 
and other towns to earn money that they might have something to give. 

(6). Large additions to the church and the restoration of backsliders. The 



1898.] THB GOLDEN AGE OF MISSIONS. 45 

additions to the churches under my charge have been hundreds more for the past 
six months than for any time since my coming to the field. But it is not the 
number so much as the character of the converts that is encouraging. I believe 
Done have been admitted who have not only renounced all customs and sins that 
are in any wise connected with heathenism, but also dancing, beer drinking, and 
tobacco in all its forms. They are, almost to a man, workers ready to preach or 
pray with sinners and visit the sick. 

With all this that is good I do not overlook the fact that while the Spirit of 
God has been with us the devil has been present also. Never in my life have I 
seen such exhibitions of his power. In some places it has appeared in violent 
opposition on the part of some old backslidden members. Again it has been in 
the counterfeiting of the experience of some who have received the Spirit. At 
other times it has been the circulating of mischief -making lies. Perhaps the 
greatest wonder of all is that notwithstanding such persistent and violent opposi- 
tion on the part of the adversary, there has been so mueh that is genuine and last- 
ing. "O that men would praise the Lord for His goodness, for His wonderful 
works to the children of men." 



THE GOLDEN AGE OP MISSIONS. 

The Church at home is now going through much the same experience that 
comes to very nearly every missionary on the field. It is a common, if not uni- 
versal experience there, that after two or three years of work an earnest man or 
woman, who has gone out full of enthusiasm and ambition, comes to wonder 
w^hether, after all, a mistake has not been made, and whether better work could 
not be done somewhere else, perhaps at home. The work is so different from 
what was anticipated, and they seem to make so little progress. Sometimes they 
yield. More often they hold firm and find that their grandest, most successful 

work is yet before them. They take it up with new heart, new energy, and, a 
little later, look upon withdrawal, if for any reason that becomes necessary, as 
the greatest possible trial. 

80 it will be with the Church. It is now in its trying time. It is facing as 
never before the real problem of the Christianizing, not merely the evangelizing 
of the world. If it holds true, if it supports the work it has commenced and 
enables it to be carried on, it will find a golden age before it such as it has not 
dreamed of. If it holds back, the story of the Middle A^es may be repeated, and 
the world may wait for evangelists from Africa to do in America what Americans 
are now doing in the Levant. 

Let us look for a moment at the immediate possibilities. The battle with the 
mat systems is on as it has never been. Buddhism in Siam, in China, in Japan, 
u bestirring itself to resist the encroachments of Christianity. Hiilduism is look- 
ing anxiously at the signs of its weakening power, over not merely the educated, 
but the common people. Islam shows an, as vet, undivided and apparently 
unconcerned front, yet recent events make manifest its realization that it has at 
last met a foe the strongest it has ever encountered. While this is true, however, 
it must not be supposed that the end is near. Such systems are not conquered in 
a generation. They survive many severe wounds, and rally even after they appear 
to be conquered. That they can be conquered, however, and that they will be, 
is as true as Christianity itself. When they yield, then will be the golden age of 
missions. 

How soon that will come depends very much upon the attitude of the Church 
toward the work during these coming years. If the vantage-ground \b to be kept 
and increast, the day of success will be hastened. If work already done is to be 
given up, if the orders to those at the front arc to be Retreat, instead of Advance, 
then the delay may be indefinite. Now is a time of test, not a time of crisis, for 
crisis implies a possible failure, and God's work knows no such possibility. It 
may, however, be delayed through failure of His appointed means fully to meet 
the demands upon them. To meet them requires effort, patient, persevering, 
perrifltent effort; but that will win. — ITie Independent, 



46 



INTERNATIONAL DBFARTMBNT. 



[January 



III.— INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



EDITED AND CONDUCTED BY REV. J. T. GRACE Y, D.D. 



The Anglican Oonference and Foreign 

Missions. 

What one hundred and ninety-four 
bishops, whatever church they repre- 
sent, have to say on the subject of for- 
eign missions, might well attract atteu- 
ti9n in any part of the Christian world; 
but when these bishops represent the 
foremost evangelical forces of the cen- 
tury in a great body, like the Church of 
England at home, with delegates from 
all the British colonies and also from 
affiliated bodies like the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church of the United States, as 
did the Fourth Lambeth Conference, 
and when such a body occupies a whole 
month in council on its own, and on 
related interests, whatever they for- 
mulate as a concensus of their views, or 
express in resolutions looking to activi- 
ties, ought by all means to secure the 
serious consideration of tlie whole Chris- 
tian church, whether Protestant, Roman 
or Greek. 

Less than a decade before (1888), a 
similar conference made no reference to 
the subject of Foreign Alissions, in 
markt contrast with which the Fourth 
Lambeth Conference thrust missions 
into the foreground, creating for their 
consideration the largest of all the many 
committees which they appointed, and 
making it as representative as possible 
of all the interests of missions at home 
and throughout the British colonies, as 
well as of the missionary energies of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States. Not less than ten 
bishops actually in service in the several 
missions of the Church Missionary 
Society were members of this com- 
mittee. 

This body has no organic relation 
under constitution to any branch or 
branches of the Episcopal churches re- 
presented in its composition, but it has 
the additional freedom and force of a 



voluntary body, and its utterances, while 
strictly non-official, except as they are 
those of a company of officials, have, 
perhaps, all the wider swing, and really 
gain in moral effect by the accident of 
being a concensus of view instead of 
an official pronunciamento. 

It would be impossible to make room 
in this magazine for even a full synopsis 
of the utterances of this widely repre- 
sentative body on the subject of mis- 
sions. Some of these have reference to 
matters pertaining to the internal history 
or economy of the Episcopal churches 
here met. They note that the evangeli- 
cal impulse is a comparatively modem 
one, even in the Church of England, the 
Book of Common Prayer having but 
very meager allusions to the subject of 
missions, the whole subject scarcely 
being present to the minds of the great 
leaders who compiled that book, while 
they declare for themselves the judg- 
ment that *'no ordinary service should 
be considered complete which did not 
plead amongst other things for the 
spread of the Gospel." There is a re- 
cognition also of the fact that the mis- 
sionary impulse in the Church of Eng- 
land arose by the independent action of 
its members, who, recognizing the 
failure of the Church as a whole to 
realize her bounden duty for the world's 
evangelization, formed themselves into 
societies within the Church to do the 
work of the Church. The Church, it 
concedes, owes to these great societies a 
debt of gratitude for the work which 
they have been enabled to do, not only 
directly in evangelization abroad, but 
in supplying a providential stage in 
leading the whole Church to a higher 
conception, though this has never yet 
been adequately workt out in church 
history. This they assume to be only a 
transitional stage and that the Church 
as such must come to the front to plan 
and to prosecute its own work in seeking 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



47 



the redemption of unchristian races. 
The Protestant Episcopal Church of 
the United States may be said to be 
conducting missions in its official capa- 
city through a Board of Missions ap- 
pointed by the General Convention, 
which board appoints as its executive a 
Board of Managers. The Conference 
declares, however, the individual right 
of donors to offer funds for missionary 
purposes, either for special localities or 
special work and on special lines, and 
that the missionary societies should 
accept all such when not inconsistent 
with the belief, order, and discipline of 
the Charch. 

In the matter of Vie d&oelopmeni of 
natifse ehureheSf they take a very liberal 
view as to the measure of autonomy 
which should be recognized under pro> 
vidential developments, encouraging 
native churches to work toward the goal 
of independence, bound to the mother 
church '*by no other bonds than the 
one faith and one communion in the 
Church Catholic.'' The Church in India 
has already made great advance in the 
direction of this autonomy. There are 
no bishops of the Indian race, and the 
number of ordained native missionaries 
directly engaged in evangeliziog their 
own countrymen Is small, yet the devel- 
opment of the Indian ministry in most 
cases keeps pace with the growth of the 
Christian community. A good deal of 
sound phUosophy underlies the general 
scope of aim, however, In this direction. 
It would not be wise, for instance, to 
anticipate nor aim to secure autonomy 
for races which are rapidly diminishing, 
or that will be absorbed in white races, 
such as the Maoris of New Zealand and 
the Indians of North America, as there 
would be no proBpeci of their per- 
manently maintaining themselves as a 
church, separated from the white races. 
But there are other races which will 
continue, even under the dominance of 
white races, to so far outnumber them 
that they can never be absorbed, or to 
any preponderating degree amalga- 
mated with them; while there are other 
races lying contiguous to the white 



races which must continue to expand 
independently. In China and Japan 
the proportion of white races present, 
and even their great influence over 
the social, political and religious life of 
these people, will, probably, never in 
any way materially affect their racial 
independence of the Chinese. In such 
Ciises they would encourage the devel- 
opment of national churches. The 
practice of the Church varies in different 
localities, but mainly along the lines of 
these distinctions. The Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the United States 
has a native African bishop of Cape 
Palmas, with two African assistant 
bishops consecrated in recent years. One 
formal resolution of the Conference de- 
clares that the establishment and devel- 
opment of native churches is of the ut- 
most importance and "from the very be- 
ginning the idea that the Church is their 
own, and not a foreign Church, should 
be imprest upon converts, and that 
a due measure of the management and 
financial support of the Church should 
be theirs from the firat." It would not, 
however, encourage ultimate autonomy 
imtil the Church had reacht a stage of 
financial independence. They assume 
that it is only a question of time when 
the Church In Japan will become self- 
governing and self-supporting. The 
English and American Episcopal mis- 
sions in that country have already 
united to form one Japanese Church, 
having its own constitution and canons, 
with a strong body of Japanese clergy, 
though as yet having no Japanese 
bishop. 

In the matter of comity as between 
the churches organically connected with 
the societies and independent churches 
of the Anglican communion, they de- 
clare that there ought to be a recogni- 
tion of the equal rights of each other 
when establishing foreign missionary 
jurisdiction, and that there ought to be 
the utmost care to avoid conflict of in- 
terest in creating any new missionary 
jurisdiction, and particularly where 
signal spiritual blessings have at- 
tended the labors of Christian mis- 



48 



INTEBNATIONAL DEPABTMBKT. 



[January 



sionaries not connected with the Angli- 
can communion, special care should be 
taken to avoid any encroachment on 
each other's territory, and to avoid 
"whatever would tend to interfere with 
the '' due growth and manifestation of 
that ' unity of the spirit ' which should 
ever mark the Church of Christ." 

Perhaps nothing on which this Con- 
ference made a deliverance is of wider 
interest than, what would be popularly 
called, comparative religionB, Though 
the Conference itself is not holden for 
the utterances of its committees except 
as formulated in resolutions, yet it cer- * 
tainly is responsible for a concensus of 
judgment on these related topics. It 
goes further than to merely admit that 
there are glimpses of theological aod 
moral truth to be found in the several 
systems, and recognizes a measure of 
direct and divine inspiration in the 
origin of these truths. It would seem 
that in this they recognize something 
beyond the mere migration of truth 
from tho original inspired utterances of 
the Hebrew and Christian literatures, 
for they frankly admit that the existence 
of these tnithB is owing to the work of 
the Holy Ghost, which would at least 
warrant the inference that they concede 
the direct inspiration of the authors of 
these several ethnic cults, of that which 
is excellent in them. Of course, they 
assert the insufficiency of any and of 
all of these several systems as furnish- 
ing an inadequate degree of light and 
truth about God and about man's rela- 
tion to him, and their failure to give 
any competent motive for well doing, 
or to furnish anything like a sufficient 
help to man's weakness or consolation 
in his troubles. They declare that for 
the most part these sacred literatures 
themselves are but little known amongst 
the people who profess them, and that 
the Christian world at large overweights 
the extracts which are culled for pre- 
sentation to Christian communities out 
of an overwhelming mass of foolish, 
fallacious, or immoral material, and 
that even these excerpts are interpreted 
from a Christian standpoint or seen 



through the lens of Christian thought 
The practical outcome of these religions 
is by no means what might be antici- 
pated from these favorable excerpts, 
the vefy religion itself being often the 
avenues of vice, and its leading repre- 
sentatives too often conspicuous, ex- 
amples of evil. No one of them nor all 
of them can furnish any substitute for 
Christianity, while, philosophically 
speaking, several of them or most of 
them have an underlying base which ib 
Pantheistic, Atheistic or Agnostic. 

Perhaps no part of the proceedings 
touches a more crucial question than that 
relating to the duty of the Church to the 
foUowere of Islam. Estimating the 
population of the world at fifteen hun- 
dred millions, they make a liberal com- 
putation for the proportion that falls to 
Mohammedans, distributing them as 
follows : in Europe five mil\ions, seven 
hundred and fifty thousana; in Asia and 
the Eastern Archipelago, one hundred 
and sixty-nine millions; in Africa, forty 
millions; in Australasia, twenty- five 
millions, making an aggregate of two 
hundred and fourteen millions, seven 
hundred and seventv-five thousand, or 
one-seventh of the entire population of 
the world. We do not know what 
authorities they followed in making so 
liberal an estimate, and it certainly 
must be by a very charitable allowance 
for countries where populations are only 
estimated, that they can accept such 
figures. It is scarcely possible to com- 
pute with anything like accuracy, what 
the Mohammedan portion of any popu- 
lation might be where a strict Euro- 
pean census is not taken. It is of 
interest, however, to note that with 
even this high estimate, more than 
one-fourth of the Mohammedan popula- 
tion of the globe are citizens of the 
British Empire, amenable in its courts 
and under its political sway. India 
alone contains over fifty-seven and a- 
third millions of Mohammedan popula- 
tion. It is a deplorable fact that until 
the present century, no effort worthy 
the name to evangelize the Moham« 
medan world was ever made; and even 



1898.] 



niTBRNATIONAL DBFABTHSHT. 



49 



that within the present century has 
heen local, weak and spasmodic. The 
opportunities and obligations now rest- 
ing upon the Christian Church to inau- 
gurate a systematic and well-organized 
forward movement, for the conversion 
of the Mohammedan world, as recog- 
nized by the conference, includes such 
facts as the awakening of the Christian 
world to a sense of the iconoclastic 
element of Islam, its immobility and 
inadaptability to all modem progress, 
an of which have been imprest upon 
the civilized world by the Armenian 
massacres. This, and the peculiar poli- 
tical relations of tlie Turkish Empire 
with the Christian powers of Europe, 
have turned the attention of western 
Christendom to Islam to a degree never 
known since the crusades. There is, 
however, it is asserted, a growth of a 
spirit of dissatisfaction within Islam 
itself in parts both of Europe and of 
Asia, which is not without encourage- 
ment, while, at least amongst the sixty 
millions of the Mohammedans of India, 
there is enforced toleration on the 
part of that community to any agencies 
put in operation for their enlighten- 
ment. The Conference, however, re- 
cognizes further that it requires no 
ordinary energy in attempting to com- 
bat IsUun or to secure any modification 
of its prejudices towards Christianity. 
It believes that for this purpose mis- 
sionaries must be extraordinarily fur- 
nisht by a patient study of Moham- 
medanism and knowledge of Arabic, of 
the character of Mohammed, and that 
absolute fairness must be the rule in 
dealing with the doctrines of Islam, 
while emphasis should be put upon the 
correspondences between Christianity 
and Islam, in discussing all points of 
difference. It believes that men should 
be put in special training for this work 
and that missionaries should not be sent 
singly into this part of the field. Special 
opportunUies are named at the present 
time in the districts of which Lahore, 
Lucknow, Delhi and Hyderabad in 
India are centers, and also in eastern 
and western equatorial Africa and Zan- 



zibar, as well as amongst the Hausa 
people of the Central 8oudan. The 
conference made special mention of the 
Student Volunteer Movement and allied 
organizations, and also remarkt on 
the rapid increase of the number of 
women giving themselves to the service 
of the missionary church, as well as to 
the increast employment of medical mis- 
sionaries to the progress of west Africa 
toward self-support; to the evangelistic 
fervor of the native Christians in 
Uganda and to the blood of the martyrs 
in China. 

Our space does not permit a further 
presentation of the interesting themes, 
nor of the formulated utterances of this 
Conference. To some they have ap- 
peared as the utterance of mere plati- 
tudes, but whatever may be thought of 
them, favorably or unfavorably, every 
honest Christian throughout the world 
must rejoice in the declaration by so 
widely influential a body of scholarly 
men, that the work of foreign missions 
" at the present time stands in the first 
rank of all the tasks we have to fulfill." 

J. T. G. 



Ohinese Hew Tear KoteB. 

BY RBV. ARTHUR H. SMITH, p'ANG Y'ANG, 

CHINA. 

However little attention he may pay 
to the Chinese calendar, every foreigner 
in China is sure to be reminded in a 
very efl^ective way of the approach of 
the close of the Chinese year, long be- 
fore the edge of the New Year is to be 
seen above the horizon. At some time 
during the twelfth moon, the **boy'* 
makes his appearance, and with an un- 
usual animation in his unanimated face, 
explains that owing to a combination of 
circumstances which seem to be to a 
large extent incapable of elucidation to 
us, he is obliged to request the advance 
of his wages for the current month, and 
also for the one to come. This may be 
contrary to rule, doubtless is so, but 
owing to the combination above alluded 
to, is an imperative necessity. Other- 
wise ruin impends. It is not long be- 



50 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[January 



fore a similar statement is made by the 
cook, with regard to his affairs, and by 
the various coolies as to theirs. In each 
case the necessity turns out upon in- 
vestigation to be so real, and the pres- 
sure of the combination of circum- 
stances so powerful, that we are, in a 
manner, forced to do violence to our 
own judgment, in order to avert the 
imminent ruin of those who are in our 
employ, and in whom we feel, perhaps, 
some interest. But it is a long time be- 
fore it occurs to us to look into the 
matter more deeply than sufficiently to 
ascertain what everybody knew before, 
that Chinese New Year is preceded by 
a universal season of debt- paying from 
which no one is exempt. If we insist 
upon following up any particular case 
with a rigid examination into its re- 
moter causes, we soon learn from the 
principal party such facts as appear to 
justify his assertion of an emergency, 
and also that there is nothing peculiar 
in his case, but that other people are in 
the same predicament. If these in- 
quiries are carried far enough, they will 
bring to light the seven deadly sins of 
Chinese social financiering. 

I. Everybody always needs to borrow. — 
That the business of the world, even in 
western lands, depends upon the borrow- 
ing of money, and that credit is the 
largest factor in trade, are positions 
which we do not for a moment forget. 
But Chinese borrowing is of a different 
type from that with which the great 
expansion of modem commerce has 
made us familiar. We do not affirm 
that there are not Chinese who do not 
need the money of other people for the 
conduct of their affairs, but only that 
these people are so rare that they may 
as well be disregarded. We never saw 
any. We have, indeed, never heard of 
so much as one. The whole scale of 
Chinese living and the whole system of 
economics are of such a sort, tluit, as a 
rule, there is but one narrow margin of 
financial reserve. With all their prac- 
ticality and skill in affairs, it is a con- 
stant source of wonder that so few 
Chinese ever have anything to fall back 



upon. One reason for this is the fact 
that it is very difficult for them to 
accumulate a reserve, and another 
equal ly potent is the fact that there is 
nothing which can safely be done with 
it pending its Mse. There are no savings 
banks, and there are no investments 
which are safe. The only thing which 
can be done with ready money, is to 
lend it to those who need it, which is 
generally done with some reluctance, as 
the lender justly fears lest he should 
never again see either interest or princi- 
pal. Whoever has a wedding in his 
family, is liable to have to borrow 
money to carry it through, and if it be 
a funeral the necessity will be still more 
urgent. He needs money to start in 
business, and he needs more to settle up 
at the end of the year, when, if their 
own accounts are to be trusted, nine 
Chinese out of ten who engage in "busi- 
ness" in a small way, find that they 
have lost money, though this often 
signifies that they have not realized so 
much as they had hoped. In short, it 
is hard to find a Chinese to whom the 
loan of a sum of money at any time 
would not be as welcome as '* water to 
a fish in a dry rut.*' It is this all-pre- 
vailing need which smoothes the sur- 
face of the spot where the pit is to be 
dug. 

II. Everybody is obliged to lend money. 
— We have just remarkt that the man 
who happens to have a little surplus 
cash does not like to lend it, lest he 
should never see it again. But there 
are various kinds and degrees of pres- 
sure which can be brought to bear upon 
the capitalist. One of these is connected 
with the solidarity of the Chinese 
family, or clan. If one of the members 
has money which he might lend and 
another is desperately in need of it, the' 
latter will get a member of the genera- 
tion higher than that to which the capi- 
talist belongs, to intercede for him. 
This may be done unwillingly, but it 
will probably be done. To a sufficient 
amount of pressure of this ancestral de 
scription, the capitalist will find it best 
to yield, though not improbably against 



1898.] 



INTERKATIONAIi DEFABTMEKT. 



51 



his financial judgment. But every 
Chinese is from infancy accustomed to 
the idea that it is seldom easy to have 
one's own way in all things, and that 
when one can not do as he would, he 
must do as he must. If the borrower 
does not belong to the same family or 
clan as the lender, the difficulty will be 
greater, but it may, perhaps, be over- 
come by the same description of pres- 
sure, by means of friends. A would- 
be borrower is often obliged to make a 
great many k'o t*ous before he can se- 
cure the favor of a loan (at an extor- 
tionately high rate of interest), but he 
is much aided in his efforts by the 
Chinese notion that when a certain 
amount of pressure has been brought 
to bear, a request muti be granted, just 
as one of a pair of scales must go down 
if you put on enough weights. Thus it 
comes a^out that in all ranks of Chioese, 
the man who has, is the man who must 
be content to share his wealth (for a 
handsome remuneration). 

ni. From the foregoing propositions, 
it follows with inevitable certainty 
that Everybody owes some one else. 
There is never any occasion to ask a 
Chinese whether he owes money. The 
proper formula is, ** How much do you 
owe, and to whom, and what is the rate 
of interest ? " 

rV. No Chinese ever pays cash down, 
unless 7ie is obliged to do so. — To us this 
may appear a most eccentric habit, but 
it seems to be almost a law. Tlic 
Chinese has learned by ages of experi- 
ence, that he no sooner pays away 
money to satisfy one debt, than he needs 
that same money to liquidate tlirec other 
debts. In their own figuratively ex- 
pressive phrase, a single cup of water 
is wanted in three or four places at ouce 
and the supply is always as inadequate 
as the classical "cup of water to put 
out the fire' in a cart-load of fuel." 
Knowing this vriih a keenness of appre- 
hension which it is difficult for us to 
appreciate, the Chinese holds on fast to 
his cash till it is wrung from him by a 
force which overcomes his own tenacity 
of grip. 



V. No Chinese ever pays a debt till 7ie is 
dunned. — To us this also seems a strange 
practice. Most of us have grown up 
with a flxt idea that Jis a debt must be 
paid, *' if it were done when 'tis done, 
then 'twere well it were done quickly." 
The mind of a Chinese operates in quite 
a different way. Ilis view is, if it must 
be done, it were best done when it is 
done as deliberately as the case admits. 

VI. It seems also to be the rule, that 
No. Chinese will ptty his debts till he has 
been dunned a great number of titties. 
Here again he is at the opposite pole 
from that which we occupy. We do 
not like to be dunned, and would rather 
make considerable sacrifices than to 
have needy i>ersons dogging us for the 
collection of debts which we honestly 
owe, which we must ultimately pay, 
and not to arrange for the payment of 
which at once is more or less of a dis- 
grace. By ** we " we mean, of course, 
the average foreigner, for it is not to be 
denied that Western lands have their 
full proportion of impecunious and 
shameless rascals who " live off the in- 
terest of their debts," and who swindle 
all those whom they can. But the 
Chinese, of whom we are speaking, do 
not belong to this class. The mass of 
the Chinese people we believe to be 
honest, and they fully intend to pay all 
that they owe, but they do not intend 
to pay until they are ready to do so, 
and neither gods nor men can tell when 
that will be. It is a current saying, that 
when a person has many debts he is no 
longer concerned about them, just as 
when one has many parasites he ceases 
to scratch. 

^ VII. In a large proportion of cases, the 
Chinese who pays a deht, pays but a part 
of it at a time. The rest he will try to 
get together in the "third month," the 
"ninth month," or "at the end of the 
year." The practical outcome of these 
last three peculiarities is, that the 
twelfth moon of every Chinese year is 
a time of maximum activity all over the 
empire. One would suppose that a 
vast amount of work was being accom- 
plisht, but the facts are otherwise. 



52 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[January 



One is remindod of the witch in "Alice 
Behind the Looking-glass," where the 
child was hurried along on a broomstick 
at such a rate as to take her breath 
away. She thought she must be travel- 
ing illimitable space, but when this idea 
was communicated to the witch, the 
latter only laughed, and replied that 
this was nothing at all, for they had to 
go like that to " keep up with things," 
and if they were really to get ahead to 
any extent, the rate of travel must be 
enormously faster than that. The 
racing around of the Chinese in their 
la-yueh, or final moon, is just to "keep 
up with things." Every shop, no mat- 
ter how trifling the sum total of its busi- 
ness, has its army of runners out, each 
"demanding debts," or rather endea- 
voring to do so; for to achieve it is no 
such easy matter. The debtor is him- 
self a creditor, and he also will be 
occupied in the effort to call in the sums 
which are owing to him. Each separate 
individual is engaged in the occupation 
of trying to run down the men who owe 
money to him, and compel them to pay 
up, and at the same time in trying to 
avoid the persons who are struggling to 
track him down and cork-screw from 
him the amount of his indebtedness to 
them The dodges and subterfuges to 
which each is obliged to resort, increase 
in complexity and number with the 
advance of the season, until at the close 
of the month the national activity is at 
fever heat. For if a debt is not secured 
then, it will go over till a new year, and 
no one knows what will be the status of 
a claim which has actually contrived 
to cheat the annual Day of Judgment. 
In spite of the excellent Chinese habit 
of making the close of a year a grand 
clearing house for all debts, Chinese 
human nature is too much for Chinese 
custom, and there are many of these 
postponed debts which are a grief of 
mind to many a Chinese creditor. 

We have but to imagine the applica- 
tion of the principles which we have 
named to the whole Chinese Empire, 
and we get new light upon the nature 
of Chinese New Year festivities. They 



are a time of rejoicing, but there is no 
rejoicing so keen as that of a ruined 
debtor, who has succeeded by shrewd 
devices in avoiding the most relentless 
of his creditors and has thus postponed 
his ruin for at least another twelve 
months. For, once past the narrow 
strait at the end of the year, the debtor 
finds himself again in broad and peace- 
ful waters, where he can not be mo- 
lested. Even should his creditors meet 
him on New Year's Day, there could be 
no possibility of mentioning the fact of 
the previous day's disgraceful flight and 
concealment, or, indeed, of alluding to 
business at all, for this would not be 
"good form," and to the Chinese 
"good form," (otherwise known as 
custom), is the chief national divinity. 



The National Befoim League jjfOhiiias 
A Qirls^ SohooL 

Hiss (Gertrude Howe, of Eiukiang. 
China, sends us a translation of a pro- 
spectus of a proposed school or college 
for Chinese girls, which is in contem- 
plation to be establisht at Shanghai. 
Whether it shall be establisht or not, 
the very proposition is significant of a 
new movement in Chinese thought. 
We give the text in full, in what Miss 
Howe calls a " rough translation," as, 
so far as we are aware, this is the first 
time attention has been called to the 
subject in any way, outside of China. 
The paper was brought to Miss Howe 
by " His Excellency Wen," and Miss 
Howe remarks: " It shows evidence that 
the project is essentially Chinese and 
that the leaders have not sought any 
foreign help in formulating it, but are 
themselves toucht by a spirit of ^re- 
form. Let us hope and pray that they 
may give themselves to this spirit's 
guidance until they recognize it to be 
no other than Gods Holy Spirit." 

In a note Miss Howe says : " Yester- 
day two infiuential Chinese gentlemen, 
members of the National Reform 
League, sought out our Chinese girt 
doctors with the exprest desire of 
placing their young daughters in our 



1898.1 



INTERKATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



53 



home, to hare them brought up with 
unboaod feet and given a thorough edu- 
cation. No objection was offered to the 
giria becoining Christians. Our Chinese 
hidy doctor. Dr. Kahn, recommended 
the M. £. Church (South) school for 
the daughters of official and " high 
dass*' (so called) families opened in 
Shanghai. The gentlemen objected. to 
haying their daughters educated by for- 
eigners ! There seems to be a wide- 
spread suggestion of opening a high- 
grade school in Shanghai of which our 
Chinese lady doctors are to be invited 
to take charge. These gentlemen men- 
tioned and seemed to be anticipating it. 
They deprecated the doctors' hesitating 
to fall in line, saying: "If one has one 
objection and another another to taking 
hold, what will become of our poor 
coux^ry ? " The greatest wisdom is 
requisite at this point to keep in touch 
with this eminent progressive element 
and put it in touch with the one invin- 
cible " power that makes for reform." 
This great National Reform League 
seems to appeal to the best there is in 
the people, but it needs to be led to 
Christ. I regret, for some reasons, to 
see the distrust of foreigners, especially 
of foreign missionaries. The intelli- 
gent Chinese can easily discover that we 
have no political axe to grind, nor com- 
mercial greed to satiate. Perhaps, it is 
not so much distrust as that we have 
failed to win them. Very probably we 
have failed to divest ourselves suffi- 
ciently of the oft- vaunted spirit of "An- 
glo-Saxonism." 

PBOYISIONAL PROSPECTUS FOR A GIRLS' 

SCHOOL. 

1. In opening schools for girls we 
are reverting to the illustrious custom 
of the three dynasties. In order to open 
up the intelligence of the people we 
must, certainly, make the women free 
and afterward customs can be changed. 
That the reality may correspond to the 
name, all funds and plans for this 
school are to be under the control (super- 
vision) of women and the teachers are 
to be women. 

The above is the fundamental idea in 
the establishment of the school. 

2. Temporarily four teachers will be 



employed, two for Chinese and two for 
English, all of whom are to be Chinese 
ladies. In general each teacher will 
have twenty pupils. This refers to the 
beginnins; of the literary department. 
As funds and pupils Increase more 
teachers will be added. 

8. There shall be one foreign and one 
Chinese Superintendent, who will live 
at the school, and have general over- 
sight of pupils and employes. They 
shall receive salaries. 

4. Eight Directors shall be chosen 
from the number of contributors who 
shall visit the school by turns, inspect 
the studies and assist those in charge. 
They shall receive no salaries. 

5. Twelve men shall be chosen from 
the families of contributors to solicit and 
collect funds, appoint teachers and prin- 
cipals, decide on course of study and 
manage finances. They shall receive 
no salaries. 

6. There shall be two Treasurers 
chosen by the twelve male directors, 
who shall be honest and economical 
men and good accountants to have 
charge of receipts and disbursements. 
They shall receive salaries. 

The above five rules appertain to lh6 
management. 

7. The school will open with forty 
pupils, and the members shall be in- 
creast as funds increase. 

8. Pupils may enter between the ages 
of eight and fifteen. 

9. Pupils between the ages of eight 
and eleven must be able to read a cer- 
tain amount on entrance. Those be- 
tween twelve and fifteen must know 
something of composition and be able to 
read letters. Teachers shall decide 
upon the eligibility of candidates for 
admission. 

10. Foot -binding is a very vile custom 
of the Chinese. Persons of culture 
should not continue it. Since this is 
only a beginning of the school and the 
customs are not yet establish t, for the 
present pupils shall be admitted with- 
out regard to whether their feet are 
bound or not, but after a few years 
there will be a limit and no one with 
small feet will be admitted. 

11. It is the intention of this school 
to make no distinctions of rank, but 
since in the future pupils from this 
school will be leaders and teachers in 
other schools, only daughters of reput- 
able families will be admitted. 

The above are the five rules for the 
admission of pupils. 

12. The course of study will be half 
English and half Chinese. First read- 



34 



\Tl*j^^l. 



[Janiuury 



ar:«i .a:«Mr i.. •t.^nicn' try "nu:*- a*-* I 
a:'.«l ':4"-* i?\iv.ii • • i> ^.o■ \.ii« i *^ "* ^ • i 

iiK'uc. I tit* ttac!'.tr^ 't '* xu. x *.>t ^.x*^ 
l.V The Irvi:'>xrvi! lV:ar*!'vr: <^:a:! 

lieM l»v ilu- U'a».Ii« rs^ wii ^ ^h-i** c'.-t '!.•? 
marking l^uaRt r!y e\H:' r ci: i:>^^:l'I 
Ih» iH^utliuU^l l»y sivv!.4i>:s >»ho wi.I 
givo I ho inark< aiul A^xarvl i^-.'t-s. 

Tho aKn-e arv ihe r^e rults f«T 
stutiios. 

17. AH thoso in iVitr\>l. f-^mi U'ttv iu rs 
ami siiiHTiuton»U'iu> lo >**rvai;:>. shnll 
bo wimion. Uicui tli^':pI:no sbaVi l»e 
ciifontil. No null >h;iii It* ciiiow^'^i u> 
t*nU»r UuMUH>rs, Ifihf male dirtx*U'n> 
liavt* anythiuir about whuii to iS>rMi'.t. 
Ihey sliall iiurt ia au ouut buiUliiijr. 

18. LittU* ohiMnMi, wb«>st^ bomos are 
noar, may at torn! tlu* soIuh>1 w it bout 
livinjr in' it, but must Ih» rt»gular in 
atlomlaiico. Whon the homes an* ilis- 
tant, clnKlrt»n may Hvo at ibe si^h^W. 
It is dtt'bhHl to buiUl ton nx^m.s for their 
accommiHbitiou. 

19. Yvvs slmlllH? trraihiatoii similar to 
those pni(i by foroiirners (or eijH^nses 
will be about' tho same a^ in wt'siorn 
schools). The rich shall paj* liborally to 
help the school, but if the family is in 
moderate circumstances, the fees shall 
be less. In case of extreme iwverty tlie 
fee may be entirely remit tetl. A pin^r 
student who has ability and application 
may not only have fees remitted, but 
may be provided with board, clothing, 
books, etc. 

20. Clean, honest women servants 
shall be employed to attend to all the 
wants of the pupils. Pupils may be 
allowed to brin^ servants from home, 
but Huch Hervants shall be subject to the 
authoritieH of the kcIkkiI. 

21. Whoever completes one of the 
three eotirsi'M of study in the Kinder- 
KHften or Industrial course, shall re- 



•r*-'"- a 1:7 '''ca wLfi h empowers tbem 
:. '' : "ir ;^. tse j»r» •?«-»&: vns for which 

22. Glr's laken fr».m Foundling Asy- 
'i!rL:» 0:1:1 clC h«»- zivtrn in maniage as 
ci c» ': vz»-<- nich n:«Tv ghill the pupils 
■ ' :Ii> «i.L 4 1 c««C Iw- inven as concn- 
^ •" -r^. '. i: *L ill V m«.re highly esteemed 
in :^e w r'A %L.»i iitvt^l by their parents, 
arL'i ". c '"'T h^inz civt-n as coocubines 
•.att::'*^ -L^t yiri'^y xn*\ ilUgracelbe high 

il. AT! <"i'rf;n!rie* prohih't the slave- 
trt« V. <'I.!T a >L' ''.Id sradoally do away 
wli 'L*t >j<»-m of -la very. Any pupils 
wli«- '.ATt b^trn in ihe sch«K)l, however 
r« ••r izirrj may l>t*. may never be sold as 
-i avH«;. Acy one violating this rule 
3-j-* ! prty a tse of five hundred dollars. 

TLv th ve are the three rules for 
tli«iije wh*j irntuuate from the schooL 

:i4 Each 01 •airfTMitor will please hand 
fn *ak- t*:'':. :.i'. rank and res^idence of her 
h ■-:"*' and «»r s4»o, and her own official 
ra: k wi:ii her subscription for the 
pfvt rd. 

:?-x )[ake the cimtributions payable 
!»y 'iio m«»nth or year according to the 
c'-;<« tn of w-t-<torn countries. In order 
tl.a*. ':.e fu:id< of the school may not 
ran >hort. ot»utribuiions should be regu- 
lar. Our great hope is that the ladies 
wijhin the four seas will observe the 
auuual and monthly contributions. 

^. AU subscriptions, whether from 
n stives or foreigners, small or great, 
frv>m one dollar upward, will be alike 
rvvtivtd. We would not hinder cheer- 
ful giving. 

27. In the l»e!rinning, while funds are 
limiioil. it ha-i l>een decided to open a 
si*iiool in Shanghai, but it is hoped that 
afierwani the work may be pusht for- 
ward into every province, and prefec- 
ture and township. 

*28. The teachers of western branches 
first to be appointed, are the learned 
women from the Kiang Si province, 
Ida Kahn, and from tlie Hupeh pro- 
vince, Mary St owe. The teachers of 
Chinese are* yet to be sought out by the 
superintendents . 

29. The men and women directors 
shall be elected by ballot by those who 
are instituting the enterprise. Since 
those interested are widely scattered, 
those instituting the work will so for- 
ward and act temporarily until such 
times as directors can be elected. 

30. For the present all contributions 
may be sent to the office of the Chinege 
Progre^Hg. Each issue will contain names 
of contributors with amounts contri- 
buted, also all disbursements. Every- 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



55 



thing being made public will insure 
confidence in the enterprise. 

31. This is an experimental schedule 
giving the general scope of the enter- 
prise. After the school opens, the 
teachers, superintendents and directors 
will formulate the details. 



Horace M. Lane, M.D., President of 
the Protestant College at S. Paulo. 
Brazil, in a note at hand says: 

•* A contributor, in a recent number 
of the Review stated it to be his belief 
that with 100 men all Brazil could be 
evaDgelized in four years. ' With 
God all things are possible,' but with 
poor, weak, erring man there are cer- 
tain limitations, even in the work of 
evangelization. 

" In a very restricted sense the evan- 
gelization of Brazil might only mean 
the preaching of the Gospel to the one 
million Indians to be found in the 
forests and on the plains of that vast 
country, who have never heard of it, or 
to the soK^lled tame Indians living 
along the great water courses, who are 
equally ignorant of Christian truth, 
though aittchued in some of its forms. 
These scattered peoples, speaking a be- 
wildering variety of dialects, derived 
from the eight principal Indian lan- 
guages, would have to be taught Portu- 
guese, or the missionary would have to 
ac'^uire a knowledge of Indian tongues, 
before they could be told tht? story. 
The von den Bteinen brothers spent the 
best jMirt of two years, with a well 
equipt expedition, in acquiriij^ an 
imperfect knowledge of a compamtively 
small region of the Xihqii, embracing a 
few small tribes, hitherto unknown. 
In the populous states along the sea- 
bfiard there are still vast areas of unex- 
plored country, while the great central 
platc-au is practically terra inc<>gnita. 

" In a wider sense the evangelization 
of Brazil would mean not only the 
preaching of the Gospel to the Indians, 
but also to 16 to 17 millions of civilized 
and nominally Christian Brazilians, 
Italians and other foreigners, including 
about a million of freedmen. When 
we consider that no less than four or- 
ganized evangelical missions have been 
working in Brazil for many years (the 
Presbyterian mission was establisht in 
1859), and that only a comparatively 
small portion of the nation huH been 
toucht, we may have some idea of how 
difficult and complex the problems are 
which confront the Protestant mission- 
ary. The idea is rapidly gaining 
ground that these high strung Latins 
can only be reacht permanently and 



effectually through the school-house 
door. 

" A long row of graves in the little 
Protestant cemetery, at S. Paulo, testi- 
fies eloquently to the faithfulness of the 
men and women who have given their 
!ives to this work during the last 80 
years. With a knowledge of Brazil 
and Brazilians growing out of forty 
years' experience with them, 1 would 
not attempt to discuss this plan of 
reaching eighteen millions of people in 
four years. God bless every effort 
everywhere and by every process to 
spread the light of the Gospel through- 
out the world ! — nor would I sav a word 
to dampen the ardor of those who advo- 
cate it; but I can not help feeling that 
the gentleman who made the statement 
had not carefully studied the conditions 
under which the work must be done." 

[The editors of the Review also took 

exception to the feasibility of the plan 

proposed by IMr. Olsson, as was stated 

in their editorial note following his 

article. — Ed.] 



Babism in Fersiai 

Some fifty years ago a new prophet } 
arose in Pereia claiming to be the only 
true representative of God. Manv 
Mohammedans were dissatisfied with 
their own religion, and gathered round 
this prophet, who has to-day 800,000 
followers, notwithstanding government 
persecutions and imprisonment. The 
chief difference between the orthodox 
Mohammedans and the new sect is 
that, while the former say the Bible is 
not reliable, the latter admit the New 
Testament to be the Word of God. 
Most of them believe that Jesus Christ 
has come again in the person^of their 
prophet. 

There is much in the new teaching 
that is sad, but it has opened the door 
to the Gospel as nothing else has done. 
Bible circulation is almost doubled 
every year. It is computed that in 
many towns and villages half the popu- 
lation are Babis. This is a clear indi- 
cation that the people of Persia are 
already, in large measure, wearied with 
Islam, and anxious for a higher, holier, 
and more spiritual faith. Almost all 
through the country the Babis are 
quite friendly to Christians. The rise 
of this faith is in a large measure due 
to the spread of the Gospel, the best of 
their doctrines are borrowed from it, 
while they openly reverence our Scrip- 
tures and profess to be ready to reject 
any opinion they may hold when once 
proved to be contrary to the Bible. 



56 



FISLD OF MONTHLY StTBVET. 



[January 



III. -FIELD OF MONTHLY SURVEY. 

The Outiook,* 8tati8tio8,t Iiiteratiiie.t 

BT DBLAYAH L. PIBRSON. 



Monthly Topios for 1898. 

Jajtuabt. 

The Outlook. 

Statistics. 

The Church and Missions. 

Missionary Literature. 

Fbbbuart. 

The Chinese Empire. 
Tibet and Formoea. 
Confucianism and Taoism. 
The Opium Traffic. 

Mabch. 

Mexico. 

Central America. 
The West Indies. 
City Missions. 
Foreigners in America. 

Apbil. 

India. 

Burma and Ceylon. 

Hinduism. 

Woman's Work for Woman. 

Native Agents. 

Mat. 

Siam and Laos. 

Shan States. 

Malaysia. 

Unoccupied Fields. 

Buddhism. 

Work Among Lepers. 

Juhb. 

Africa. 

Madagascar. 

Freedmen in America. 

Fetichism. 

The Slave Trade. 

Missionaries. 

July. 

The Islands of the Sea. 

Arctic Missions. 

Nortii American Indians. 

The Liquor Traffic. 

Work Among Fishermen and Sailors. 

August. 

Papal Europe. 

Romanism. 

Bible and Tract Work. 

Reflex Influence of Missions. 



Sbftehbbb. 
Japan. 
Korea. 
Shintoism. 
Medical Missions. 
Self-Support of Mission Churches. 

OCTOBEB. 

Greek Europe. 
Mohammedan Lands. 
The Greek Church. 
Mohammedanism. 

NOYEHBEB. 

South America. 

Frontier Missions in America. 

Mormonism. 

Toung People's Work. 

Decembbb. 

Syria and Palestine. 
The Jews. 
Educational Work. 
Industrial Missions. 



* See p. 9> 45 (present issue). 

t See p. 41, 70 (present issue). An article 
by Dean Vahl on the subject comes too late 
for use in this issue. 

X See p. 88 (present issue). 



"A Word to the Wisa" 

Every year the editors are flooded 
with manuscripts entirely unadapted to 
their use, while many others could he 
vastly improved by a.little thought and 
care. Many are indeed "opened with 
expectation and closed with profit/' 
but not in the sense which Alcott in- 
tended. Perhaps a word to prospective 
contributors to the pages of this Re- 
view may not be out of place. 

The subjects are, for the most part, 
suggested by the list of topics for the 
present year, but within Uiis range 
there is a vast opportunity for variety 
of treatment. The specific topic must, 
of course, be determined upon by the 
peculiarities of the field and the definite 
object in view, but what readers of 
missionary periodicals usually desire to 
know is the peculiarities oif countries 
and people with which they are unfami- 
liar, the methods of awakening interest 
and bringing to the light those who are 
in the darkness of sin, the trials and 
triumphs of missionary life, the con- 
trasts between Christifui converts and 
heathen, the special needs and oppor- 



1898.] 



FIELD OF MONTHLY SUBVBY. 



57 



tunlties of the field, as we]I as any dis- 
ciusion of missionary policies or meth- 
ods of work which may be attracting 
present interest. An excellent list of 
suggestive topics, possessing the possi- 
bility of almost endless variety of ap- 
plication in connection with the various 
mission lands, is that of the Presbyte- 
rian Board of Foreign Missions for 
1898.* Under the general subjects: The 
Bible and Foreign Missions, The Un- 
believing World, Evangelistic Work, 
Missionary Administration, Native 
Church, Missionaries, The Printing 
Press, Reflex Advantages of Missions, 
Civilizing Influence of Missions, Re- 
lation of the Home Church to Missions, 
etc, a great variety of sub-topics are 
suggested which present a fruitful field 
for study and discussion. 

But the selection of a subject is less 
difficult than the manner of its treat- 
ment. The style of an article \s of vast 
importance in securing a hearing and 
in producing an impression. Adefinite 
purpose is a prime requisite to the clear 
and forcible presentation of a subject. 
Accuracy, interest, and brevity are, of 
course, important. There is no neces- 
sity that articles on missionary subjects 
should be either dry and tiresome on the 
one hand, or frivolous and puerile on the 
other. Incidents should be used as 
much as possible to illustrate points 
and to add specific interest ; statistics 
should be tabulated and condenst as 
much as possible, as they are thus more 
usefnl, and, while none the less weighty, 
are much less heavy. 

Photographs are desired to accompany 
and illustrate articles as much as pos- 
sible, and add much to the interest and 
instructiveness of description and nar- 
ratives. Views of people and places 
are always acceptable, especially those 
showing characteristic customs of na- 
tives, the results of Christian missions, 
and the machinery and methods of 
missionary work. 

Articles intended for special numbers 
of the Rbview should be in hand at 

*8ee Church at Home and Abroad for 
December, 1807. 



least two months previous to the date 
of issue, and if their value is in any 
way dependent upon immediate inser- 
tion, it should be so indicated. 

In sending manuscripts, kindly in- 
close stamps for return, and give full 
name, address, and the name of the 
society, church, or mission field with 
which the writer is connected. 

The editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for opinions exprest, but 
will do all in their power to insure the 
reliability of statements made and the 
worthiness of objects indorst. 



MisBionaiy DonationB. 

The editors of this Review are always 

glad to receive and transmit to their 

destination free of charge any sums 
which may be forwarded to them for 
any cause presented in these pages. It 
is their endeavor to give place to no 
appeals for objects which are not in 
every respect worthy of the confidence 
and m'pport of the readers of this Re- 
view, it is impossible to give space to 
every such appeal, but we rejoice at 
the evidences of Christian love, which 
come in response to physical and spirit- 
ual needs of those who have a claim 
upon our sympathy and assistance. 

AH donors will hereafter receive 
numbered receipts for all sums sent to 
us for benevolent purposes. Such dona- 
tions should be sent to the Managing 
Editor, D. L. Pierson, 044 Marcy Ave- 
nue, Brooklyn, New York. 

In addition to sums already acknowl- 
edged we have received and forwarded 
the following: 

No. 100— For Rev. J. C. Denning, India, $6. 

No. 101— For Pandita Ramabai's widows, 
India, 985.00. 



According to Rev. Dr. Daniel Dor- 
chester, the growth of the Roman 
Catholic population in the United States 
1870-94, was from 4,600,000 to 8.806,- 
000, while the increase of the commu- 
nicants of Protestant churches was from 
6.673,400 to 15,218,000. During the 
same period the population connected 
with these churches has increast from 
29,029,000 to 45,654,000. The growth 
of Protestantism as indicated is greater 
than appears on the surface, and is in 
advance of that of the Roman Catholic 
denomination, for while the latter in- 
cludes all the children of Catholics, the 
former includes only the actual com- 
municants. 



58 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



[January 



v.— EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



In the January issue of 1897, page 2, 
the editor stated his calm judgment 
that, because ** the givijig of the peo- 
ple of God is so utterly inatlequate and 
disgracefully disproportionate, missions 
to the heathen have at no time during 
the last half century been at greater 
peril of utter collapse." 

One phrase from this sentence, taken 
apait from its connection, has been 
quoted with severe criticism, and, as 
we think, most unfairly. "We did not 
say that the danger of collapse came 
from any source but the inadequate 
giving of the Church and the conse- 
quent emergency of debt and retrench- 
ment. 

For example, one religious journal 
thus refers to it: 

"If that high and excellent au- 
thority on foreign missions, who not 
long ago, in a public meeting, gave 
utterance to his belief that the cause of 
missions was on the verge of collapse 
and failure," etc. If the quotation 
had been fully given it would have 
been seen that the deficiency of funds 
was the point of warning, and, at this 
very time, the American Board and 
most other societies are sounding the 
same note of warning, as is evident 
from the following extracts from a 
model appeal from the Presbyterian 
Board of Foreign Missions. 

Four Present-day Facts. 

Real and effective interest in foreign 
missions can only exist as the facts 
pertaining to them are well known. 
The board of foreign missions calls 
attention to four sucii facts now con- 
fronting our Presbyterian Church. 

First Fact. — The trend of divine 
providences to-day unmistakably calls 
for a forward movement in foreign 
missions on the part of the Church. 
iSigns abound in many lands . . . 
which summon to immediate duty and 
conquest for Christ. Grand opportuni- 
ties for missionary effort fire the zeal of 
our brethren and sisters in foreign 
lands. Korea flings its doors wide open 
to the march of the conquering hosts of 
Christendom. In the Laos country ex- 
plorations disclose that as yet we have 



possest but a comer of the land, which 
far away to the north and east invites 
the standard bearer of the Cross. In 
Africa there is actually no limit to the 
possible establishment of new stations 
by the heroic men and women whom 
our Church may push to the front. 
China is softening in its prejudices, 
and growing more accessible every day 
to the messengers of salvation. Reports 
from Persia are fragrant with the 
record of precious revivals of unprece- 
dented power and fruitfulness. The 
very attitude of defiance of enemies of 
the Cross at some points in the world is 
no less a &ign meant of God to stimulate 
the zeal of the Church. And sliall we 
not recognize yet another divine sign in 
the manifest yearning on the part of 
the great body of missionaries for a 
more thoroughly spirit-filled life f It 
breathes out m many of their letters. It 
gathers volume in manv special meet- 
ings held to seek this blessing. It is 
revealed in increasingly intense work 
for soul rescue in many lands. 

Second Fact. — The all-pervading 
interest in the cause of foreign missions 
which ruled at the sessions of the last 
general assembly at Winona, is an in- 
spiring summons to the whole Church. 
It was as a solemn response to the 
unmistakable call of God's providence 
for a forward movement. . . . The 
enthusiasm of the assembly in this 
cause should be accepted as setting the 
pace for the Church in enthusiasm and 
devotion in the months before us. 

" He that hath an ear, let him hear 
what the Spirit saith unto the Churches." 

Third Fact. — Notwithstanding 
these signs of the divine intention that 
the Church go forward, the startling 
fact confronts us that the foreign mis- 
sionary work of our Presbyterian 
Church is to-day crippled beyond pre- 
cedent. The financial straits of the 
board have compelled it to order severe 
retrenchment on all its mission fields. 
This reduction in their appropriations 
has struck our missions like a cyclone. 
The niLssiouaries from one station, 
writing of the cable announcing for 
them a reduction of |6,000, say, ** We 
were simply stunned." To meet this 
cut, college and girls' seminary, hospital 
and press, and village schof)ls must ap- 
parently be side-trackt for a whole 
year. Large contributions from the 
missionaries' salaries were the only re- 
sources in sight to keep some depart- 
ments from absolute stagnation. From 
another mission a brother writes: •* The 



1898.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



59 



gituation is, in some respects, simply 
heart breakiog. My wife and I have 
decided to give 1200 of our salary to 
help out the cut in our field." Every 
mail from abroad is multiplying such 
distressing statements. Furthermore, 
the board has called a halt in the send- 
ing out of new missionaries. 

ForrRTH Fact. — After this unparal- 
leled retrenchment has been made the 
board still needs for the curr^t ex- 
penses of the year on which it hus 
entered $830,000. This amount it has 
virtually pledged for the support of 
its 708 missionaries actually on the field, 
for its 2,000 native workers who can 
not be summarily discharged, for its 
vast itinerating work, and for other 
vital departments abroad and at home. 
Besides this amount necessary for cur- 
rent expenses, there was a debt at the 
outset of the year of $97,454.47 to be 
provided for. In short, the board must 
receive during tlie present fiscal year 
$118,525.95 above what it received last 
year in order to satisfy its full fiscal 
obligations and unforeseen demands. 
This certainly is a large undertaking, 
but not an impossible one for such a 
Church as ours. 

Here. are the facts. What will the 
Church do with them? Who can 
ignore the claim they establish upon 
every church member's personal atten- 
tion? •* My Missionary Work," *' My 
Board." "My Share in its Outlay." 
'* My Portion in the Blessed Reward.*' 
Which link in this chain of holy obli- 
gation would you wish to renounce? 
Will you not take the cause home to 
your heart with new affection, to be 
manifest in more ardent prayers and 
larger gifts in its behalf? 

•*The people rejoiced for that they 
offered willingly." 



The question is often askt of the edi- 
tor how, and when, he was led to sug- 
gest the motto, since adopted by the 
Student Volunteer force both in Ameri- 
ca and Europe, and now by the Church 
MLssionar}' Society in the forward 
movement, viz.: "The Evangelization 
of the World in this Generation." 

The motto, so far it can now be 
traced, was first suggested in an address, 
Feb. 27, 1891, before the Student Vol- 
unteer Convention in Cleveland, O. 
It was in May of the same year put into 
a printed form in the leading article in 
The Mission art Review, where it 



may be found, vol. iv., new series, p. 
320, 825. 

The editor of the C. M, Intelligencer 
makes a reference to the fact that this 
motto, " The Evangelization of the 
World in this Generation,'* has lately 
been animadverted upon in terms of 
severity by I>r. }Vameck (a recognized au- 
thority on missions), in an article on 

• 'The Modem Theory of the Evangeliza- 
tion of the World." He says in reply : 

"Regarded as a vindication of the 
old and tried methods of missionary 
work, the article in question has un- 
doubted value. But while individual 
advocates of the motto have laid them- 
selves open to Dr. Warneck's criticisms, 
the Volunteer Union itself has dis- 
tinctly disavowed either that the watch- 
word is a prediction, or that * evangeli- 
zation* means on their lips a mere 
hurried proclamation of the Gospel. On 
the contrary, in a memorial to the 

* Church of Christ in Great Britain,' 
which the Union issued this late spring, 
it defines * evangelization' as meaning 
*tLit the Oospel should be preacht 
intelligibly and intelligently to every 
soul in such a manner that the re- 
sponsibility far its acceptance shall no 
longer rest upon the Christian Church, 
but upon each man for himse^.* " 
To this Dr. Warneck says in effect, 
" Then this evangelization is not possi- 
ble in this generation ; " and the S. V. 
M. U. is in agreement with him on 
this point, with an important qualifica- 
tion. It says, " With heathenism so 
vast and so strongly intrencht the 
' Evangelization of the World in this 
Generation ' is an impossibility, unless 
t/is Church ceases to be so engrost with 
tilings of time." And herein the true 
aim of the Union and the great service 
which in God's Hand it has been 
privileged to render to the Church and 
the world is brought into view. Its 
object is to emphasize not a theory but a 
duty. There is no part of Dr. War- 
neck's paper which we regret so much 
as when towards the close he deprecates 
appeals for large accessions to the bands 
of missionary evangelists because it is 
not according to Vie law of growth in 
nature, and because the Christians at 
home are not able to increase the num- 
ber of niisHionaries so suddenly, and if 
they did the money for their support 
would not correspondingly increase. 
We should have thought tliat Dr. W^ar- 
neck would have agreed with us that 
the Church of Christ, whether in Ger- 
many or England or America, has been 



ti 



[Janaary 



? "a 



rr t 



;w«" 



* 







*HJK Av\t iV ^x v/ >V VT.X'5.?r, TV- 

ji>lned the Kittjj. Ai>.i iV ^3kr N\-*:..e 
dminctlT 4 n:u^.us vm^, Kn-.*^:! 
those who senv Gxxi ai^l ih.^ mho 
^e him not. Mwan^-* ^ttd the h.>^^:> 
cbJefs and pagmn pe^n^le hnie thnstian* 
ft^>r4i.«e iiensuality. slavery. p.>h k-^^t. 
«w-., nnd no encouragement under the 
2\^ M a,ri«; The only faithful 
r^'^-^Jir. the Protestants/ Happily 
Hul T lu'"" ^^'' ^' ^"'3^ wasfrgh't 

!.«/:;; I"' '^'^ '"'*''"^° p^^j and 



1^ n&Viok in India is brightening. 
Bnof laiv been more abundant and 
k vcUnigh over for the 
TV namba- of its victims, 
nm up into the millions, 
k still great, for 5,000 
immne <^Dlic9 most be cared for or 
?3iFr-«rin die of ilarfalioii. 




TV pntjook for the coming winter in 

ns the Imdependent, is by no 

There has been no 

cx^aasxm ifiparent on the part of the 

^iVfsrmoA to histitute refonns and 

&lIb^ tiKSV hare been no serious dis- 

T:irteDK&. ;Vre has been no substantial 

jirmeflfi. TW harresl of 18M, an ez- 

cffScuBi: cne. is neariy exhausted. The 

iki fc««iiir did not bring forth much 

f*Li;. ihe cr^? is nocssebeingmore than 

z%r. aad. in maoj instances, scarcely 

7t<rxc-Ling the swd sown. The relief 

-v.-ct hs$ )««■ carried on through the 

smnsKT. csre being taken to give the 

irY*a;e!« aid lo tkoat who bad no poe- 

^':rif mens cf 8elf-sanK>it, and even 

tbta 2.-" use them so Car as practicable 

iL ihe indastrial depaitmenL In this 

^rav jkone SlOOO persons in Van district 

ik*.-aif. bare been kepC alive, who, so far 

jb- i^ar^pwrent^ must have perisht with- 

.-« j: lli^ aasistasoe. The care of orphans 

>;a$ iemc^ in many important ways. 

T^ RThvx^ for them have increast, 

«i».: ihtfrt is constant demand for new 

o; partments, e^KciaUy in the different 

;rai«s. Shoemaking, weaving and 

i*.cae Mihter fonns of iron work are 

an:or.g ibe Unes needing to be pusht. 

Ort^ efforts are being put forth to care 

f.c ih«» children, who are to be the 

ol.:^f sirenfith of the next generation. 



The twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
Jerry McAuley Rescue Mission, 216 
Water Street, New York City, was 
celebnUf^ in Carnegie Hall on Sunday, 
Xovember 21. This is the original 
rescue mission which has given the im- 
pu]f>f% to many similar efforts all over 
the j'Tjrld. The remarkable story of 
the conversion of McAuley has often 
been told. Sent to prison at nineteen for 



1898.] 



EDITORIAL DEPABTMENT. 



61 



fifteen years and six months, he profest 
his conversion under preaching in the 
prison chapel. On coming out of prison 
there Tras no one to care for him, and 
he fell to drinking. At last he was 
fully reclaimed, and four years later 
started the Water Street Mission. The 
story of the conversion of S. H. Hadley, 
who for eleven years has had charge of 
the work, is scarcely less interesting 
and striking, and is well nigh as 
familiar. At the anniversary exercises 
in Carnegie Hall, a number of eminent 
men spoke, among them Bishop C. C. 
McCabe and President Moss of the Po- 
lice Board. A large number of rescue 
workers from all parts of the country 
also came together, and made the even- 
ing exercises most interesting. We 
hope to give an illustrated account of 
this and other rescue work in our March 
issue. 



After a trial, lasting several weeks, 
the Session of the Fifth Avenue Pres- 
byterian Church, New York, of which 
Dr. John Hall is pastor, found Mr. 
Hermann Warszawiak guilty of the 
charges made against him and dismist 
him from the membership of that 
church. Mr. Warszawiak appealed the 
case to Presbytery. The Presbytery 
has recently sustained the action of the 
Session of the Church, but Mr. Warsza- 
wiak threatens to carry the case before 
the Synod. It is stated that Dr. Hall 
and others still believe in Mr. Warsza- 
wiak's innocence, which wc hope may 
be made manifest. At present a dark 
cloud rests on his name. 



At the recent Church Congress, in 
Nottingham, England, the Bishop of 
Southwell, in his presidential address, 
declared its ** speciality to be its mis- 
sionary character." At the clerical 
breakfast, 170 sat down, the Bishop of 
Sierra Leone in the chair. He gave a 
thoroughly spiritual address on the 
** first missionary breakfast " — ^John 
xxi. He said Uie key words were 
LOVE, FEED, FOLLOW, and his address, 
like all Bishop Taylor-Smith's, was full 



of memorable sayings, for example: 
**The Lord is ever looking for co- 
workers: He gets onlookers." The 
Bishop of Newcastle, the main speaker, 
made a strong pica for a revival of true 
missionary interest in the officers of 
the Church, and especially the clergy. 
He said: 

** Since the call to evangelize the 
world came to the whole Church, then, 
as the officers of the Church, the clergy 
are primarily responsible. We must 
not suppose that missionary ardor is 
universal in the Church of England. 
Those who are really on fire are a dw- 
tinctly small minority ^ even in a congre- 
gation which might have a reputation 
for missionary zeal. Whose fault is it? 
We clergy are very much to blame. 1 
do not know of a single instance of a 
clergyman really interested in foreign 
missions, praying and working for 
them, who has not met at length with 
a real response from a certain number 
of his parishioners. I have once wisht 
that all ordinary deputations might be 
suspended for a whole year, and de- 
putations be sent to the clergy alone. 
Until the clergy are afire, it is useless 
to expect the laity to be so." 



On October 12th .ult., Exeter Hall. 
London, again witnest, the outgoing 
of C. M. S. missionaries. Rev. H. E. 
Fox stated that including 12 who had 
sailed, 97 were going out duiing the 
autumn. 85 were on the platform, 
of whom 30 were returning to their 
work and the rest going out for the first 
time. Out of the 63 located during the 
year past, 52 were to be supported 
by specuU contributions of individuals or 
groups of friends, 4 were honorary or 
so in part, leaving but 6 to be supported 
by the general fund. 

Bishop Ingham, among other good 
things said, quoting one of the " Hints 
to Stewards" for the Missionary Ex- 
hibition about to be held at Guildford 
— "Be fresh to each person." When 
they got into the mission-field how 
could they be fresh to all amid the ad- 
verse influences around ? He remem- 
bered how surprised he was when he 
first saw at Sierra Leone the marvelous 
greenness of the trees, while all the 
shrubs and herbage were parcht. It 



62 



EDITORIAL DBPARTMBNT. 



[January 



was owing to the fact that they were 
deeply rooted down in the levels kept 
moist by the last rainy season. Again, 
those who escaped from the Benin mas- 
sacre had depended upon the dew-drops 
to quench their thirst in the forest. 
The inference was obvious. We needed 
not only deep roots but lieavenly detps if 
we would be fresh every day, to each per- 
son, and to every duty. 



In 1890, in July, a letter from several 
friends in Keswick was sent to the C. M. 
8. Committee, urging that an appeal be 
put forth *' for no less than a thousand 
additional workers, who will be needed 
to go out into the various fields within 
the next few years. The prayers of 
many friends of the Society were di- 
rected toward sending forth 1,000 new 
missionaries in the last decade of the 
century. To not a few it seemed little 
short of presumption at that time to ask 
for such a thing, but now is there any 
one who thinks an average of a hun- 
dred a year a visionary aspiration ? 
What has been the experience ? T^ie 
number added to i/us list beticeen May Ist, 
1890, and May ist, 1897, including 
wives and missionaries in locul connec- 
tion, u)as 666, an average of 95 for the 
seven years, the average for the first three 
years having been 83, and for the latter 
four years 104. These numbers do not 
include those sent out in July last, 
and more lately, which would add 83 to 
the total given, making a grand total 
of 749. Clearly we are encouraged to 
plead with enlarged desires and expecta- 
tions." 



Again, about the same grand society 
that leads all Christendom: 

Twenty years ago Rev. V. S. Stanton 
initiated the '* Substitute for Service 
Fund," not only the idea but the exam- 
ple, for he himself gave, during eight 
years after, the sum of £250, which was 
doubled afterward in the time remain- 
ing before his death. In June, 1893, 
the appeal was made for such offerings. 
In May, 1894, 48 were thus supported; 
in March, 1896, 146, and in November, 



1897, 323. And this is beside, and not 
instead of subscriptions to the general 
fund. We feel constrained to say that 
we believe some such plan would do 
more than any other one thing to relieve 
the present debts of the Boards and pre- 
vent other debts being incurred. 

A legacy amounting to probably 
£180,000 ($900,000) has been left to Rev. 
J. Hudson Taylor for the work of the 
China Inland Mission. Laus Deo ! 



The Kongo Balolo Mission, of the East 
London Institute (Dr. Guinness) is in 
sore need of funds to carry on its pros- 
perous and growing work in the heart 
of the Dark Continent. $7,000 
(£1,400) are needed immediately to 
meet expenses. Eight new missionaries 
have recently been sent out and are 
worthy in the highest degree of our 
prayerful sympathy and financial sup- 
port. 



About two years ago a few of God's 
children had the continent of South 
America, with its thirty-seven millions 
of perishing souls, specially laid upon 
their hearts, and longed, in some way, 
to aid in the work of preaching the 
Gospel to these people. As it was not 
permitted any of them at that time to 
take the Word of Life to the inhabit- 
ants of the "Neglected Continent," 
they decided to remember daily before 
the Throne of Grace these poor de- 
graded souls, and also the missionaries 
laboring among them. Thinking that 
others would like to join with them in 
prayer for South America, they were 
led to form what is now known as the 
South American Missionary Prayer 
Union. The prayer of faith is neces- 
sary in the great work of spreading the 
knowledge of Christ, and while •* Some 
can go, most can give, all can pray."* 

•Any further information reKarding the 
Prayer Union, or membership card for the 
same, may be obtained on application. In 
order to defray the necessary expenses of 
printing, postage, etc., there is a small fee 
of 25 cents on entering the Union, which, 
however, is optional. The secretaries are A. 
E. Robinson, 1 Hepboume Street, and A. E. 
Armstrong, W7 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ca- 
nada. 



1898.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



63 



It is reckoned that during the year 
1897, the cases of lynch-law being put 
into execution have averaged more 
than (toelte a month, and some one has 
arranged the list in the order of promi- 
nence thus : Texas takes the lead^ and 
is the black-banner State— then Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Georgia and Louis- 
iana, Tennessee, Florida,. South Caro- 
lina, Kentucky and Arkansas, Missouri, 
Virginia, and Maryland, Arizona, Cali- 
fornia, Ohio, Nevada, Alaska and 
Illinois conclude the list \rith one each, 
while Texas heads the list with nine- 
teen. It will be seen that all hut Jive of 
these lynchings have occurred in the 
South ; eighty of the victims have been 
negroes, and three Indians, and the 
great majority of cases were supposed 
munler cases, and now Indiana comes 
in the list with five victims at once in 
the late tragedy at Versailles. 



The following letter is of such inter- 
est to the f eneral public, that we pub- 
lish it, and invite further suggestions as 
to its proposal: 

Dear Dr. Pierson— In preparing a 
missionary address on Africa to-day, it 
occurred to me that, perhaps, the Re- 
view could inaugurate a movement 
whereby, on the last day of the century, 
all missionaries and societies might 
publish a statement, or send to some 
central committee a statement, of the 
then present condition of the wotld 
and position of the work, that mi^ht be 
plac^ in the hands of suitable editors, 
and a volume publisht the first month 
of the new century, or as early as con- 
venient — a volume that would review 
the growth of missions from the begin- 
ning, and state the actual position of 
affairs in the missionary world. These 
are crude ideas, but can you not mark 
the century in some such form? Yours 
truly, D. Spencer, LL.D. 



Mr. r. W. Crossley, of Manchester, 
England, who died March 25th, ult., 
was a man of large business, who 
abode in his calling with God. He had 
taken the Lord into partnership as the 
Head of the firm, and used the profits 
for His glory and the extension of His 
work. 

Having been led through the in- 



strumentality of the Salvation Army 
into the enjoyment of the higher 
Christian life, the whole course of his 
life was changed. As a thank-offering, 
he gave one hundred thousand dollars 
for the work of the army, and liberal 
contributions followed each year there- 
after. 

Being convinced that he must make 
a change in his whole mode of life, he 
abandoned his handsome dwelling to 
take up his abode among "the slums." 
He bought an old theater in one of the 
worst parts of the city, spent one hun- 
dred thousand dollars in fitting it up for 
mission purposes, with a hall for meet- 
ings. Rescue Home, etc., and a home 
for his family, and there the rest of 
his life was consecrated to lifting \ip the 
fallen. His wife, being in accord with 
him, they together lifted up the cross, 
where sin and sorrow and death had 
held undisputed sway. God put the 
seal of His approval upon him, both 
temporally and spiritually. ** Star 
Hall" deserved its name as a great 
center of light and life. 

Some of us have followed this devoted 
man in his walks of usefulness through 
those lanes and alleys, where crime was 
rampant. His Mission Hall has been 
the place of holy convocation for many 
saints and for new campaigns against 
sin and hell, and for the deepening of 
the spiritual life. One who was with 
our dying friend, says he closed his 
earthly life "full of the sweetness 
and tenderness of Jesus — no care, no 
struggle, no fear— and the last hours 
were a veritable heaven on earth." It 
was a real translation. The work goes 
on. The beloved wife and coworker 
consecrates herself to the Lord's work 
with redoubled energy, succeeding her 
glorified husband in the sowing as she 
will join him in the reaping. 



Dr. John H. Barrows, has given 

most unequivocal testimony to the 

work of missions in India. He says : 

"The objects most worth seeing in 
India, to my thinking, are neither the 
Himalayas, nor the Taj Mahal, the 



64 



EDITORIAL DBPARTMBNT. 



[January 



Tomb of Akbar, nor the Temple of 
Madura, but the varied triumphs of mis- 
sionaiy effort. What a prodigious 
amount of toil has gone into the Chris- 
tian vernacular literatures, and what 
splendid triumphs of faith have enriched 
the church universal I I have heard 
much less of the discouragements of 
missions than I expected. 1 know how 
hardworkt and, in the truest sense, 
self-sacrificing are the Christian mis- 
sionaries. I know their temptations 
and sore trials. But I have not heard 
a single word of doubt with regard to 
the ultimate evangelization of India. 
Those who have been here longest 
have seen the most wonderful changes." 



Books SeoeiyecL 

Encyclopedia of Social Reform. 
(Large 8vo, 1439 pp.) Edited by 
Wm. D. P. Bliss. Funk & Wag- 
nail's Co., New York and London. 
$7.50 (cloth), $9.50 (sheep), |12.00 
(half morocco), |14.00 (full mor- 
occo). 

The Students' Standard Diction- 
ary. (8vo, 915 pp.) Edited by 
James C. Femald. The same. 

Clerical Types. (12mo, 217 pp.) By 
Rev. Hames Mann. The same. 
tl.OO. 

The Story of Jonah in the Light of 
Higher Criticism. (16mo, 120 pp.) 
By Prof. Luther Tracey Townsend. 
The same. 50c. 

The Old Tbstawlbnt Under Fire. 
(12mo, 246 pp.) By Rev. A. J. F. 
Behrends, D.D., S.T.D. The same. 
11.00. 

The Conversion OF Armenia. (12mo, 
150 pp.) By W. St. Clair-Tisdall, 
M.A. Fleming H. Revell Co., 
New York, Chicago, and Toronto. 
11.40. 

Sister Martyrs of Ku-Cheno. 
(12mo, 120 pp.) Letters and Me- 
moir of Eleanor and Elizabeth 
Saunders. (Illustrated.) The same. 
$1.50. 

The Ainu of Japan. (12mo, 175 pp.) 
By Rev. John Batchelor. (Illus- 
trated.) The same. $1.50. 



"Women in the Mission Field; 
Pioneers and Martyrs," and "The 
Heroic in Missions; Pioneers in Six 
Fields," by the Rev. A. R. Buckland, 
secretary of the Church Missionary 
Society of England, are both interest- 
ing narratives of life and work in for- 
eign lands. The various chapters (each 
complete in itself) are excellent material 
for reading at missionary gatherings, 
mothers' meetings, girls' friendly society 
meetings, or any occasion where a stir- 
ring narrative of missionary work 
would be effective. (50 cents each, or 
two, postpaid, 80 cents.) Thomas 
Whittaker, New York,— D. L. P. 

Without the Campt the organ of the 
"Missions to Lepers in India and the 
East "(17 Greenhill Place, Edinburgh), 
is full of interest to all true followers of 
Christ. It is an illustrated quarterly 
(15 cents a year), which should be 
widely circulated and bear fruit in 
hearty support of this truly Christian 
enterprise. — D. L. P. 

Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop's "Korea 
and Her Neighbors " (Fleming H. Revell 
Company), is a valuable contribution 
both to missions and to general litera- 
ture. Mrs. Bishop resided in Korea for 
over two years after the China- Japan 
war, and made frequent excursions 
into neighboring states. The reports 
of the condition and outlook in this 
land at such a critical period in its his- 
tory by such an experienced observer 
must certainly commend themselves to 
the student of the Eastern problems. 

Mrs. Bishop writes graphically and 
intelligently of the Kur Dong and the 
King, of the assassination of the queen, 
of the Japanese occupancy and suzer- 
ainty, describes a great Manchurian 
flood, as well as curious customs of a 
people little affected by Western civili- 
zation as yet. 

The illustrations, about thirty in 
number, are all reproductions of photo- 
graphs taken by the author. Two new 
maps are also provided, as well as 
index and appendices. — D. L. P. 



1898.] 



GENERAL MIBSIOKAST IHTBLLIGENCB. 



65 



VI.— GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



EDITED BT REV. D. L. LEONARD, D.D., OBERLIN, OHIO. 



ExtZBCtsaiidTiaiuBlatioiiB Prom Fardgn 
Peziodicaki 

BT RSY. C. C. 8TARBUCK, ANDOYER, 

MASS. 

India. 
—Mr. Harold Frederic, in a recent 
dispatch to a Boston newspaper, calls 
the zenana missionary ladies propaga- 
tors of " the gospel of discontent," and 
questions, on the authority of old gen- 
erals and other Indian functionaries, 
whether as much harm has* heen done 
in India hy famines and other plagues 
as by them. It is interesting and 
lather amusing to notioe this restric- 
tion. Formerly, it was all the mission- 
aries in India tUat were a danger. 
Carey and his fellows were put out of 
British territcry, and compelled to take 
refuge in 8erampore, which was then 
Danish. Mr. Thompson, and we sup- 
pose others, were sent out of the Penin- 
sula altogether. In 1857 the cry was 
nised for a moment that the Sepoy 
Mutiny was the result of missionary 
propagandism. But as the missionaries 
were plainly not in the least responsible 
for greased cartridges, and as the 
Hindu merchants of Calcutta indig- 
nantly declared that the missionaries, 
so far from being answerable for the 
mutiny, were, above all other foreign- 
en, winning rcTerence for their religion 
and their courtesy, and were esteemed 
by the Hindus as fully the equals of 
their own saints and sages, this cry 
soon died down. Now, for some inex- 
plicable reason, perhaps because these 
modest women are not much given to 
ooDtroversial self-defence, it is the 
zenana ladies that have to bear the 
brunt of the attack. To be sure, they 
can not enter the zenanas without the 
full consent of the husbands and fathers. 
These, then, have not discovered the 
danger of quickening the monotonous 
life of the female recluses into the ani- 



mation of a various interest in human 
and Divine knowledge. Perhaps this 
makes the matter so much the worse. 
Great numbers of the upper-class Eng- 
lish look upon India simply as existing 
to provide lucrative salaries and honor- 
able places for younger sons of the gen- 
try. As an Englishman, quite apart 
from any thought of criticism, has 
laughingly said, great numbers of his 
countrymen in India, if asked what 
their duties are, would be able to give 
no other answer than that given him 
by a very subordinate official, whom he 
askt what he did: ''Sir, I hold the 
position. " The natives know that Eng- 
land gives them peace. Justice, humane 
administratiun and care, and enlighten- 
ment. Still, the more widely developt 
their intellects become, the more likely 
they are to persist in asking whether all 
these objects might not be accom- 
plisht just as well by a great reduc 
tion in the complexity and expensive- 
ness of the public service. Such 
questions might be very uncomfortable 
for aristocratic young England. The 
old stolid and stupid acquiescence in 
whatever the "Sahibs" please to do, 
might be preferable, rather than that 
"niggers" and "black devils" should 
begin to ask such questions. It must 
be confest that a few more milliou 
Christian and educated Hindus would, 
without a word or thought of violence, 
compel a very fundamental revision of 
Indian administration, and a far more 
profound respect for themselves; and, 
as a certain Right Reverend Englisli 
Bishop has suggested, that Joseph Arch 
might well be duckt in a horsepond 
for insisting that even farm-laborers 
have rights, it is no strange thing if that 
Bishop's cousins to the hundredth gen- 
eration think the same of zenana 
women. There seems to be only one 
way of suppressing this inconvenient 
growth of intelligence, namely, to 



66 



EXTRACTS AND TBAKSULTI0N8. 



[January 



dlflestabliflh Chriatianity. So long as this 
subsists, it has an uncomfortable way 
of working itself out in various direc- 
tions, some of which provoke Anglo- 
Indians to a very free use of profane 
language. 

The Rev. Maurice Phillips, in the 
Edrtest Field, remarks of the minor 
poems of Hinduism: " The minor poems 
are of a very late date, evidently writ- 
ten after the introduction of Christian- 
ity into India. Some time ago their 
teaching was represented in one of the 
English monthlies as 'Latent Hindu- 
ism.' What was quoted from them is 
not Hinduism at all, but reflections 
of the teaching of Christ! " 

As the excessive predominance of the 
priesthood in Roman Catholic countries, 
especially in Italy, has called out a 
violent atheistical reaction, so it was 
the absolutely unendurable tyranny of 
the Brahmans that called out the athe- 
istical religion of Buddhism. As Mr. 
Phillips says: ** About the sixth century 
B. c, it appears that the tyranny of the 
Brahmans had become so oppressive, 
the burden of the dally sacrifices had 
become so heavy, and the fetters of 
caste had become so tightly riveted that 
the people, unable to bear them any 
longer, revolted, and that revolt found 
expression in Buddhism. Buddha de- 
nied every doctrine of the ancient creed, 
except the doctrine of transmigration, 
which he modified to suit his own sys- 
tem. He declared that there is no God; 
that the Yedas are of no authority ; that 
priests, prayers, and sacrifices are use- 
less ; that caste is a fiction ; and that 
there is no soul in the sense of a spiritual 
entity distinct from matter. Thus he 
swept away, with one stroke, the foun- 
dations upon which the tyranny of the 
Brahmans was built, viz. Ood, the soul, 
the Yedas, prayers, sacrifices and caste." 

Yet, as Mr. Phillips remarks, "the 
system of the void," as the Brahmans 
rightly called it, could not prevail in the 
end. and Brahmanism, deeply modified 
by Buddhism into Hinduism, recovered 
its sway among the devout Indians. 



"The gods Yishnu and Siva," says 
Mr. Phillips, *'the highest ideal of 
Binduism, have committed every ima- 
ginable sin magnified to the utmost 
extent." 

The German missionary, Frohnmeyer, 
quoted in Le Mieeianaire, remarks: "At 
the present time one meets with but a 
cold reception in Germany to speak 
about England. There are political 
reasons for this; I shall not undertake 
to judge of their force. For all this, it 
pains a German missionary laboring in 
India, to hear the English described as 
nothing but a nation of shop-keepers. 
We, on the other hand, see them under 
a very different aspect, and we love to 
say of them: ' They are the nation of 
missions; the nation of the Bible.' The 
English take pains to bring the Bible 
into every house and into every heart. 
We know, for instance, that in India 
you can find in every railway station a 
Bible in English, and another in the lan- 
guage of the country. The English Bible 
is read assiduously by the employes and 
also by the travelers." The Hindus do 
not venture very much into the waiting- 
rooms, biit as we knowj they read the 
Bible a good deal at home. 

Madaoascab. 

The German Ul tramontanes endeavor 
to weaken the force of the damning al- 
legations brought against the French 
Jesuits in Madagascar, and their vio- 
lent ways, by urging, among other 
things, that common prudence would 
not allow the French authorities to 
permit outrages against the English 
missions. To this G. Eurze, in the 
Allgemeine Missions Zeitschr\ft, very 
pertinently answers: " The French gov- 
ernment has not the slightest occasion 
to take any account of England. In 
these last years Protestant Albion has 
shown herself wretchedly timid when- 
ever she was called to vindicate English 
Protestant missionaries. And, now 
again, when Galli^ni is so contemptuous- 
ly treading under foot the rights of the 
Congregational, Anglican, and Quaker 
missionaries in Madagascar, England is 



1898.] 



GBKERAL MIHBIONABT INTELLIGBNCB. 



67 



playing as pitiable a part as ever. We 
can not help querying whether the two 
powers have not struck a secret bargain 
in the political sphere, on the principle 
of Give and Take, by virtue of which 
England is fain to look quietly on, 
while her missionaries in Madagascar 
are maltreated." 

What else could be expected from 
that unworthy descendant of Elizabeth's 
Burleigh, who now misdirects the 
affairs of Great Britain? An Armenian 
friend tells me that some years ago the 
Marquis of Salisbury said: " If the Ar- 
menians do not want to be ill treated 
by the Turks, why don't they turn 
Mohammedans? " It may be doubted 
whether these were his words, but they 
exactly express his cyuical and con- 
temptuous spirit. How much less 
would he care when the French shoot 
a few score Malagese, to frighten the 
rest into the French Church! 

M. Delord writes: " The Jesuits are 
far from abating their efforts. They 
receive, almost by every steamer, new 
reinforcements, and we have the cha- 
grin of learning often that they are oc- 
cupying new positions. There are 
strange illusions as to the nature of our 
work. It is imagined that we are real 
pastors, almost bishops, having the su- 
preme direction of solidly constituted 
churches, composed of a certain num- 
ber, relatively considerable, of Chris- 
tians. Alas I such notions must be 
given up. At bottom we are, and used 
to be, real missionaries. There are 
many things to do, to undo, and to do 
over. In easy days things went as they 
might, but since the tempest has risen, 
all is disorder, confusion, chance-med- 
ley. Desertions, churches burnt by the 
Fahavalos, stations disorganized by the 
Jesuits; a general recrudescence of de- 
lations, of calumnies, of false witness! 
How many persons thrown out of their 
wits, and seeking rather the approba- 
tion ot the government than of their 
own consciences! How many schools 
there are, once numbering hundreds of 
pupils, which now number but units I 



How many others which have disap- 
peared, replaced by those of the Jesu- 
its! I am here speaking only of the 
three most threatened districts, known 
to me personally." 

M. Ducommun writes: ''The peo- 
ple are so put beside themselves that 
the strongest means succeed. For ex- 
ample, the priest traverses the villages 
with two registers, a red for the Catho- 
lics, a black for the Protestants. ' The 
Protestants,' says he, ' will have to make 
all the roads, railroads, and telegraph 
lines, then they are to be shot, and will 
go to hell. The Catholics will have 
nothing to do, and heaven stands ready 
for them.' And such means succeed! " 

'*Is it surprising that a missionary 
should write thus to us: 'There are 
now not more than twenty persons in 
my church. The rest have all been 
shot, chained, imprisoned, or banisht, 
and these twenty are every day expect- 
ing their turn, for the priest has taken 
their names.' " 

We see the spirit of St. Bartholomew 
is still as fierce as ever in the veins of 
these fanatics. 

" The situation in Madagascar, with- 
out showing any particular sign of im- 
proving, is now becoming more clearly 
defined. The animus of the French 
authorities is now seen to be directed 
against the missionaries not as Protes- 
tants, but as English, and against the 
L. M. 8. in particular. The London 
Missionary Society has not been known 
by any distinctive name in the island, 
but being the first in the field, and, by 
far the largest of all the Protestant 
societies at work, its converts have been 
called ' English ' Christians, while the 
Romanists have for a parallel reason 
been called ' French.' A similar state 
of things prevailed in Uganda a few 
years ago. The L. M. S. has thus 
loomed up before the eyes of the French 
as a great oppossing force, and all the 
more' so because in previous colonial 
extensions, in Tahiti and the Loyalty 
Islands, the French have found the 
same society at work before them. 



68 



[January 



Needless to sa j, they are quite nnable to 
grasp the idea that Engliah miasioiiaTies 
are not political agenU. TheiTS are, as 
witness Monsignor Hinh in Uganda, 
therefore ours must he. . . . Hie 
oompolsoiy acquisition of the Normal 
School building and other educational 
establishments by the French GrOTem- 
ment is naively justified by Xd Tempi as 
'an injury done to the prestige of the 
Society, for it is thereby deprived of its 
most powerful means of propaganda.' " 
— C. M. IrUelliffeneer. 

The treatment of Queen Ranavalona 
by Gkneral Gkillieni is a characteristic 
mixture of brutality and hypocrisy. 
The unhappy sovereign had not a fore- 
boding of what was impendiug, when, 
in the evening of February 27, she was 
suddenly informed that she was de- 
posed, and must set out for the island 
of Reunion early the next morning. 
Utterly overcome, she threw herself at 
the knees of the subordinate officer who 
brought the message, but, of course, to 
no purpose. The man who had judi- 
cially murdered her uncle, doubtless 
praised his own clemency in letting the 
niece live. That her passage to the 
coast took place in the unhealthy season 
of course signified nothing. Had Rana- 
valona perisht, it would simply have 
been one inconvenient life the more out 
of the way. 

After this manly deed, Gallieni put 
forth thl0 pompous and mendacious 
proclamation: 

"Since the Government of the Re- 
public has declared Madagascar a 
French colony, the regal dignity has 
become superfluous in Imerina. I have 
therefore invited the Queen to abdicate 
the exercise of the same, and at her re- 
quest have authorized her to repair to 
the Island of Reunion, where she will 
enjoy the fullest hospitality of tlie 
French authorities." 

The French are not poisoners, and it 
is not likely that they will guillotine 
the poor woman, which would raise her 
to an unpleasant likeness to their own 
Marie Antoinette. She will, therefore. 



probably livenntfl disease or heartbreak 
does its work. 



Engliflh Votes. 

BT RET. JAMES DOUeLAfl, M.A. 

yortA Africa Jfimtm. — Another 
year of service in connection with the 
above mission is completed, and looking 
at the work as a whole progress and in- 
crease seem to mark the year. The be- 
ginning was saddened by the murder of 
Dr. and Mrs. Leach and their little son; 
but jeven this dark and mysterious event 
has been the means of good in the 
hand of God. 

The storm of opposition from the 
French seems now to have benefited 
rather than interfered with the work. 
The work of the Lord is speciaDy felt 
in Algeria, where signs are continually 
being manifested, several having re- 
cently confest Christ. 

The receipts of the mission show an 
increase of income every year on that of 
the previous year, which is felt to be 
encouraging. 

The China Inland Mimon.^Ur. J. 
R. F. Pledger writes from Yunnan 
stating the difficulty which he and Mr. 
Stevenson experienced at Yun-nan by 
reason of anonymous placards posted 
about the town denouncing missionaries 
and other foreigners. These posters 
made the people generally very unfavor- 
able, although, fortunately for the mis- 
sionaries, the chief man of tlie district 
was favorable to them and issued orders 
commanding the people to behave 
properly to them, giving permission to 
the missionaries "to build, buy or 
rent " where they liked. Difficulty still 
exists because of the popular feeling 
being against foreigners in the district, 
and it is unsafe for missionaries to go 
unprotected about the city. 

Miss Muir writes from Tsin-chau: 
" Miss S. Gariand, while visiting Tuh- 
siang, a city one day's journey from 
Tsin-chau, Kan-suh province, was talk- 
ing to some wome who seemed specially 
interested. Presen tly one of them turned 
to the others and said, 'This is quite 



1898.] 



OBNBBAL HIS8IONARV INTSLLIOEKCB. 



69 



true; my baby has been very ill for a 
month and after trying eTerything I 
could think of I remembered what Koh 
Tai-t'ai had told me, and prayed to this 
Grod, and my baby got well quickly." 

Tidings from Hankow relate the sad 
death of Mrs. Fishe, who has been con- 
nected with the C. I. M. since 1875. 
All acquainted with her hold her in 
great esteem, and her loss will be keenly 
felt at home and abroad. 

Baptist Mimonary Society. — A pri- 
▼ate letter to Edwin C. Curtis, of South 
Wales, from the Rev. Timothy Rich- 
ard, of North China, contains matter of 
fresh interest in its bearing on China's 
future. According to Mr. Richard the 
recent marvelous awakening in China 
through the Japanese war, and the re- 
markable direction which has been 
given by the China Christian Literature 
Society to the minds thus awakened, 
call for a larger support to the opera- 
tions of that society, and an extension 
of those operations. The design is to 
establish in each of the capitals of the. 
20 provinces of China an institution 
which shall consist of a library and 
lecture-hall, to serve as a nucleus of 
enlightenment ' ' for their respective 20, 
OOO.OOO of population, who are now 
asking for the light of Christian civili- 
zation." Mr. Richard now reports do- 
Dations and subscriptions for this object 
from the Baptists of the United King- 
dom, amounting to £1,590; and also re- 
ports that a merchant from China (Mr. 
Thomas Ilanlevy) has promist to build 
a central institution in Peking, which 
will cost some thousands of pounds. 
Mr. Hmothy Richard, who left for the 
United States on August 25th, will 
doubtless be heard in person in many 
of the important centers of this great 
republic. 

Stanley P^L— The Rev. S. C. Gor- 
don writes from Stanley Pool: " It is a 
great joy to me to be able to report that 
yesterday we baptized two persons in 
the Congo River here. This is' our 
second baptism since the beginning of 
the year, and we hope to have another 



before its close, as there are three or 
four persons who have already applied 
for baptism. We believe that God has 
wrought His work of grace in their 
hearts, and we are praying that they 
will be a power of good in this land of 
darkness.". Four lads have recently 
offered their services as itinerant work- 
ers, and the little church feels able to 
bear the expenses wliich this will neces- 
sarily involve. 

The Church Missionary Society. — The 
Church Missionary Intelligencer for 
October contains a specially interesting 
report of the Medical Mission in Rana- 
ghat, Bengal, under the direction of Mr. 
Munro. The workers endeavor to fol- 
low our Lord's ministry of preaching, 
teaching and healing, and the work is 
being most signally blessed. The 
spiritual needs of the people must come 
first, and continually there are services 
being held in the waiting-rooms and 
verandahs of the dispensary. ''Men and 
women have listened with attention — 
many have admitted the truth of the 
words spoken — many have gone further 
and have stated their belief in Jesus 
Christ as their Savior; but beyond this 
none have gone." 

The teaching in the school does good 

satisfactory work — the standard taken 

is the three R's up to the Bible. The 

little Hindus are very much iu request 

by the people around, because of the 
hymns they sing. In this way the Gos- 
pel is becoming known in the neighbor- 
hood round the school. 

The daily visits to the hospital have 
been 180, and many cures have been 
brought about. The people are becom- 
ing quite favorable to the foreign doc- 
tors, and bring their sick from all parts. 
Lady-doctors attend serious cases among 
the women at their own homes — thus 
doors are opened for the truth. 

Work on the Niger. — "On Easter 
Sunday last, an interesting service was 
held at Onitsha, when fifteen boys, the 
first fruits of the work at Immanuel 
church, were baptized by the Rev. P. 
A. Bennett in the River Ni^er, in the 
presence of all the native Christians and 
a large crowd of heathen people, who 
had come down from Onitsha town to 
the waterside in order to witness the 
ceremony." 



ro 



OSHBBAL MUaiOKART INTBLUOKHCB. 



[Jannary 



Statistics of tho MiMimMuy Societies of the 

[Thkw taUes inchide only MiMioBS to non-Chrtotian and noB-ProtMtant peoples, and so they 
Japanese in the United States. The flgures are derived almost wlx>ily from annual reports, and 
leave the fewest possible blanks, and hence where official figures were not at hand, conserrative 



Nahks or Socnms. 



American Board T 

Baptist Missicmary Union. 

Southern Baptist Convention , 

Free Baptists 

Seventh-Day Baptists 

Christian (Disciple) 

American Christian Conventiou 

Protestant Episcopal 

Society of Friends. 

Lutheran, General Council 

Lutheran, General Synod 

Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Episcopal, South 

African Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Protestant 

Presbyterian 

Presbyterian, South 

Cumberland Presbyterian 

Reformed Presbyterian (Covenanter). . 

Reformed Presb. ((3en. Synod) 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian 

United Presby terean 

Reformed (Dutch) 

Reformed (German) 

German Evangelical Synod 

Evangelical Association 

United Brethren 

Canada Baptist 

Canada Congregationalist 

Canada Methodist 

Canada Presbyterian , 

Twenty-three other Societies , 

ToUls 



p 

si 
c 



1810 

1814 

1845 

1886 

1847 

1875 

1886 

18S5 

18n 

1869 

18S7 

188S 

1846 

1876 

1882 

1887 

1861 

1820 

1866 

1888 

1879 

1859 

1886 

1878 

1888 

1876 

1863 

1878 

1881' 

1878 

1844 






•688,414 

467,802 

186,682 

80,482 

9,000 

96,811 

6,100 

887,826 

88,100 

80,808 

48,888 

948,988 

825,897 

6,814 

18,000 

808,989 

143,500 

81,430 

18,888 

5,000 

8,413 

180.580 

111,112 

89,789 

18,184 

9,000 

11,077 

50,018 

5,500 

148,499 

159,000 

628.800 



Missionaries. 



$5,255,006 



a 

-a 

o 



174 
168 

85 
5 
8 

84 
4 

88 
9 
7 

11 
880 

56 

6 

5 

881 

56 
7 
7 
2 
8 

89 

82 
6 
7 
8 
8 

18 
1 

88 

86 

185 



I 



1,872 



18 

8 

1 

5 

7 

11 



18 
1 

10 
I 

51 
9 
1 
8 

11 

2 
4 
1 



10 



89 

18 
880 



592 



i 

> 


Unmarried 
Women. 


176 


175 


161 


108 


88 


18 


6 


11 


8 


8 


84 


12 


2 


1 


82 


80 


18 


83 


7 


3 


8 


7 


825 


194 


49 


5 


18 


8 


6 


4 


841 


185 


50 


88 


6 


18 


9 


6 


6 


8 


8 


8 


89 


84 


80 


80 


5 


8 


4 





8 





8 


7 


18 


14 


1 


8 


45 


15 


87 


40 


871 


818 


1,521 


1.269 



flB O C 



548 



80 

88 

6 

65 

7 

77 

56 

17 

86 

667 

111 

81 

16 

708 

158 

87 

84 

88 

9 

114 

86 

15 

11 

4 

88 

60 

4 

117 

181 

1,006 



4,754 



Native 
Laborers. 



■8 

a 



884 



88 

7 


4 

70 

7 

1 

8 

606 

90 

4 

188 

86 
6 

4 
4 

88 

88 

18 


14 
8 

18 


86 
7 

38 






1,767 



8,956 

1,964 

100 



4 

76 
11 



148 

4«i 

5,888 



7 

10 

1,808 

134 

88 

87 

89 

5 

706 

481 

48 

40 

46 

80 

806 

4 

66 

848 

400 



16,194 



189§.] 



GENERAL KIS8IONAKT INTBLLIGSNCB. 



71 



United States and Canada for 1896-97. 

omit work done in non-Catholic Europe, while covering that in behalf of Indians, Chinese, and 
relate in the main to 1897, iho sometimes the year includes a part of 1896. The aim has been to 
estimates have been made, baaed upon former reports.] 



Total 

MUnionary 

Force. 


Stations and 
Out-Stationa. 


• 

3 

"S 

:3 

B 

a 
8 


Added during 
last year. 


Adherents 

(Native 
Christians). 

1 


i 





Countries in which 
Missions are sustained. 


8,499 

1418 

180 


1,887 

1,188 

896 

15 


44,606 

187,128 

4,884 

788 


8,910 

6,594 

660 

72 


138,445 

500,000 

26,000 

2,500 


1,184 

1,885 

85 

05 


54,615 

88,997 

1,106 

8,888 


Africa, Turkey, India, China, Japan, 
Micronesia, Mexico. Spain, Austria. 

Africa (Kongo), India, Burmah, Asmam, 
CThina, Japan, France, Russia, etc. 

China, Japan, Africa, Italy, Mexico, 
Brasil. 

India (Bengal). 


10 


8 


89 


28 


850 


4 


120 


China (Shanghai). 


141 


64 


1,418 


286 


4,560 


19 


784 


dilna, Japan, India, Turkey. 


18 


88 


817 


60 


1,800 


4 


118 


Japan (Tokyo, etc.). 


480 
189 


800 
57 


4,074 
1,089 


140 
884 


18,000 
2,500 


185 
88 


4,508 
1,106 


Greece, Africa, China, Japan, Haiti, In- 
dians. 


100 


196 


8,008 


170 


5,100 


118 


8,719 


India (Madras). 


466 


18 


5,288 


230 


16,000 


818 


5,870 


India (Madras), West Africa. 


&3B0 
878 

88 


504 

164 

18 


68,660 

8.756 

860 


4,560 

908 

45 


146,787 

86,000 

1,000 


1,567 

02 

5 


48,470 

8,006 

857 


China, Korea, Japan, Africa, S. America. 

Mexico, Italy, Bulj^aria, Malaysia. 
China, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, American 

Indians. 
West Africa, West Indies. 


86 


14 


890 


60 


1,000 


1 


84 


Japan (Yokohama). 


2,510 
60 


004 
86 

11 


80,644 

8,156 

778 


8,140 

. 608 

188 


180,000 

10,000 

8,500 


784 

85 

8 


85,508 
726 
100 


India, Siam, China, Japan, Korea, Africa, 
Syria, Persia, S. America, Mexico, etc. 

China, Japan, Korea, Africa, Greece, 
Italy, Mexico, Brazil. 

Japan, Mexico. 


61 


11 


845 


20 


800 


14 


680 


Northern Syria, Asia Minor. 


51 


86 


878 


178 


8,500 


4 


278 


India (Northwest Provinces). 


14 


14 


876 


89 


600 


4 


90 


Mexico (Tampico, etc.). 


819 


877 


7,6Tr 


1,271 


1^,000 


866 


17,488 


Keypt, India (Northwest Provinces). 


517 


861 


5,806 


891 


15,000 


188 


6,904 


China, Japan, India, Arabia. 


5? 


84 


1,985 


197 


5,000 


8 


.806 


Japan (Tokyo, Sendal, etc.). 


60 


18 


675 


840 


8,287 


15 


1,182 


Africa (Sierra Leone). 


80 


81 


807 


58 


8,000 


1 


8 


Japan (Tokyo, Osaka). 


48 


18 


5,000 


800 


18,000 


9 


700 


Africa (West Coast, Sherbro, etc.), China 


256 


78 


8,980 


605 


10,186 


74 


1,480 


India (Telugus). 


8 


2 


80 


4 


800 


8 

• 


100 


Africa (West Central). 


188 


50 


8,850 


180 


18,000 


40 


2,500 


Japan (Tokyo, etc.), Indians. 


874 


188 


8,054 


486 


10,000 


m 


7.066 


China, India, New Hebrides, West Indies. 


I.SS8 


800 


86,018 


750 


80,000 


824 


27,000 




20,946 


6.091 


866,880 


86,888 


1,1484875 


6,673 


241,180 





72 



OBKEBAL KIS8IONART INTELLIGENCE. 



[January 



THE KINGDOM. 

— *' Ye know the grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, that, tho He was rich, 
yet for your sakes He became poor,, 
that ye through His poverty might 
be rich." — Paul, the Apostle. 

—One of the missionaries in British 
Columbia reported the prayer of an 
Indian after hearing of the Ku-cheng 
massacre: '* Say again, dear Jesus, 
'Father, forgive them, for they know 
not what they do.' O gracious Spirit, 
Thou art not quencht by blood; let it 
make Viy garden soil strong to grata 
Chinese beliewrs in / " 

— High words and disagreeable on 
the streets of Chiningchow about " for- 
eigners stealing Chinese children," were 
silenced last July by two official procla- 
mations. In one of these the citizens 
were told that it " would not be fair to 
kill them without a warning, and, 
therefore, they were being warned ;" 
but if they continued to spread false 
reports about the foreigners ''I shall 
take your heads off." 

— The Otis legacy, which yielded 
$1,500,000 to foreign missions, was 
given by a deacon of the First Church, 
New London, Conn. , whose interest in 
the cause was developt from seeing 
some missionaries, w^ho had landed in 
New London the day previous, after an 
absence from home of twelve years, 
walk down the aisle of the First 
Church, Sunday morning, in their old- 
time and much- worn garments. Their 
moral heroism so toucht him that his 
interest in the mission world from that 
hour knew no abatement. 

— ^Every man is a missionary now 
and forever, for good or for evil, 
whether he intends or designs it or not. 
He may be a blot, radiating his dark 
influence out to the very circumference 
of society; or he may be a blessing, 
spreading benediction over the length 
and breadth of the world; but a blank 
he can not be. There are no moral 
blanks, there are no neutral characters. 
We are either the sower that sows and 



corrupts, or the Ught that splendidly 
illuminates, and the salt that silently 
operates ; but, being dead or alive, 
every man speaks. — Chalmers, 

— Society is recognizing the debt of 
strength to weakness. The man who 
has skill in speech is becoming a voice 
to the dumb. Those who have skill 
towards wealth are becoming the al- 
moners of bounty towards art, educsr 
tion, and morals. Men who selfishly 
get much and give little, who have be- 
come Dead Seas of accumulated treas- 
ure, are losing their standard in society. 
More and more cities are bestowing 
their honors and esteem upon thoee 
who serve their fellows. Men are be- 
coming magnzines, sending out kind- 
ness everywhither. Men are becoming 
gardens, filling all the air with pungent 
fragrance. Men are becoming castles 
in which the poor find protection. The 
floods of iniquity have long covered the 
earth, but love is the dove bringing the 
olive branch of peace. Love sings the 
dawn of a new day. — Rev. N. D. 

HiLLIS. 

— Thomas A. Edison has discovered a 
process whereby he is able to extract, 
by the use of powerful magnates, iron in 
paying quantities from low-grade ores. 
If, now, that busy brain of his would 
invent some kind of magnet which 
would extract withheld gifts from low- 
grade givers, he would be one of the 
noblest benefactors of the world. — Adr 
vanee. 

— "We have been privileged to read a 
remarkable letter from one of the hon- 
ored bishops of the Moravian church. 
He commenced housekeeping about 
1859 on a salary of $350. He at once 
began to tithe, and has continued the 
practice ever since. He has not limited 
his gitia to the tenth, but has often 
given more. This bishop has a family 
of 8 children. The youngest is twelve 
years old, and all have adopted the sys- 
tem of tithing. The bishop writes: 
" I have never known want, tho I have 
often had more in the Lord's treasury 
than in my pocketbook. We have had 



1898.J 



OBNBRAL MISSIONARY INTBLLIGENCB. 



73 



many luxuries, too, not the least of 
which -is knowing the blessedness of 
giving." His private means are very 
slender; he is worth but $500, and yet 
he has been able for the past three years 
to keep his son at a theological semin- 
ary. He is receiving now only $500 a 
year, but declares cheerfully that he 
has all be needs, and has nothing but 
hearty gratitude for God's providence 
in his life. — Ooldefi Buk. 

— A wealthy manufacturer in Bahia 
(Brazil) has recently turned over to the 
use of the Presbyterian mission a new 
school building, completely fumisbt 
and equipt with material from the 
United States, to accommodate 150 
pupils, and will support the teachers 
required for kindergarten and primary 
grades, on condition that it be made a 
model school li^e the "American" 
school at S. Paulo, the mission to have 
absolute control of the work and the 
•election of teachers. 

—The British and Foreign Bible 
Society has publisht 151,000,000 vol- 
umes at a cost of $60,000,000. The 
American Bible Society has publisht 
68,000,000 at a cost of $27,000,000, and 
other societies 51,000,000; making a 
total of 265,000,000. 

WOMAN'S WORK. 

— If one would get a glance at the 
marvelous, because multifarious and 
multitudinous, tasks which the women 
of the W. 0. T. U. have undertaken 
and are pushing with great vigor, let 
him traverse the more than 100 pages 
of the New Cruiode for October last. 
The table of contents is fairly bewilder- 
ing. 

—The Methodist women (M. E. 
Church, North), raised $318,988 for 
missions last year, an advance of $28,- 
000 beyond the year before. To the 170 
representatives in the foreign field 18 
were added. 

— In Toronto was recently opened 
the Ewart Woman's Missionary Train- 
ing Home. The cum'culum includes a 
course of lectures, to be delivered at 
Knox College, one by the Rev. Princi- 



pal Caven, on the study of the New 
Testament, and one by the Rev. Pro- 
fessor Geo. L. Robinson, on the study 
of the Old Testament. 

— Every night 1,000 women are 
housed in the Salvation Army shelters 
and homes in Great Britain. During the 
last twelve montlis 1,683 past through 
the Rescue homes, of whom 1,482 have 
been sent to situations or to friends, and 
enabled to make a fresh start. Mrs. 
Bramwell Booth's 250 helpers visited 
1,068 women prisoners, and spoke to 
nearly 5,000 women on the streets. The 
Army's investigation department has 
traced 708 missing persons during this 
year. Self-denial week in Australia 
resulted in the collection of £25,000, 
which is more than was received in 
Great Britain. 

—Intelligence comes of the appoint- 
ment of Miss Hu King Eng, M.D., as 
first physician in the household of Li 
Hung Chang, viceroy of China. Miss 
Eng was bom in Foo*chow in 1866, 
and was the second of five children of 
Hu Yong Mi, one of the most efficient 
Methodist native workers in China. 
Her grandfather was a military man- 
darin, who embraced Christianity early 
in life, his five sons also accepting 
Christianity, and the family being the 
second one in China 'to embrace the 
Christian religion. She took a special 
course of study in the Ohio Wesleyan 
University preparatory to adopting the 
medical profession, in 1890 was admit- 
ted on examination to the Woman's 
Medical College of Pennsylvania, and 
was soon rankt among the leaders of 
her class. After completing the full 
medical course she spent a year and a 
half in post-graduate and hospital work, 
and was practicing in Foo-chow when 
this high honor came to her. Dr. Eng 
is the first woman in Chiua to be grad- 
uated from a medical college. 

YOUNG PEOPLE. 

—The Y. M. C. A. has 127 railroad 

branches, with 30,000 members, and no 

less than $140,000 are contributed by 

railroad companies for their mainten- 



74 



OBKBRAL HI88IONART INTELLIOBNCB. 



[January 



ftnce. The New York, New Haven and 
Hartford Railroad has granted fdO.OOO 
for a building. 

— The first Young Woman's Chris- 
tian Association Home in London was 
opened in 1855, and now there are in 
that city 28 homes and restaurants for 
young women, while in the provinces 
there are 100, in Scotland 11, and in 
Ireland 14. These minister to all classes 
of workers — teachers, clerks, shop as- 
sistants, and servants. 

— According to the Cangregatianalist 
120 of our colleges now support as 
many Christian missionaries. Last year 
Wellesley gave $1,050 for missions; 
Yale, $1,200; Mt. Holyoke, $549; Cor- 
nell, $500, and Oberlin, $659. But our 
students do not begin to sacrifice for 
this purpose as do those of the Canadian 
colleges. Thus the 80 students of 
McGill University last year gave $1,- 
883, and only 5 out of the 80 are exempt 
from the necessity of earning their live- 
lihood, in some measure at least, while 
they are students. 

— Kin Leon is a bright young China- 
man who has spent a number of years 
in the United States, and coming under 
the influeuce of Christian teaching was 
led to accept the " Jesus doctrine," and 
joined the Presbyterian Church and the 
Endeavor society. For some time he 
has conducted a laundry at Oxford, 
Pa., but now he feels that the Lord has 
other work for him to do, and is about 
to give up the laundry for the purpose 
of devoting his entire time to study, with 
a view of some time entering Lincoln 
University to take the regular course 
necessary to fit him for missionary work 
in China. 

—At least 700 Endeavorers of South 
India met a short time ago in convention 
at Madura. Out of 65 societies 87 sent 
delegates. 

— A Louisiana insurance agent, in 
Joining the Tenth Legion, makes this 
bold proposition: " I will pay $1,000 as 
a forfeit to any young man who, having 
during three consecutive years given 
honestly one-tenth of his income toward 



charitable objects, shall at the end of 
that time prove to the satisfaction of 
the United Society that he has not been 
financially prospered far beyond the 
sum paid out by him." 

— Fully 500 i)oor mothers and 
children were carried on each of the 
free excursions given by the Junior 
Christian Endeavor union of Camden, 
N. J., during last summer. 

AMERICA. 

United States. — ^How strangely it 
came about. D. O. Mills laid the foun- 
dations of a fortune upon the Pacific 
Coast, and now he constructs a hotel, 
costing $1,000,000, in the "down town*' 
section of New York City, whose design 
is to furnish for 1,500 a clean, comfort- 
able room for 20 cents a day, bath in- 
cluded, and meals and laundrying at 
similar rates. He proposes also to build 
a second hotel for the same purpose. 

—In the twelve years of its existence 
the Chicago Training School has sent 
out 98 foreign missionaries, 985 gradu- 
ates engaged in deaconess work in this 
country, and 70 who are occupied with 
some other form of home missionary or 
evangelistic work. With its fine new 
building, Harris Hall, and the recent 
extension of its course, it seeks with 
renewed courage to fulfill its part in 
supplying the large and increasing 
demand for trained workers at home 
and abroad. 

— Hampton (Va.) Institute opened its 
thirtieth year with an attendance of 
about 1 ,000. A new building for teach- 
ing agriculture and domestic science is 
in process of erection, to cost between 
$50,000 and $60,000, of which $85,000 
have already been subscribed. Hamp- 
ton has done more for the negroes of 
the South than can be estimated. Its 
work for the Indian Is of the same 
character, only more limited for the 
want of material. Yet there are about 
140 Indians connected with the school, 
40 of whom arc new students, mostly 
from Western tribes. 

—There are now 22,799 Indians in 



1898.] 



OKKBRAL MI8BIONAKY INTELLIGENCE. 



75 



schools of all kinds, 68,000 own lands 
in severalty, and the government ap- 
propriation for 1897 was ♦2,631,000. 

— Two sons of a Zulu chieftain have 
recently reacht this country. This 
chief is not a Christian himself, hut he 
desires that his successor shall he one, 
and, therefore, he sends his sons to 
America *'to learn and to believe." 
The oldest son, who is the natural heir, 
is not a Christian, and has two wives 
whom he leaves behind. The younger 
brother has been in the mission schools 
at Lindley and Amanzimtote, and is a 
lay preacher. The father pays all cost 
of sending and supporting the boys. 

~The Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, is rejoicing in the complete pro- 
vision for its missionary debt. The 
entire amount of $145,000 has been 
secured by personal pledges, and the 
Church is free to go on with its work 
as it has not been in the past Ko pub- 
lic appeal has been made, but the work 
has been done in a private way by in- 
dividuals, laymen, benevolent women, 
and church officers. Of that sum $50- 
000 have been given by 9 persons, 
$100,000 by 200; and the contributors 
to the debt have been less than 4,000 
in number. 

Canada. — The Qrande Ligne Mission 
was founded, in 1835, by Henrietta 
Feller and her associates, who came 
from Switzerland and opened a small 
school, with the object of doing what 
they could to give a primary education, 
and a knowledge of the way of salva- 
tion, to the French-Canadian people of 
Quebec. The mission maintains some 
15 or 20 colporteurs and Bible- women. 
6,000 persons are known to have been 
converted through the agency of this 
mission, and it has sent out 50 mission- 
aries, several of whom have gone to 
the foreign field. The income is not 
derived solely from Canadian Baptists. 
Of the $19,000 expended last year, 
nearly $8,000 came from the United 
States, and nearly $2,000 from Great 
Britain. 



Spanish America. — The uneducated 
Mexicans are not exempt from the 
usual prejudice which obtains among 
ignorant classes concerning the use of 
water for personal cleanliness. The 
two things the sick are most carefully 
guarded against in the homes of the 
poorer Mexicans, we arc told, are fresh 
air and clean water. A teacher says: 
"Children sometimes come to school 
with dirty faces and hands, and when I 
speak to them about it, they tell me 
Ihey have colds, or are not very well, 
and it would make them sick to wash 
ihemselYe8"—Home Mission Monthly. 

— Primitive customs prevail in the 
more remote Mexican plazas. "It Is 
amusing,'* says our teacher at Embudo, 
" to see the threshing of wheat. A cir- 
cle of ground is first swept clean, the 
wheat is placed in the center and scat- 
tered about the circle. The goats are 
driven around on the wheat, while 
boys guard ' the goats from straying. 
After being thus thresh t, the wheat is 
carried home and washt by the women 
before it is sent to the mill. The corn 
is husked, then baked in the oven, and 
afterwards ground between stones by 
the women, as in Bible times. — Und, 

— Nov. 10 the Congress of Peru, in 
spite of the utmost the clerical party 
could do to prevent it, past a bill legal- 
izing non-Catholic marriages by sanc- 
tioning a civil ceremony. Great was 
the excitement attending. 

EUROPE. 

Great Britain. — The Church Mis- 
sionary IntelliQincer calls attention to 
the fact that offers have been made by 
individual friends or groups of friends 
to sustain the personal charges of 
nearly all the new missionaries who do 
not go forth at their own costs. "Of 
the 63 (excluding wives) sent out since 
May Isl, 4 are honorary, one partly 
so, and offers have been made for the 
support of 52, leaving only 6 to be a 
charge on the ordinary funds of the 
Society. The total number of mission- 
aries on the roll for whom special 



76 



OBNKRAL MI88IONABT INTBIjLIOENCB. 



[January 



provision is thus made is 805, of whom 
188 are men and 117 women. Indi- 
vidual friends are responsible for 94, 
parochial and other associations in Eng- 
land and Ireland for 87, the Gleaners' 
Union and its branches for 48, various 
county organizations for 11, the Dublin 
University Fuh-kien Mission for 8, 
other bodies of friends for 30, and 
Colonial Associations for 82. Besides 
these 805, o£Fers are to hand for the sup- 
port of 18 others, making a total of 
828." 

The Continent.— The Order of 
Jesuits numbers 14,261, who are dis- 
tributed among 22 provinces, which 
cover the globe. Germany has more 
than any other country, though Bel- 
gium, Spain and France are not far be- 
hind. 

— The Danish Missionary Society held 
its annual meeting recently in Copen- 
hagen. It comprises 600 branch socie- 
ties, with an active membership of 
20,000. The receipts for the past year 
amounted to about $27,500. The first 
mission field of the society was in 
southern India; but since 1892 mission 
work has been begun in China, 4 mis- 
sionaries are ready to be sent out, 16 
missionaries are employed. The ques- 
tion was discust whether a third 
mission, in middle India, should be 
undertaken. The president of this 
society is Dean Vahl, the veteran mis- 
sionary statistician of 72 years. For 
a half century he has studied mis- 
sions, and has in his home a missionary 
library of 11,000 volumes. 

—The Norwegian Missionaiy Society 
sent out last year to Madagascar 12 
Norwegian missionaries, 2 French mis- 
sionaries, 2 French teachers, 1 printer, 
and two women tetLchers.^ Norsk Mis- 
noTutidende. 

— It is reported from Russia that the 
Czar has granted full pardon to 200 
Lutheran pastors of the Baltic provin- 
ces, who, on a variety of charges, have 
been deprived of their churches and 
deported to other parts of the Empire. 
Among the charges has been that of 



administering Lutheran baptism to the 
children of Lutheran fathers and 
mothers who had married members of 
the Greek Church. 

ASLA.. 

Islam. — The Turkish Government 
has demanded the recall of 2 mission- 
aries from Aleppo, on the ground that 
their distribution of relief is likely to 
cause disturbances. The American 
legation has ignored tbe demand pen- 
ding definite charges, fearing that this 
is the first step toward the expulsion of 
all the missionaries. 

— We continue to have cheering 
words from Turkey in respect to the 
spiritual work. Little allusion is made 
in the letters of our missionaries to the 
political situation, but they write 
almo&t uniformly of progress in their 
several fields of labor. Mr. McNaugh- 
ton, of Smyrna, says: "The prospect 
for the future in all departments of our 
work was never brighter. The reports 
from the out-stations are uniformly 
hopeful, and some of them most inspir- 
ing." It is a most remarkable fact, re- 
ported by the Smyrna station, that the 
contributions from native sources 
within that city and district for the 
evangelical work amount to more than 
twice the appropriations received from 
the Board. — MisHcmary Herald. 

— U. S. Consul "Wallace at Jerusalem 
reports to the State Department that, 
according to the consular records of his 
office, it appears that there are 580 citi- 
zens of the United States residing in 
Palestine. Of this number 488 are 
Jews, who are only nominally Ameri- 
cans, having lived in the United States - 
just long enough to obtain citizen 
papers and passports. The majority of 
these emigrated from Russia to the 
United States and thence to Palestine. 
Of the other 92 American citizens, 
nearly all went there because of pecu- 
liar religious views, and among them 
may be found all possible shades of 
Christian beliefs The one idea, which 
seems to possess all to a greater or less 



1898.] 



GENERAL ICISSIOHART INTBLLIGBNCE. 



i i 



extent, is that of tbe secoDd advent of 
oar Lord. This is by all considered to 
be an event soon to take place in Jeru- 
salem. The Spoffordite colony or 
*' Overcomers," as they call themselves, 
have recently been increast by an ad- 
dition of 117 Swedish Americans, 
mostly from Chicago. 

— Missions to Mohammedans have, of 
late years, found a special advocate in 
Pastor Faber, a Lutheran minister in 
Bazony. His efforts resulted in the 
sending of 3 (German missionaries to 
Persia. They settled at Ooromiah, 
were received in a friendly way by the 
Mohammedans, and were cheered by 
finding a spirit of inquiry. But the 
Persian Ambassador at Berlin, a fanat- 
ical Moslem, had become acquainted 
with some of the writings of Pastor 
Faber, which he sent to the Shah, and 
secured their expulsion. One of them 
died from exposure and malaria, on 
his way through Asia Minor, in March 
of hist year. This defeat has only had 
the effect of stimulating to further 
efforts, and now 4 theologipal students 
of great promise, and a fully qualified 
woman doctor, have placed themselves 
at the disposal of the mission. 

—India. Tbe statement is by no 
means new, but it is true, and will bear 
repetition: " The people in India, hold- 
ing hands, would reach three times 
around the globe at the equator. Put 
the people in single file, allowing three 
feet of space for each to walk in, and, 
walking at the rate of ten miles a day, 
it would take them forty years to pass 
a given point; or. walking five miles a 
day, with the present increase of popu- 
lation by birth-rate, the great proces- 
sion would never have an end." And 
China has a population larger by one- 
thiid. 

— The Indian famine is said to have 
caused a pecuniary loss of $50,000,000. 
Gre»i Britain, her colonies and America 
contributed some $7,500,000 for relief. 

—An interesting baptism recently 
took place in Lahore. It was of a 
young Mohammedan, a student in the 



local Islamia College, who is reading in 
his second, or sophomore, year. For 
some two or three months he was very 
regular In attendance at all the services 
of the Hindustani Church, including 
all the meetings of tbe Christian En- 
deavor Society. Then he was baptized 
on confession of his faith in Christ. 
His father is one of the leading Moham- 
medans in Lahore, and, moreover, a 
preacher of Islam. His brother is a 
man of liberal mind, quite different 
from the ordinary Mohammedan. If 
the young man stands fast and proves 
himself a genuine Christian, there are 
hopes of his father and mother also. 

— Some time since an Englishman in 
Ceylon announced his conversion to 
Mohammedanism and immediately 
claimed the privilege of polygamy, 
taking unto him a second wife in the 
person of an English girl of excellent 
family, who also announced her con- 
version. The first wife sued for a 
divorce. The man protested that as a 
Moslem he had a right to two or even 
four wives. The matter has come up 
in the courts, and it has been decided 
that his status in Ceylon is that of an 
Englishman upon whom the obligation 
of monogamy is binding, whatever his 
religious belief, whether he be Chris- 
tian, Jew, Buddhist, Mormon or Mo- 
hammedan. 

— The Rev. Ruttonji Nowroji, of 
Aurangabad, in Western India, writes 
thus of the actions of the Hindus while 
suffering from famine: **The Hindus 
had hired Brahmin priests to keep up 
their noisy worship before the village 
idols, and fully expected abundant rain 
as the result of their worship. But after 
waiting for days and weeks, they re- 
solved to punish the gods who had 
received costly offerings without giving 
them the lookt-for blessing in return. 
In some places they indignantly be- 
smeared their idols all over with mud, 
and closed up the entrance of the tem- 
ples with thorns. In others they filled 
up the temples with water and blocked 
up the doors, so that the idols might 



78 



6BNEBAL MISSIONARY INTSLLIGBNCE. 



[January 



shiver in wet as a punishment for keep- 
ing their fields dry." 

China. — In a certain village, called 
San Yuam, which is known as the 
"Gospel Village," the native converts 
were anxious to secure a room to hold 
services in, and so they undertook to 
build a place themselves, and also find 
the material. A chapel was in this way 
erected to accommodate 800 or 400 per- 
sons, and the cost to the Baptist Society 
was only £15. When Mr. Shorrocks 
was returning to England the people 
presented him with a silk banner, bear- 
ing the inscription in Chinese charac- 
ters, "Blessed is he that cometh-in the 
name of the Lord," and their spokes- 
man said, "We can't give you a big 
present, but we will contribute 500 
days' labor in building a school where 
our leaders can instruct us." '* On one 
occasion," narrates Mr. Shorrocks, 
* ' my colleague and I were much sur- 
prised to see some men coming towards 
us with wheelbarrows. We soon dis- 
covered that they were bringing a num- 
ber of petitions from 200 villages, urg- 
ing the missionaries to go out to teach 
them." 

— In an article on the ** Present Sta- 
tus of Missions in the Fuh-kien Pro- 
vince," the Chinene Beeorder gives a 
statistical table of the work of all the 
churches in the province, including, of 
course, the L. M. S. and the English 
Presbyterian Mission in Amoy, the 
American Societies and the C. M. S. 
The missionaries (male and female) 
number 171, and there are 133 ordained 
native pastors. The adherents number 
55,000; 8,441 adults and 1,817 children 
were baptized in 1896. There are 697 
schools, with nearly 18,000 scholars ; 
and the contributions for church pur- 
poses for the year amounted to $38,167. 
The latter show an increase on the pre- 
vious year of $9,000, and the adherents 
have advanced by nearly 16,000. 

— At Foo chow Mr. Ling Muk Gek, 
a teacher, a member of Geu Cio Dong 
church, the first Christian Endeavorer 
in China, and a leader in all the ad- 



vance movements of the church, espe- 
cially that of self-support, has Just suc- 
cessfully past the examinations for the 
"First Degree," and has received his 
degree from the oflQcial. One of his 
brothers, also a church member, has 
just received the same degree. 

—The Rev. Timothy Richard, the 
eminent Baptist missionary to China, 
was greatly cheered on the eve of his 
return thither by the promise of £5,000 
from a Mr. Hanbury, for the purpose 
of establishing an institution in Peking 
to consist of a library and lecture hall. 

— Rev. S. H. Chesler, now on a visit 
to the Celestial Empire, writes: " If I 
should sign my name and title as 
arranged for me here, in Chinese, it 
would be Mei Ewoh Nan Changlao 
Tsoong Hwuy Pudao Shook Keh-sze- 
teh; which, being interpreted, means, 
"American Kingdom Southern Pres- 
byterian General Assembly Mission 
Secretary, — the man who meditates on 
virtue." The last two syllables, "sze- 
teh " are the nearest approach the lan- 
guage affords to hiy name. 

Japan. — The Nippon gives the num- 
bers of students in some of the most 
noted private schools of Tokyo. It may 
be possible to arrive at an idea of the 
principal aims of the rising generation 
from a study of the figures given. In 
the Semmon Gakko (Count Okuma's 
school, where politics, law, economics 
and pure literature are taught) there are 
937 students; in the Mciji Law School, 
932; Tokyo Law School, 1,200; Nippon 
Law School, 854; Franco Japanese Law 
School, 525; Saisei Medical*School, 700; 
Tokyo Commercial School, 288; Ar- 
tisans' School, 937; Senshin Gakko 
Baron Tajiri's — vice-Minister of Fi- 
nance — School, where economics alone 
is taught), 250. — Independent 

— Writing concerning the first ordi- 
nation service held by him in Japan, 
Bishop Awdry, of Osaka, says: "All 
went very well, but it was curious to 
have no music at all. As a sign of 
public mourning for the empress- 



1898.] 



GENEBAL MI88IONABT INTELLIGENCE. 



79 



mother, all music is forbidden for a 
term, and though it was explained that 
this was not intended to apply to music 
in religious services, yet, on the whole, 
it was thought best to show the fullest 
possible sympathy with Japanese feel- 
ing by haying no singing. The Japan- 
ese are excessively sensitive as to for- 
eigners disregarding their feelings, 
especially in matters connected with 
patriotism." 

— A correspondent of the London 
Tim4$ writes from Japan: ''Japanese 
women are for the most part comely 
and engaging rather than handsome. 
It is the combination of grace, dress 
and manner that makes up the sum 
total of attraction. The apparel of a 
Japanese lady is not the least agreeable 
feature. It is artistic, healthy, and 
suited to the beautiful fabrics of the 
country.** 

—Under the title, "Low Life in 
Tokyo," the Japan Times has an inter- 
esting article, illustrated by actual sta- 
tistics. After saying, ' ' Few of tiie 
well-to-do people have any idea of the 
number of their fellow-creatures who 
struggle for existence in the poorest 
quarters of this great metropolis," the 
limes gives the number In each dis- 
trict of the city engaged in various 
lowly occupations. There are 42,828 
jinrickisha men; 8,061 waste -paper 
buyers, 884 waste-paper gatherers, 797 
shoe keepers, 2,848 broken glass buyers, 
and 1,040 potato sellers. The waste- 
paper collectors are chiefly poor, weak 
children, and shoe keepers are a " class 
of persons engaged in taking charge of 
wooden clogs at the entrance to theatres 
and all places of assembly, and arrang- 
ing the footgear, ready for departure." 

AFRICA. 

— Shades of Rameses and Pharaoh I 
Are we awake, or do we dream? A 
traveler writes of "a fine bridge across 
the Nile," and **the rush of electric 
cars" in the streets of Cairo. 

West— Bishop Tugwell points out 
that the liquor traffic in West Africa, 



which hns been a crying scandal for 
years, hfts doubled during the past 
seven years. Unless measures are taken 
to restrict the traffic the most disastrous 
results, he says, will ensue. 

— "The capture of Benin," says 
Bishop Tugwell, ''opens up a large 
district lying within my diocese. This 
city has long been notorious for its 
atrocities committed with the Ju-Ju 
worship; it is now thrown open to the 
Christian world. Meantime, I am 
anxious to organize a band of from 20 
to 80 men. We need ordained men, lay- 
men and medical men. Ere long, ladies 
will be able to proceed to these coun- 
tries with a minimum risk to life and 
health. Proceeding further, as we 
should now be prepared to do, to Sokoto 
and Qando, and other important cen- 
ters, we should necessarily need con- 
siderable sums of money." 

— Dr. Taylor Smith, Bishop of Sierra 
Leone, speaking at Norwich, England, 
described the horrors of Ashantee and 
Benin, including human sacrifices. 
King Prempeh, who had revelled in all 
this blood shedding, was now one of 
his congregation in Sierra Leone, and 
only shortly before the bishop left he 
had taught him, at his own request, the 
Lord's Prayer. 

— A missionary writes: There is a 
list of goods which was recently paid 
by a young man in our employ to a 
father in-law who had an eye for busi- 
ness before the young man secured his 
wife. And the time will never* come 
when his father-in-law will not regard 
it as his perfect right to ask his son-in- 
law for anything more he may want. 
The list is thus: 80 neptunes, 5 guns, 32 
marks (about $8) worth of cloth, 8 
goats, 5 cases of gin, 8 kegs powder, 2 
zinc trunks, 2 umbrellas, 1 coat, 2 
chairs, 2 tall hats, 8 felt hats, 1 flag, 4 
shirts, 1 tin of sugar, 8 drinking glasses, 
12 plates, 1 lamp, 2 brass kettles, 4 
small iron pots, 1 knife, 25 pipes, 2 jugs, 
1 large iron pot, 80 brass wires, 4 pairs 
of scissors, and about 28 marks in cash 
(|5.50}. 



80 



GKNEH^L MIB8I0NAKY INTELLIGEKCE. 



[January 



— The battle of- Bid* opened the long 
closed doors of Hausaland, or the Cen- 
tral Soudan, says the Missionary, and 
thus gave the Christian world access to 
15,000,000 of the finest people in 
Africa, a hundredth part of the world's 
inhabitants. This country is more ac- 
cessible than was Uganda, and British 
authority insures protection of life. 
Moreover, the Hausas excel in physique 
and intellect, are famous as traders, 
have a vernacular with no mean litera- 
ture, and possess great cities, such as 
Kano, Sokoto, and Gando. The Church 
Missionary Society has entered upon, 
the work of evangelization. 

East. — The English and German 
missionaries in East Africa introduced 
the custom of hoisting a white flag with 
a red cross upon it in their stations on 
Saturdays, to remind the natives that 
the morrow would be the Sabbath. The 
people have consequently come to call 
Sabbath "Flag Day." 

— ^The Berlin missionaries in Konde- 
land, on the north of Lake Nyassa, in 
German East Africa, lately made a tour 
of exploration through Wahehe-land, 
which was brought into subjection two 
years ago. Mission work is now made 
possible. There are 11 male and 4 fe- 
male Berlin missionaries in Konde-land; 
they are enjoying good health, while 
the English and Scotch missionaries on 
the east coast of the lake have suffered 
several losses by death. 

— It is fifteen years since Mr. Wray 
went out to East Africa, to work among 
the wild Taitas. He had found their 
country, he said, a haixl field, but 
nothing was too hard for God, and the 
Spirit of God was, indeed, working 
among them. He held in his hand 
some pieces of wood from that far 
region. "I wish," he said, "these 
pieces of wood could tell their own 
story." At Sagalla, among the Taita 
hills, was a hill held once so sacred that 
no w^oman was allowed to set foot upon 
it. The wood came from a tree which 
stood on the hill and was worshipt as 
the god of the countxy. On thai hill 



now stands the house of the C.M,8, mis- 
sionaries. The tree has fallen, and its 
wood has been used in the building of a 
Christian church. 

— Bishop Tucker, speakine on Ugran- 
da, before leaving England for Africa, 
said the natives are now able to receive 
in their own language the Bible, the 
prayer-book, a hymn-book, and "Pil- 
grim's Progress." 

ISLANDS OF THE SEA. 

— Societies in Victoria, Australia, are 
already represented in the mission field 
by 24 workers, while 16 others are pre- 
paring. From one society 5 members 
have gone to China and India, while 
another has 6 members now at work 
and another in preparation. 

— The variety of races to be found ix\ 
both Singapore and Penang is extra- 
ordinary. The bulk of the population 
is Chinese, but there are Malay, Ben- 
galese. Parses, Arabs, Japanese and 
Jews, besides English, French, Dutch, 
Germans and Americans. Men-of-war 
and trading vessels of many nations 
crowd round their beautiful and exten- 
sive harbors, while Mohammedan 
mosques, Chinese poss-houses, Hindoo 
temples, and Christian churches are 
promiuent in the well-kept streets and 
park-like spaces. The Chinese form by 
far the most conspicuous part of the 
population. To be in Singapore or 
Penang is like being in China. A deck 
passage from Hong Kong to Singapore 
can be had on some of the best steamers 
for 5 dollars, and on second-class 
steamers as low as 3 dollars, enabling 
thousands of Chinese to migrate from 
the overcrowded cities of South China 
year by year. Many of the Chinese 
merchants in Singapore are rich and 
prosperous, and the run of Chinese 
emigrants both industrious and success- 
ful. 

— There are now at work in the New 
Hebrides mission 256 teachers ; 18,064 
people are attending more or less regu- 
larly at Sabbath services, and 6,463 are 
attending the day- schools ; 207 adult 
baptisms and 142 Christian marriages 
were celebrated, and 231 were added to 
church membership last year ; and 
there are now 239 candidates asking for 
baptism. Thirty-three teachers were 
settled, and the total contributions for 
mission purposes were £424, 6s. in cash, 
and 17,683 pounds of arrowroot, equal 
to ^884, 3s , amounting together to the 
sum of £1,308, Os. All the above fig- 
ures are exclusive of the island of Efatl, 
from which no returns were received. 



THE 



Missionary Review of the World! 



Vol-. XXI. No.2.— 0M/8MM PEBKUARY— Vol. XI. No.2.^Ifew Series. 



SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OP THE HALP CENTURY.— 
THE CULTURE OP THE GRACE OP GIVING. 

BY THE EDITOR-IN^-CHIEF. 

Panl has apparently rescued from oblivion a logion of the Lord 
JesuBy more yaluable than any of those over which Egyptologists have 
lately made so much ado : *^ Remember the words of the Lord Jesus^ 
how He said, ' It is more blessed to give than to receive.' " f This 
priceless oracle seems to be one of those sayings, handed down by tra- 
dition, but not embodied in the Gospel narratives. Its unique value 
largely consists in this, that it lifts giving to its highest plane, and 
crowns it as the true secret of the most exalted blessing to the giver 
himself. 

Nothing needs reconstruction more than modern giving; in fact, 
the reconstruction must be a revolution, for the whole basis is wrong. 
A great German, in a clever epigram, contrasts Socialism and Chris- 
tianity thus: the former says, "What is thine is mine" ; the latter, 
*' What is mine is thine." But as the late Dr. R. W. Dale said, "The 
epigram itself needs correction. Christianity really teaches us to say, 
^ What seems thine is not thine, what seems mine is not mine. What- 
ever thou or I have belongs to God; and you and I must use what we 
have according to His will.' " 

This is the essence of that sublime truth everywhere taught in 
Scripture: God's inalienable ownership; man's undeniable steward- 
ship. This is the one corner-stone of the whole Biblical system of 
giving; and because it is practically denied or virtually obsolete, we 
need to begin at the beginning, if we are to have a new and a true sys- 
tem in the Christian use of money. 

So fundamental is this grace in all holy living and holy serving, 
that whenever and wherever there is spiritual advance, the standard 

* Thli periodical adopts the Orthography of the following Rule, rccommeDded by the Joint action 
of the American Philological Aasoclation and the Philological Society of England :— Change d ur 
c4 final to X when so pronounced, except when the e affects a preceding soond.— Puwi.ihhkbh. 

tA0feiSK.:aBL 



82 spiBiTUAii MOVEMENTS OP THE HALF CENTUBT. [February 

of giving is sure to become more worthy of God's people. When 
Carey sounded the bugle call for a new crusade of missions a century 
ago, one of the first signs of a response was found in the thirteen 
pounds two shillings and sixpence, laid on G.od's altar in Widow 
Wallis* parlor at Kettering on that memorable October day in 1792. 
And " Carey's penny," the systematic weekly offering, was the recog- 
nition of the need of a regular, stated, habitual setting apart of the 
Lord's portion. From that day to this the' matter of giving has been 
one of the three most perplexing problems of our church life : pray- 
ing, going, giving, being the three. 

Many have been the attempts at solution. Most prominent, per- 
haps, has been the emphasis laid on the tithe system, which has the 
grand advantage of being of God's own original appointment. Of this, 
with all its merits, we can only confess, first, that it is much misun- 
derstood; second, that it belongs to law rather than grace, and third, 
that it fails to answer the demands of Christian equity. Commonly, 
the tithe, or tenth, is supposed to have satisfied God's claims and man's 
needs. In fact, the Jewish tithe represented not the maximum but 
the minimum; and he who carefully studies the whole Jewish econ- 
omy, will find that in some years the actual proportion given to the 
Lord's purposes reacht two-fifths, if not three-fifths, of the faithful 
believer's income. Again, the dispensation of grace teaches us a new 
and blessed ownership of ourselves by God, as redeemed, regenerated, 
spirit-filled saints, which includes all we have and are. Under this 
new order the Sabbath is not less God's time, but all days become Sab- 
batic; the tithe is not less His, but all our money is to be spent for 
His uses; and all things and all work become part of a consecrated 
life for His glory. Moreover, while the tithe may be a fair proportion 
for a poor saint, it is manifestly out of all proportion for the rich, for 
our giving is, in equity, to be estimated not by what is given, but by 
what is kept. 

Another prominent plan has been the more apostolic way of lay- 
ing by in store, weekly, or at stated times, according as God has pros- 
pered us, not a fixt sum or proportion, but a variable amount, depend- 
ing on ability at the time. This has many advantages, most obviously 
the tendency conscientiously to weigh and prayerfully consider what 
duty is, and bow the measure of obligation varies with increasing 
prosperity. The obvious defect is the lack of uniform supplies for the 
work of God, and the risk of too flexible a conscience in the estimate 
of one's real ability. 

In some quarters much emphasis has been laid on a stated sfeason 
of special restraint upon appetite and other indulgences, as in the 
"self-denial week," which has yielded such large returns to various 
benevolent enterprises. But we must candidly admit that there is no 
Scripture warrant for a method so spasmodic and sentimental. I^he 



1898.] THE CULTURE OP THE GRACE OP GIVING. 83 

danger is, that after the special " lenten ** season is over, indulgence 
may run riot, as tho there were some new right acquired to pleasure 
by the self-imposed restraints. 

The various individual schemes for promoting true giving we can 
only mention, since they have so limited a range of experiment. We 
know some few who devote to the Lord's purposes, pound for pound, 
or dollar for dollar, an equal amount to that expended for self. Equi- 
table indeed it seems, to make God the partner who shares alike with 
ourselves in all the outgo of property. But is not this implying, at 
least, that the half we spend on ourselves is not His, and that the 
moiety we hand over to Him equalizes all claims ? A very few Chris- 
tians have limited their accumulations or expenditures to what they 
deem a reasonable sum, and put the whole remainder at the Lord's 
disposal — a high example of giving, indeed, in contrast with the low 
level of most saints. But of these and all other methods, more or less 
current, the question still arises, and will not down at our bidding: 
Is this God's standard of giving ? We feel forced to look at this 
grave matter solely in the searching light of the will and words of 
God. We have come to accept a method — and still worse a notion of 
giving, which begins in an issue with the universal Owner. We count 
what we have our own, not His. We think of ourselves as owners, 
proprietors, not stewards and trustees. We satisfy ourselves with set- 
ting aside the Lord's portion, and consider ourselves entitled to 
determine what that portion is, and treat the rest as our own, to do 
as we will with it. Hence comes that avaricious hoarding and self- 
indulgent spending, which are supposed to be legitimate; and that 
tardy atonement found in the "munificent bequests," of which 
Shaftesbury was wont to speak with such contempt, as tho there 
could be any real munificence in giving away what one can no longer 
use, or even keep. Rightly viewed, it is questionable whether there 
be even such things as ** munificent donatio ?is/' since a "debtor," a 
"trustee," a "steward" — which are God's own terms for His human 
creatures — can not make a donation, he can only discharge a debt, 
fulfil a trust, execute a commission. 

If this truth be drastic, it is God's medicine for the deadly disease 
of greed, and the fatal selfishness of which greed is only a symptom. 
Tlie teaching of the blessed Word is unmistakable, and may be briefly 
stated under the following seven "theses," as Luther would have 
called them: 

1. God owns all things and all creatures, and never alienates or 
transfers His ownership. 

2. God claims us, with all we are and have, as His by creation, 
preservaion, redemption, and endowment. 

3. God teaches us that the one goal of our lives, in every detail, is 
to be not our own pleasure or profit, but His glory. 



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'♦ r». tr.^v: ,r.i f.-*: .i^r ie-'r -«i & i"::^ T.^riii. md =*:*? !ier apo^taey 

r. .. ^.H? ^- y r r . ;..•.:.::.: t i:ic > J.rr i inl" a Tnst for zhe paj- 

r.<.-.» '' -^t i*'- r. • ;»*««-► f i; ^ i»* ^ Ti'^'T »c **''ii-!it'-in.'tf dowin:j into 

-,» - ' ir t n^ •'.:*! • ,. .^ »if • *i— ^r ;i»i -serT^i'tf T'l.ij. TT'iiiid •)veriettp ftll 

/"'-^ ■• 'i> <^-». r.^'l I♦-^l;iIM .leT arid 3it>n* ii:»^:iiare siudeti of distri- 

'#' «» '-I* -^ •« ' tr * .*" It i .fr ^*f ir fin'h*u I'As !ie^'fr vet been appre- 

'• -iu-.'. " w 7' »* ~v>»r -rnr-^r liir-^r.: m ^ Gs^-nie^t wealth is one of 

'» //'i*^ I«",-'>^* " f.'»r^:*s of :!ie ni'-ril ii.~-r5e. ^falrh belon:rs to 

4. V 4:/^-.-;^, •",!-•., ',',.", o'l '»* MrLitr«*ri:-fii i- *:ei.*«- mesj a moral and 

* ' .4, y^z/p^^ X rr.«% «•.:•» .'^-vrr ir. ij.e r^a-jn •■c :lie anj?een. Out of 

m 

' ^ V ^^- -. ,-,.- -^5 ,^ * -- ~,.r,'> -. i>a we n^av 2^j.ie frirc-L?. 'joining money 
/, i/,'. ^ jvi-..,^i , ;:.*/> 2-#-*iw:rk* -i ne f r G:*L MoneT Ls the 
.' • *'/>», /v^J '-r.v-.-' .-;.f^, ar. i reTret?er::5 Tal::^ of ail sorts. It 
"'' ^ / ;'"' '""* u'^rr.f, f o:i.*-\7^.,^^ ix-A -iri'.es :Le whet^Ls of industry, 
"'■ ' ■ I" .' "^ ^/f'^rjar.X R.>e-ry, pr 'niMrr^ ^i:i.^::vin and art, is a 
/• ' ' / / for''-, ar.'l ti.^: haT.'iri.ail of eTaiijrelism. And its 

* . "' ,* ^j u .'/ r 1 for *•/,] a.^ it- u-e i* for gx«d; indeeii, the best, per- 

'// ^^ h»^ ?M,/ '//r.^'/itiori of the colo^^al fortunes held by single 
/,/,,/fx' V/r,#f, rt w^;J known New Yorker died, he left, it is said, two 
t' " Iff] ftnlnoiiA of doJLir«, If that amount were piled up in stand- 
fi*'\ ' i\ /* f tlfnltr^f ftiif tfti top of anotlier, it would represent a column 
tfff t Mir/#* },tit,f\n'f\ vnh'H )ii;(h. YcX tlie whisky money of this nation 
nfttihl f/.j,r<..# nt, » «imilur column over three thousand miles high! 



1898.] THB CULTUKE OF THE GRACE OP GIVING. 85 

The annual income of the Duke of Westminster would itself support 
four thousand married missionaries with their families in the costliest 
fields of the Orient ! 

And yet, what do these giant fortunes amount to in the retrospect 
of a selfish life ? The vast treasure of A. T. Stewart was all gone^ 
within a decade of years after his decease. His body was stolen and 
his splendid mausoleum is empty. How few to-day rise up and call 
him blessed! The inventor of the fire-extinguishing apparatus, called 
by his name, died in a California almshouse at seventy years of age, and 
that man had received $10,000 a month for royalty on his machines. 

Extravagance saps the very foundation of honesty and virtue, and 
removes all the base-blocks of individual and family life. Decline of 
marriages, which was one of the chief causes of the fall of the Roman 
Empire, was due to the cost of living which made it too expensive for 
a Roman young man to marry. Thus the middle classes were crush t 
out — ^which in every nation supply its backbone. The same causes are 
now contributing to the ruin of two of the foremost nations of the 
earth, and they call themselves Christian nations too! The wedding 
ceremony itself is often an enormous outlay. While China was appeal- 
ing to the world to help her starving millions in famine, the Emperor^s 
wedding festivities wasted millions of dollars. 

Modern extravagance seems to outstrip even ancient waste. An 
eccentric millionaire was buried not long ago in Massachusetts in a 
casket which cost $10,000, the funeral, as a whole, costing three times 
that amount. If the newspapers can be trusted, a banker's wife, in a 
party at the Capital, wore a dress covered with one-hundred and five- 
hundred dollar bills, so as to make it appear one pattern, the waist and 
sleeves being thousand dollar bonds sewed in ; her fingers were ablaze 
with diamonds, and she wore a tiara worth $80,000, and the total 
value her costume represented was, it was said, about $300,000! An 
English ecclesiastic calls attention to recent art sales in London, 
where $10,000 were spent for a dessert service, and $50,000 for two 
rose-tinted vases. Take the single indulgence known as smoking. 
Nearly twenty-five thousand smokers are now in the United States 
alone, and the cost of this indulgence is fifty times what the whole 
Church of Christ spends on missions. 

The churches — alas ! lead the way in a wrong standard of expendi- 
ture. What shall we say of a well-known church that spends $3,000 a 
year on the choir, and averages $150 a year for foreign missions ! No 
wonder Bishop Coxe found a man in his diocese who put five cents a 
Sunday into the church box, and $800 a season into the opera box. A 
millionaire could be named who gives a dollar a Sunday, but stops 
even this payment when he takes his annual winter excursion to the 
South, where he spends thousands for his own enjoyment ! 

Where is our zeal for God ? The men of this world do not hesitate 



$6 BPik l TL'AL MOVE1CKST8 OF THE HAU CKNTTRT. [FeblTUUry 

to embark on an enterprise whose profits are at risk^ and spend Tast 
sams on an ex]>eriment. The ship canal projected from Bordeaux on 
the Athintic, to Narbonne on the Mediterranean, would cost ♦130,000,- 
000. When a few years ago a new fleet of ninety-two vessels waa 
planned for the navy of the United States, it was expected to call for 
$20,000,000 a year, for fourteen years ! What a work it was to build 
the pyramids, employing one thousand men at a time, and occupying 
twenty years! The Russian war cost England alone $500,000,000. 
Consider what might have been done in the field of missions with that 
sum, which represents all that has been given in the last seventt/'five 
years for world-wide evangelization by the whole Church! 

It is a shame that we should find the most munificent givers out- 
side of the Church of Christ Baron Hirsch, of Paris, recently dead, 
gave to the poor Russian Jews, and their fellow Hebrews in Poland, 
Hungary, and Austria, $10,000,000; and shortly after as much more to 
other charities. His benefactions are yet without a parallel in history. 
And this famous financier and railroad kicg, besides giving ten mil- 
lions to Christian schools and hospitals in Euro^ie, gave $40,000,000 
to build commercial schools in the waste lands of the continent for 
the Jews. 

One of the awful facts is that there has been a decline and decay of 
liberality in the churches. While the membership increast in thirty 
years three and a half times, there was a decided falling off in the rate 
of giving, and while the total of gifts increast four times, the amount 
given by each converted believer went down to about one-half. 

God wants self-denying giving. Who can look at the Japanese 
temple, with its coil of rope, — larger than a ship's hawser, and weigh- 
ing a ton and a half, made from the hair of Buddha's worshipers, 
and used to lift timbers and stones to their places in the temple build- 
ing, — without feeling the rebuke implied to our self-sparing gifts ? 
The wealth of church members in Protestant communions is, by the 
census, at least $10,000,000,000. Their contributions average one- 
sixteenth of a cent for every dollar, or one dollar in about $1,000. 

What a sacrifice of vanity was that when the women of Israel 
gave their metal mirrors to be melted down and recast for the laver 
of the holy court. As surely as the barnacles ate their way into the 
oak timbers of the Albatross and sank her, selfishness eats into and 
destroys Christian character. Mr. Spurgeon had a contempt for all 
parsimony, and occasionally thundered anathemas against it, and 
again pelted it with ridicule. One morning he said of some un- 
willing givers that they squeezed each shilling until the queen's head 
was well nigh obliterated. The Abbe Roux keenly remarkt, that "It 
is not as far from the heart to the mouth as from the mouth to the 
hand," meaning that many who talk generously give stingily. 

On the other side of the sea I found examples of disproportionate 



1898.] THE CULTUBB OF THE GRACB OF GIVING. 87 

giving very rare in this country— giving which would be thought by 
most people quite out of proportion to their selfish indulgence. For 
example: First case — A governess, out of the £100 that she earns, 
keeps £50 and gives the other £50 away. Like Zaccheus, she says : 
*' Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor.'' Second 
case — " One whose income is £2,000, lives on £200 and gives £1,800 
away,'' thus parting with not only one-tenthy but with ni7ie tenths of 
what is received. Tliird case — " Another, who earns £1,500 a year, 
lives on £100 and gives £1,400 away," and thus £14 out of every £15 
are devoted to the claims of religion and charity. Fourth case — 
"Another, whose income is £8,000, lives on £250 and gives the 
balance away." What a balance to part with : £31 given back to God 
out of every £32 received from Him ! Mr. Gladstone's brief eulogy 
of Mr. Peabody was : " One who taught us the most needful of all 
lessons : how a man may be a master of his fortune and not its slave." 
There is one lesson even more needful — namely, that we should learn 
that no man can assume to be the ^^ master of a fortune*' without 
virtually disputing the fact of his stewardship. 

God wants consecrated capital for consecrated work. When Theresa 
felt the need of a hospital, she had but three farthings, but she began 
to build, for while " Theresa and three farthings were nothing, God 
and three farthings were incalculable." 

God wants conscientious and systematic giving. Stonewall Jack- 
son, on the day after the second battle of Bull's Kun, in the midst of 
all the feverish excitement of the war, inclosed his contribution for 
missions, due on the Sabbath. As he could not be present, he could 
not neglect the offering. 

If one is content to appropriate a certain proportion to benevolent 
work, let him be sure the proportion increases as the wealth accumu- 
lates. More than half a century ago, Nathaniel Cobb sat down in his 
counting-house in Boston, and wrote the following solemn covenant : 

" By the grace of God, I wiU never be worth more than fifty thou- 
sand dollars. By the grace of God, I will give one-fourth of the net 
profits of my business to charitable and religious uses. If I am ever 
worth twenty thousand dollars^ I will give one-half of my net profits ; if 
I am worth thirty thousand dollara, I will give three-fourtJis ; and the 
whale after fifty thousand dollars. So help me God, or give to a more 
faithful steward, and set me aside." 

This covenant he subscribed and adhered to with conscientious 
fidelity as long as he lived. On his death-bed he said to a friend, 
" By the grace of God, nothing else, I have been enabled, under the 
influence of these resolutions, to give away more i\mn forty thousa^id 
dollars. How good the Lord has been to me ! " 

We should begin the ministry of money when we have but little. 
Ab the Persian proverb says : 



88 BPiBiTUAi. MOVEMENTS OF THE HAu CENTURY. [February 

" Do the little things now ; 
So the big things shall by and by 
Come asking to be done." 

Scriptural giving is worship, and so every worshiper of God must 
be one of God's givers, whether rich or poor. The mites God values 
as much as the millions, if they mean prayerful, and devout, and wor- 
shipful giving. Dr. Howard Crosby used to say, " The poor man 
should no more omit giving, on account of his poverty, than the illit- 
erate his praying because of his bad grammar.'^ 

It is more blessed to give than to receive. When disciples learn 
the true ministry of money, the privilege of giving will swallow up 
the obligation. To ask unbelievers for gifts to carry on God's work, 
or even to urge believers to give, is not God's way, and neither will be 
done by a church that is devout and truly consecrated. Nor will a 
few large givers be permitted to do all the giving, as tho it were by 
the amount given that the total is to be estimated. 

When we understand our stewardship, we shall see that every dol- 
lar belongs to God. Dr. William Kincaid says : " A friend of mine 
was receiving some money at the hands of a bank officer the other 
day, when he noticed, depending from one of the bills, a little scarlet 
thread. He tried to pull it out, but found that it was woven into the 
very texture of the note, and could not be withdrawn. *Ah! ' said the 
banker, 'you will find that all the government bills are made so now. 
It is an expedient to prevent counterfeiting.' Just so Christ has woven 
the scarlet thread of his blood into every dollar that the Christian 
owns. It can not be withdrawn; it marks it as His. My brother, my 
sister, when you take out a government note to expend it for some 
needless luxury, notice the scarlet thread therein, and reflect that it 
belongs to Christ. How can we trifle with the price of blood ? " 

How beautiful is the myth of Elizabeth of Hungary, the pioneer 
saint, martyr! How, when carrying in her robe, supplies of food for the 
poor, when her husband prest her to know what was the burden she 
was bearing, and opened her robe, he saw only heaven's red and white 
roses, and was dazzled by the supernal glory of her face. In God's 
eyes how many of our simplest gifts for His poor are really celestial 
blooms, full of a holy fragrance, as the sweet smell of incense 1 

We must be brought into such vital and habitual sympathy with 
God that we shall see this lost world through His eyes. That would 
solve every problem. We should then learn how to pray, for we 
should share in the travail of the Son of God ; we should yearn to go, 
for the want and woe of mankind would draw us as it drew Him; and 
we should find it easy to give, and correspondingly hard to keep. In 
harmony with God each soul will say, as Christ said: "Lo, I comb to 
DO Thy will, God!" 



1898.] WORK AHONQ THB caiNBSB BUKD. 89 

WORK AMONa THE CHINESE BLIND. 

BT MI88 C. F. GORDON CCTMMING, CBIBFF, SCOTLAND. 

Among the innnmerable inventions of the present liay, there is 
one, seemingly bo small and simple, and produced by a worker so 
humble, that it is in danger of being overlookt; and yet go vast are its 
latent capabilities that I have no doubt thut this small acorn will, in 
due season, develop Into a wide-spreading Tree of Life — a moat valu- 
able handmaid to all miKsionary effort in those provinces of China 
where Mandarin Chinese ia spoken — that is to say, in three-fourths of 
the vast empire, and fay a population roughly estimated at three hun- 
dred millions,* 

The results of this invention may be briefly summarized thus: 
(I) Work for the blind. (2) Work by 
trained blind for other blind. (3) Work 
by the blind for illiterate sighted persons. 

The inventor of this simple, but valu- 
able, invention. Rev. William Murray, was 
the only son of a poor saw-miller near 
(ilasgow, Scotland. When only about 1 
nine years of age, while too fearlessly er- | 
amining the "machinery, his left arm was 
torn off, thus disabling him and prevent- 
ing him from following his father's occu- 
pation. This apparent calamity proved to 
be the first incident in his calling to 

mission work of a very remarkable nature. „v. voajau h. hdbut. 

As soon as he was old enough to cam bis 

own living, he became a rural postman in the neighborhood of Glas- 
gow, and day by day he beguiled the tedium of his long trumps by the 
study of two books — the Old Testament in Hebrew and the New Tes- 
tament in Greek — reserving part of his time for quiot prayer that 
God would make plain to him His holy will concerning his future life. 

He soon became convinced that he must And work in some way con- 
nected with foreign missions, or Bible-work. Again and again he 
applied for employment as a colporteur of tlie Xatioual Bible Society 
of Scotland, but tho greatly attracted by the lad, the secretary feared 
that one so very unassuming might fail to prove successful. Thus a 
considerable time elapst ere his services were accepted. 

Finally, in 1864, he carried his point, and was told to begin work 
among the foreign ships lying in the Clyde. Soon the society found 
that it had never had such a colporteur as the gentle lad who made 

ID may be used, but by 
■light chlUgBB It Dl 



^ 



I 

r 



^'-' "WOBK AJiCWG THE VHlMmUL BUKD. TT^^tP Ti^r y 



i.xfc ¥iiv ttiiiOT ^^ t"ij». biili.irt i»f kll imiioiiiu j»eran»dinrr liiflm lo puTebaae 
]#•"•:! .!jh nf Hit v-rijri.-*^ il iiit-ir t»wi. LinrimfreB. Ihiriiur liif 8eT«i 

tf.>u^ju:j'»s 01 -,i.i: :ijf viLi^r iiiMixiii£, i.j irciinr ^err earij lo bed, aud 
r.h. ! ;r uii" y a: :j .1. M- k. *;: u c: t lor iLt- ^Sis^&s^ iieiu from f tiL 1 C A. JL 
at \ut <Ji. <: .';-r-,ert '/'•iLiiieii'/:i:r Lit ionrdayF work of bookfifcliiiig 

¥ iC o.K:^i«-:<; :» «».,♦- Sv-»:Tit-L ILrLIiiiids. jmsiiinr hk IMuh cart along 
ina-y a ion^AV. L.^r tra -t ^..f Lieak ni.K.rmnd-^ task viiicL ofien 
i,»'XfT.''x -.an ::,»- Krt-Lr/i- of Lit out- lirm. AH iLis xinif irt' vae lonij- 
M ^. v.. >.' e:: j.i .jei ::, carryii^r ibt Vord of Lift to tiioae to vLom it 

"' -i*'*- -•- j^.hLe o'vLaiiied Lit Lean's desire, and vas sent to 

fcf i»- t-'-.ti ^^^ ^ .,j- iLu*^-:^r::.r^ '-ra'^.^K-d Fni:tK»it vLich liad faciLtal-ed Ma 
*- - } "- ^r».'*K ar^j Jlevr^w e!ia'-.]*-j t'r.it dillxrf-Li sindent rerr qiiickly 
V, a- y . '*- a *-• f'. '•.*-• : ki^ov^ei^L^e of C L:'j«se i.(« t»er:ii Lif l«K»kfld]ing. In 
^^'•t. ;. 1: t ,,^^T fr^'jr nr.!,:}.?. he a-iuaZ.y l^amed u» recoxrnize, at siglit, 
ti»^y v-.'v.r^r.i of i;^^ IjewI^.it-riT.r-T :?.tn'jai-e Cliinese ideographs, or 
*r, !,«.•, '.;.i.'ii"u.r<. I^riwetrii :^ ■,•>»•.» a^d 4' 'j^X* of ibftse are t<»l»efonnd 
r f.*- wr.t,- -K r,f ( r.^f^r/.^g vLi-L eiijV.»dT iiraciicaliT aU the learn- 



. / '-- .:..:. a. ]>f f..:e oij^ can rt-^d a xeiy timj-k bo(»k in Cbinese, 
' ' '*' ***. ''*'*^ ^> '•'»-', **-e n.u-t :.^ a'' -If to rec-orrnize at least four tboufiand 
of :..»- .':w,;..ar.r.^. It j.t^i fe.r-^-oe]j be said thai the vast majority of 
l^*.^f i..-*-Mr ;..,v*-r a:if-nji.t t/> It-am t-o read.snill less wonld tbej dream 
of .*-a- .J.- to wrJte. Ai in tije early days of the Church, ve may ask 
iu<:t*:'1' Wi^]y, *' Have ar.y of iLe rulers of the people believed ? ''^ The 
^a^t ju<.y,Y\\y of CiiiTjr-se conTerts to Chri^tianitT are qnite illiterate, 
yj i.'-ai av.ut fc. j^er cent, of the Christian men, and all of the Chris- 
tian won.r-ij, arc ui.ar.le to read, aTjd can onlr join in hvmns which 
I'.-y have j.arr.ed by h. art. They receive instruction onlv as they 
J-t^r!j to ^^;.at j^ read or i.n-ar-ht in the mission chnrches— few, indeed, 
<:jxu carry ijojue }>ook^ from m liich to read for the edification of them- 
^^ > > <i^, or Uicjr j.^-i-libor^. From this we can understand something of 
^^' .f^i»ona:.ce of tijc iiiventinn of a system so Terv simple that the 
1! !"1 - >y-^aie, both blind and sigliteil, can learn both to read and 
'j * ' 't " ''^ '^ ''''' ^^'^^'^' "lomlis— many hare done so in half that time. 
^!J\7'''T '''''' »^^"M'^i^'ity of the system is due to the fact that it 
'7^' "j' "' ^"^'^ diainct stages, the first being only for the use of 

1. *- , ;''|* .'^'^^^ '^' ^'J^i^a a lamentable number of these blind, owing to 

» ' - !'i M-/i'7r H Vn V'"'>'' '^"^all-pox, oi)lithalmia, and general dirt. In 

,/_, , Y' ^'"^'"^^ cities it is a common thing to see a dozen or 

k t;,.'.. :'- d \"'r' ''' TT''' "^''^^'"'^ "^ si".^:!^* file, the blind leading 



'UH noise with cvmbals and other discordant 



1898.] WORK AMONG THE CHINESE BLIND. 91 

instmineiits^ in order to extract infinitesimal coins from the deafened 
passengers or shopkeepers, who pay this tax to induce the unsightly 
and noisy procession to move on. 

The majority of the adult blind are the most degraded of the 
population, but occasionally one came to Mr. Murray wishing to buy 
a portion of this "foreign classic of Jesus." When Mr. Murray askt, 
" What is the use to you of a book which you can not see to read ? " 
the answer was: "If I have the book, perhaps some day some one will 
read it to me." Mr. Murray told them how, in Europe and America, 
blind people were taught to read for themselves, but, naturally, he 
seemed to them as one that mockt. From that time, however, he 
never ceast to yearn for some way in which to help the blind, and 
made it his ceaseless prayer that he might be guided how to do it. 
He had need of truly God -given patience, for eight years elapst ere he 
arrived at a satisfactory solution, and during all that time he was 
ceaselessly selling, to the few who could read them, books printed in 
the intricate Chinese characters. 

Ere leaving Scotland Mr. Murray had studied Moon's system of 
raised alphabetic symbols for the blind, but as musical notes can not 
be represented by this type, he saw that it could never satisfactorily 
render the amazingly fine gradations of sound which form the tones, 
so maddening to the foreigner seeking to learn Chinese. But in the 
London Mission, where he lodged, was a little girl who had been born 
blind, and for her books were sent from England in Braille's system 
of embost dots. This system expresses fine gradations of sound so 
clearly that the most complicated music can be written for the blind. 
By taking a group of six dots, and omitting one or more at a time, 
sixty-three symbols can be produced. By means of these can be rep- 
resented the twenty-four letters of the alphabet, which so accurately 
express the forty-one sounds of the English language, and the remain- 
der of the sixty-three may be used to denote punctuation and musical 
notes. But as the Chinese have no alphabet, the first step toward a 
solution of the problem was when Mr. Murray realized that, altho 
there are over 30,000 Chinese characters, there are only four hundred 
and eight sounds in Mandarin Chinese — the language of about three 
hundred millions of the people. But Braille j^rovides only sixty-three 
symbols, how then could these be made to represent four hundred and 
eight sounds ? 

There was then vouchsafed to this patient seeker after the Lord's 
guidance what he recognized as a divine revelation. In the broad noon- 
day, while resting from his long morning of exhausting toil among 
noisy Chinese crowds, he seemed to see a great scroll outspread before 
him, and covered with Braille's embost dots. The thought seemed to 
be flasht into his mind, " Make these dots represent numerals, and 
number the sounds" There, in a nutshell, lies the whole secret. The 



92 WORK AMONG THE CHINB8E BLIND. [FebrUETJ 

same group of dots, differently placed, are used to represent units, 
tens, and hundreds. Thus, symbols representing the numbers 1^ 2, 3, 
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, stand for units; any two of these symbols (e.g., 4 and 
(T= 40), represent tens ; and any three symbols (e.g., 4, 0, and 8 = 408), 
stand for hundreds. Thus it becomes a very simple thing to repre- 
sent any numeral. 

Mr. Murray next numbered the four hundred and eight sounds of 
Mandarin Chinese. 1 stands tor Ah; 2, lorAi; 3, for An; 10, for Chan; 
100, for ^Huan; 400, for Yung; 408, for P^ou. This last sound, which is 
represented by the highest figure required, has a symbol as surprisingly 
simple as any of the others. Then, as an aid to memory, Mr. Murray 
arranged 408 doggerel lines, connecting the numeral with the sound — 
somewhat as children say : 

** One to make ready, 
Two to prepare; 
Three to be off. 
Four to be there." 

The Chinese are all gifted with very retentive memories, and they 

have no difficulty in rapidly mem- 

•^^ ••• • • orizing these lines. Thenceforth 

•• 9 9 « « they find that the touch of the 

** * *•• dots representing any numeral 

•• instinctively suggests the corre- 
•* *• •S^ sponding sound, just as in our 

^J •} •{ ^* own language the sight of a cer- 

# •ii # • tain letter of the alphabet sugfi:ests 
^^ 9 9 •• ^ certain sound. 

••• .jr *r 9* Great was Mr. Murray's joy 

#• • ••• •• when his years of patient, in- 

#•• • XX #* gen ious toil were thus crowned 

• • •• X% •# with success. His first four pupils 

were miserably poor, ignorant 

MR. MUBRAY'S S^JMOF MBOBT DOTS FOB ^^^^^^ bCggarS, whom hC brOUght 

A portion of ft page from one of the GospelB. tO his OWn lod ffiUffS, that he might 
The dote are raised for the blind. ■• i , ? , . 

feed and clothe them, and isolate 
them from contapiinating surroundings. But even these unpromis- 
ing pupils were able to read and write fluently in three months. 

It was at this time (June, 1879,) that, in the course of pro- 
longed travels, I was compelled to visit Peking, and, by a totally 
unforeseen chain of circumstances, found myself the guest of Dr. 
Dudgeon, of the London Mission, and heard these blind men, who had 
been ignorant beggars only about four months before, reading and 
writing fluently from any page prepared for their use in Murray's 
numerical type. 

After my return to England other matters engrost my attention^ 



1898.1 WORK AMONG THB CHINESE BLIND. 93 

80 that it was not until the year 1886 that I came to realize that the 
deyelopment of this remarkable and noble work was greatly limited 
by the fact that Mr. Murray possest nothing beyond his salary as a 
colporteur. This small amount was intended only for his own main- 
tenance, but on it he was maintaining twelve or more blind students, 
besides hiring a room in which they could live. This thought led me 
for the first time to appeal to the public for funds to enable him to 
extend the work. Tho the amounts contributed have never sufQced 
to do this on an adequate scale, they have proved suflScient to convince 
practical men that the system was worth developing and applying. 
Consequently a number of well-known men in Glasgow formed them- 
selves into a home committee, while others in Peking, well acquainted 
with Mr. Murray and his work, form his very practical committee on 
the field. 

Until about the year 1890 only Mr. Murray's work for the blind 
was mentioned. Then came the second stage in what he loves to call 
his revelation, namely, his adaptation of the self-same system for the 
use of sighted persons. Some saiji to him, rather in " chaff," " What 
a privilege it is to be blind, and to learn to read and write in three 
months! Why don't you do something for poor sighted persons, who 
must needs take about six years to learn to read their own compli- 
cated ideographs, and are then far from fluent ? '* It then suddenly 
occurred to him that nothing could be more simple. He had only to 
make the numeral type visible by using 

BLACK LINES INSTEAD OF THE RAISED DOTS. 

Having, with his brush and ink, prepared pages in this manner, he 
and a native assistant tried teaching several intelligent Chinamen, 
each of whom mastered the system in a few days! 

. But everything in China requires patience, and fully a year elapst 
ere he was able to get these new symbols cast in metal type ready for 
the printer. He then took these to his blind scholars, who were 
busily embossing books for the blind, and askt if they could tell what 
they were. After feeling them, the blind students at once replied : 

^ Why, these are our symbols, but you have used lines instead of 
dots* Why have you done this ? *' 

"Because you blind people are now going to print books for 
sighted persons, and you are going to teach them how to read ! " 

This is exactly what is being done, and it would be difficult to con- 
ceive of anything more infinitely pathetic. All day long blind com- 
positors (generally girls) are preparing column after column of this 
clear, simple type, and a sighted colporteur comes in the evening to 
print off the many hundred copies. Then the blind fingers neatly 
disperse the type into its compartments, and again set up new columns. 
Thus all the gospels, most of the epistles, many favorite hymns, and 



g6 spiiiiTtTAL MOVEMEKTS OF THE HAup CENTURT. [February 

to embark on an enterprise whose profits are at risk^ and spend vast 
sums on an experiment. The ship canal projected from Bordeaux on 
the Atlantic, to Narbonne on the Mediterranean, would cost 11 30,000,- 
000. When a few years ago a new fleet of ninety-two vessels was 
planned for the navy of the United States, it was expected to call for 
$20,000,000 a year, for fourteen years! What a work it was to build 
the pyramids, employing one thousand men at a time, and occupying 
twenty years ! The Russian war cost England alone $500,000,000. 
Consider what might have been done in the field of missions with that 
sum, which represents all that has been given in the last seventy-five 
years for world-wide evangelization by the whole Church ! 

It is a shame that we should find the most munificent givers out- 
side of the Church of Christ. Baron Hirsch, of Paris, recently dead, 
gave to the poor Russian Jews, and their fellow Hebrews in Poland, 
Hungary, and Austria, $10,000,000; and shortly after as much more to 
other charities. His benefactions are yet without a parallel in history. 
And this famous financier and railroad kicg, besides giving ten mil- 
lions to Cliristian schools and hospitals in Europe, gave $40,000,000 
to build commercial schools in the waste lands of the continent for 
the Jews. 

One of the awful facts is that there has been a decline and decay of 
liberality in the churches. While the membership increast in thirty 
years three and a half times, there was a decided falling off in the rate 
of giving, and while the total of gifts increast four times, the amount 
given by each converted believer went down to about one-half. 

God wants self-denying giving. Who can look at the Japanese 
temple, with its coil of rope, — larger than a ship's hawser, and weigh- 
ing a ton and a half, made from the hair of Buddha's worshipers, 
and used to lift timbers and stones to their places in the temple build- 
ing, — without feeling the rebuke implied to our self-sparing gifts ? 
Tlie wealth of church members in Protestant communions is, by the 
census, at least $10,000,000,000. Their contributions average one- 
sixteenth of a cent for every dollar, or one dollar in about $1,000. 

What a sacrifice of vanity was that when the women of Israel 
gave their metal mirrors to be melted down and recast for the laver 
of the holy court. As surely as the barnacles ate their way into the 
oak timbers of the Albatross and sank her, selfishness eats into and 
destroys Christian character. Mr. Spurgeon had a contempt for all 
parsimony, and occasionally thundered anathemas against it, and 
again pelted it with ridicule. One morning he said of some un- 
willing givers that they squeezed each shilling until the queen's head 
was well nigh obliterated. The Abb^ Roux keenly remarkt, that "It 
is not as far from the heart to the mouth as from the mouth to the 
hand," meaning that many who talk generously give stingily. 

On the other side of the sea I found examples of disproportionate 



1898.1 THE CULTUBK OF THE GRACE OF GIVING. 87 

giving very rare in this country— giving which would be thought by 
most people quite out of proportion to their selfish indulgence. For 
example: First case — A governess, out of the £100 that she earns, 
keeps £50 and gives the other £50 away. Like Zaccheus, she says : 
" Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor.'* Second 
case — " One whose income is £2,000, lives on £200 and gives £1,800 
away,^' thus parting with not only one-tenth, but with nine tenths of 
what is received. Tliird case — " Another, who earns £1,500 a year, 
lives on £100 and gives £1,400 away,'* and thus £14 out of every £15 
are devoted to the claims of religion and charity. Fourth case — 
"Another, whose income is £8,000, lives on £250 and gives the 
balance away." What a balance to part with: £31 given back to God 
out of every £32 received from Him ! Mr. Gladstone's brief eulogy 
of Mr. Peabody was : " One who taught us the most needful of all 
lessons : how a man may be a master of his fortune and not its slave." 
There is one lesson even more needful— namely, that we should learn 
that no man can assume to be the " master of a fortune " without 
virtually disputing the fact of his stewardship. 

God wants consecrated capital for consecrated work. When Theresa 
felt the need of a hospital, she had but three farthings, but she began 
to build, for while " Theresa and three farthings were nothing, God 
and three farthings were incalculable." 

God wants conscientious and systematic giving. Stonewall Jack- 
son, on the day after the second battle of Bull's Run, in the midst of 
all the feverish excitement of the war, inclosed his contribution for 
missions, due on the Sabbath. As he could not be present, he could 
not neglect the offering. 

If one is content to appropriate a certain proportion to benevolent 
work, let him be sure the proportion increases as the wealth accumu- 
lates. More than half a century ago, Nathaniel Cobb sat down in his 
counting-house in Boston, and wrote the following solemn covenant : 

"By the grace of God, I will never be worth more than fifty thou- 
sand dollars. By the grace of God, I will give one-fourth of the net 
profits of my business to charitable and religious uses. If I am ever 
worth twenty thousand dollars, I will give 07ie-half of my net profits ; if 
I am worth thirty thousand dollars, 1 will give three-fourths ; and the 
whole after fifty thousand dollars. So help me God, or give to a more 
faithful steward, and set me aside." 

This covenant he subscribed and adhered to with conscientious 
fidelity as long as he lived. On his death-bed he said to a friend, 
" By the grace of God, nothing else, I have bef3n enabled, under the 
infiuence of these resolutions, to give away more than forty thousand 
dollars. How good the Lord has been to me! " 

We should begin the ministry of money when we have but little. 
As the Persian proverb says : 



96 WORK AMONG THB cHiNKSE BLIND, [February' 

it waa a thirty days' journev, in the midat of the bitterly cold winter, 
and acroBB a country whose roada are practically non-exietent. It 
needed strong faith and determination to face such difficultiea as those 
of the mere journey, to say nothing of residence with foreigners in a 



strange city, in order to acquire their wondrous new arts. But 
these blind Christian women persevered, and in due season returned 
to their homes, not only able to read the Holy Scriptures for tbem- 
selvea, but competent to instruct others also both in reading and 
writing.* 

The British and Chinese Bible Society distributes throughont the 
Chinese Empire the Bible in classical Mandarin, 10 Colloquial, Eat- 
muck, Mongolian, and Tibetan languages. In ISdG some 540,000 booka 
were printed. 36C,0OO books were put into circulation, of which 
358,000 were sold, and S,000 given away. The booka are nearly always 
sold at a price to pay for the paper, and it was an indication of the 
remarkable progress of Christianity that 11,000 Kew Teataments in 
excellent bindings were sold. 



* Thoeevbowlsb ma; order copies ot HIsb Qordon Cuirun Lug's little book "Work for tha 
Blind" {price M.. postage 3<J.)i trotn the publishen. Messrs. Olll>Brt£RlTlngtOD, Clerkenwell, 
London. For Ihoiie who prefer giving direet help to the blind, I nwy mention that about 
£10 ($S0) covers all expenses lor the mBintensnce of one pupil for a yenr. Subscriptions wUl 
be gladly received by D. I.. Piereou, Wi Marey Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., who wUl forwart 
tbem to the treasurer, Prof. B. U. Russell, The University, Peking, China. 



1898.] MIB8IONARY BTATISTIC8. 97 



MISSIONARY STATISTICS. 

BY REV. J, VAHL, NORRE-ALSLEV, DEKTMARK, 
President of the Danish Missionary Society. 

During recent years mnch progress has been made in the science 
of missionary statistics, as well as in all other branches of the work 
of missions. This science is of comparatively recent development, and 
it is not strange therefore that it has no place in earlier missionary 
reports. The first reports in which we find extensive statistics are 
those of the Wesleyan Missionary Society for 1820, the Church Mis- 
sionary Society for 1823, and the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel for 1832.* Gradually the statistics have been made more 
complete, and have been given by a larger number of societies, altho 
some are still greatly lacking in this respect. The first statistics, 
which included the work of all of the evangelical missions, were, so far 
as we know, those publisht in London in 1861. But the anonymous 
author {Dr. Moister) says in the preface: 

** So defective are the reports of some societies, and so various are the 
modes adc^ted by different oodies for classifying laborers, that it is not 
poBsible to gather from publisht documents even the exact number of 
missionary laborers now employed among the unevangelized. Still more 
defective and perplexing are returns found to be when an effort is made 
to ascertain who are male and who are female assistants from Christian 
lands, and who are native helpers. It Would be well if some approach to 
uniformity were adopted by the various missions in the estimating of 
laborers and results. Until this is attained, all estimates, however care- 
fully made, will be very unsatisfactory." 

In 1874 a new edition of these statistics was publisht with essen- 
tial emendations, and since that time missionary statistics have made 
considerable progress. This is manifested by the very emendated 
reports of the various societies, by the statistical tables given in the 
reports of the large conferences in India, China, Japan, etc., by the 
statistical work of Dr. E. M. Bliss,! ^^' Grundemann,! Rev. J. Vahl,§ 
and by workers in various countries, like Eev. H. Loomis, of Japan, 
and others. 

But are missionary statistics of any use? Much can be read out 
of the dead figures, and it would be found difficult to express progress 
and decline in the different departments of missionary work without 
using them. But, on the other hand, one must take care not to read 
too much in the numbers. They speak only of quantity, -not of the 




1S6S (perhaps earlier); London Missionary Societv, 1856; Methodist Episcopal Society, 1869; 
Bhcfiish Mi»ionary society, 1881; American Board of Commissioners for Forei^ Missions, 
1SB2 (instead of the summaries); Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, 1887. in some of them 
staUMlcs about some of the missions have been found before. The three great Presbyterian 
Churches of Scotland, without doubt, included them at a comparatively early date, as did 
the Ooesoer Missionary Society, the Swedish Missionary Union, and others.— J. v. 

t ** Encyclopeedla of Missions." t Allgemeine MUsiona Zeitschrift 

I Nordisk MiaaiontitUchriftj reprinted in '* Missions to the Heathen.'' 



98 MIS8IONART BTATiBTics. [February 

quality. No one, by means of them, can read how many really faith- 
ful, efficient missionaries are to be found, how many of the native 
ministers, helpers, and communicants are consecrated, faithful men, 
or what is the proportion of true believers to backsliders and unbe- 
lievers. But when we read that the number of native ministers in 
fifty years has increast from 158 to 4,018 (more than 20 fold), that 
the communicants have, in the last five years, increast by 200,000, and 
the number of Christians has increast at a rate much in excess of that 
of the population, and that the incomes of the societies have, on the 
whole, been steadily augmented, one must be a foolish and negative 
critic to underrate their value. 
Dr. Moister deplored the 

DIFFICULTY OF GETTING ACCURATE INFORMATION. 

There has been much progress in this direction, and yet there are some 
small societies, from which it is very difficult, or impossible, to secure 
accurate information. Especially from the Dutch societies such is 
generally wanting. In some reports no returns are given from some 
fields; here an approximate return ought to be given by the secretary, 
or it ought to be demanded that the missionaries report the items every 
year. Dr. Moister further complained that the modes of classifying 
the laborers are too varied and uncertain. Even now this is not at all 
satisfactory. Some of the societies have foreign missions, not only 
among the heathen, but also among Koman Catholic or Oriental Chris- 
tians, and some of them even among evangelical Christians.* In these 
cases deduction must be made in the general missionary statistics. 
But in the general tables of statistics, these various items ought all to 
be treated in the same way. 

There is also a difference in the use of the name " missionary J* 
Sometimes it is used to denote only the ordained missionary, whereas 
there may be missionaries, like Borresen and Skrefsrud among the 
Santals, who for many years remain unordained. The medical unor- 
dained missionaries, who also preach the Gospel, shall they not be 
called missionaries ? Some years ago a bishop in the Universalist Mis- 
sion said, that every white man employed by the mission, even as 
printer or artisan, did a real missionary work, and should be included 
under the head of missionaries. And what shall be done with the 
missionary 4)lanters, as in tlie Zambesi Industrial Mission ? Again, 
what is meant by assistant missionaries ? Sometimes these include all 
female missionaries, wives, and sometimes men, whose work is directed 

* In the reports of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel no difference is made 
between missions among colonists and amon^ heathen. The worcfs ''foreign missions*' are 
also understood in a different way, the American missionary societies understanding thereby 
only missions in foreign countries^ and counting the missions among the heathen in the United 
States among home missions, whereas the missions to the heathen in British North America 
(in the reports of the Church Missionary Society, etc.), are put under foreign missions. The 
missions among the negroes in the West Indies are, in the reports of the Moravians, IJnited 
Presbyterians, etc., found among the missions to the heathen, but among the Baptists, Angli- 
cans, and Methodists they are excluded, and named self-supporting churches, as they really 
are. 



1898.] MISSIONARY STATISTICS. 99 

« 

but not supported by the society reporting the statistics. Native 
ministers are also variously designated^ sometimes being counted as 
ordained ministers^ and sometimes as lay preachers. Native assistants 
sometimes include unpaid helpers,- and sometimes even heathen 
teachers. 

Conimunicants, I think, now always mean the same thing. The 
Leipzig Missionary Society indicates by this the number of Christians 
who have communicated during the year (10 persons communing 4 
times gives 40 communicants)^ but in the last reports there is a special 
note, entitled "To Communion/' which gives the number of communi- 
cants in the common sense of the word. In some reports (Methodist) 
the communicants are called members, and in the Dutch reports' they 
are not to be found at all. The word " Christian" is also used in differ- 
ent senses. With some it is equivalent to baptized adults and children, 
but witb the Baptists it is the same as members. Adherents in some 
reports indicate* not baptized members, but catachumens, while in 
other reports these are either omitted or are given separately, f In the 
same report the sum of the items of the several countries is sometimes 
different from that given in the general summary. 

There is another difficulty. 

A2S" APPARENT SUDDEN" DECREASE 

among communicants may be caused by defections to Romanism 
through bribery, or may be due to more severe discipline in the 
Church, which has caused the exclusion of some hitherto counted as 
Christians. Such seeming discrepancies ought always to be explained. 
Thus it will be easily understood that the compilation of a uniform 
statistical table, which includes the work of the many societies and 
agencies, is a somewhat difficult task, and that every such work is 
necessarily imperfect. It can, however, be done with more or less 
success and accuracy. To get rid of some of the difficulties, it was pro- 
posed in the Continental Missionary Conference, hold at Bremen, in 
1893, to formulate some general rules for the statistics of the different 
German missionary societies. It might be a great desideratum, if 
some such rules for the statistics of all missionary societies could be 
agreed upon at the coming International Missionary Conference to 
be held in New York in 1900. This would be difficult, but I think 
that it might be done, in some respects at least. 

(1) All societies should give the number of those who can be 
admitted to the Holy Communion. 

(2) Unmarried female missionaries and wives should be given 
separately. 

« 

* Baptist Misstonary Society and American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

t In the A. B. C. F. M. report for 1896, p. 115, the adherents are given as 187,789, and the 
mrenge congregations as 71,449. 



100 MISSIONARY STATISTICS. [February 

(3) The numbers of white missionaries^ ordained, unordained, and 
medical, should be given separately. 

(4) Unordained native helpers should be distinguisht from ordained. 

(5) Only the salaried Christian helpers should be noted, altho 
others might be given separately. 

(6) Adherents should be taken to mean only baptized non-com- 
municants, unless otherwise stated. 

I also deem it desirable and practicable that the work among the 
heathen be distinguisht from the work among the Christians, even if 
these were only nominal Christians and practical heathen. This 
should be done especially where the work is among evangelical 
Christians. If it were possible to prevail upon the American socie- 
ties to classify the work among the Indians under the heathen, it 
would be desirable. It ought also to be a rule that when a 
mission is considered as having attained its aim it should be so indi- 
cated; for it is anomalous that in the same countries {e. g. West 
Indies) some missions should be put 4own as missions to heathen, and 
some as organized churches. It might also be helpful if in some 
Anglican colonies the work among colonists could be noted separately 
from the work among the natives.* 

Another item which should be mentioned is the income of societies, 

m 

It is important to have these recorded in the yearly budget of the 
societies, that the statistician may see if progress has been made. From 
the total income is to be deducted the balance from the previous year, 
and the receipts from the sale of publications issued by the society, so 
that only the net income may be included in the income of the year. 
It would also be useful if the donations, collections, etc., were separated 
from the legacies and interest on investments. It would be interest- 
ing to know how much is received from the Church at home and how 
much from foreign countries. Some German societies receive a large 
proportion of their income from foreign countries.! The income 
from the mission field has also begun to be considerable, and ought to 
be noted. Sometimes it is included in the income of the society, and 
sometimes it is given as contribution to self -support. Then again the 
expenses for benevolent purposes are not always separated from those 
for strictly religious purposes. Gifts other than money are also not 
generally estimated at their pecuniary value.J It may be next to 
impossible that the same system should be adopted by all societies for 
the tabulating of their receipts, but any move in that direction would 
go a great way toward making the general statistical review of all 
societies much more useful and trustworthy. 

* This is done in the reports of the Wesleyan South African Conference and of the Dutch 
Church in Africa, etc. 

t The Moravians received at least half from this source in 1895; the Rhenish Mission 
Society one-eig:hth (1896). The Lutheran Missionary Society oue-sixth (1896). The Basel 
Missionary Society receives about half of ita income from Germany. 

t With the Plymouth Brethren very much Is sent to the missionaries themselves which la 
not Included in the yearly income of the society. 



1898.] 



MISSIONARY STATISTICS. 



101 



The different Bible, tract, and religious literature societies are a 
great help to the missionary societies, but in the statistics of missions 
only their expenditure for books in the native language and for the 
salaries of workers among the heathen should be included in the mis- 
sionary statistics. In the expenditures of the missionary societies a 
distinction ought also to be made (as the late Bey. £oyal G. Wilder 
tried to do in the Missionary Beview some years ago) between 
amounts expended for direct missionary work, for administration, on 
the outfitting of new missionaries, and for sundry expenses. 

The following is a comparative statistical table, which may serve 
to indicate the past progress and the outlook for the future: 



MiBsionaries . . 

Unmarried fe- 
male mission- 
aries 

Communicants 

Native minis- 
ters 

Native helpers. 

Native aisci- 
ples 

Income 

Societies 



1820 


1890 


421' 


734 


• 

1 
21,787« 


31 
51,322« 


r 

106 


? 

850^ 


15,728* 
£121,756 
20» 


102,275 
£226,440 
25" 



1,310 



72 



158 
3,152 



£632,000 
65 



1850 


1880 


2,032 


4,135 


76 
227,000 


1,880 
850,000 


160 
5,785 


3,327 
41,754 


252,000 

£018,000 

08 


£2,i3biooo 

262 



1805 



10 



6,360 



3,300 
1,057,000 

4,018 
61,424 

864,000 
£2,807,000 
365 



These statistics are not to be taken as giving a complete showing 
of the work of the various years, but only as a very incomplete view 
thereof, the reports being both vei^ difficult to obtain and in them- 
selves very incomplete. But the progress is very evident, and almost 
every year it is to be noted in very nearly every item. In 70 years 
the number of missionaries has been doubled 15 times, that of the 
communicants 50 times, that of the native ministers 5,100 times. The 
income of the societies has been increast twentyfold, and that of the 
societies and agencies tenfold. Could the reports of the different 
societies be obtained and thoroughly studied, and could the informa- 
tion thereby obtained be amplified from the archives of the societies, 
the general statistics could be made more elaborate and trustworthy; 
but the time and the expense necessary to accomplish this would be 
too great to permit of its being undertaken. 



^Moravian, 83; London Missionary Society, 80; Wesleyan Missionary Society, 77; American 

rd, 64; Church Missionary Society, 61; Baptist Missionary Society, 84. 

*Wesleyan Missionary Society, 90,711; Moravian, London Missionary Society, Society for 



the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, as the others give no returns. 

'Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge. 

*Very incomplete. 

*From some very imperfect returns. Also 18 other societies (mostly book societies from 
which there are no returns). 



*We8leyan Missionary Society, 84,904; Baptist, 9,940. 

^OnlyfK " 

'And SS with no returns. 



'Only n-om 7 societies. 



•For 1846, 1H90 vide Vahl, ''Der Stand der Heldenmission in den Jahren 1845 und 1890,'' 
Gatersloh, 189S. 

'*Vahl " Missions to Heathen '' Copenhagen, 1890, and yearly. 



THE iJLND OF THB lAHAs. [Febroary 

THE LAND OF THE LAMAS.* 



The original religion of Tibet, ao revered by modern Theosophists, 
must have been a form of devil worship, but during the first century 
of the Chrietian era Buddhist missionaries went from Cashhiere and 
converted that portion of Tibet which is now known ae Ladakh. 
The Chinese pilgrim, Hwen Thseng, who visited Cashmere in 638, 
A. D., (about the time that Jerusalem was conquered by the Saracens), 
found the mass of the people given over to Hinduism, and the monas- 
teries of the Buddhists were already deserted. The MobammedaQ 



conquest of Cashmere completed the ruin of Buddhism in that pro- 
vince, and now tlie people are nearly all Moslems, altlio the ruler is a 
Sikh or Hindu Prince. But Buddhism survived in Ladakh, and its 
capital city Lch is an im2>ortant center of Tibetan Buddhism. 

After crossing the snowy Zoji La Pass, and descending into the 
■ hot, dry valley which leade to Kargyl, one meets with the first signs of 
Lamaiam, about ten days' marcli from Srinagar, the capital of Cash- 
mere. At Sheogol there is a little monastery perched upon the face 
of the cliff, 300 feet above the stream. Four miles further on there is 
the monastery of Mulbek, also built upon an isolated rocky peak. 
Almost every village has a monastery inhabited by monks with shaven 
heads atid red robes, who take part in services, copy manuscripte, 

• TWa paper la prepared and contributed by Dr. T. I'. Huglies, of New Tort 



1S98.] THK Ujm OF THE l^HAB. 103 

carve Btones, tnm prayer wheels, and guide the religiong life of the 
people. These monks are great land owners, and by lending money 
on land securities, they make the peasants their serfs. 

On the outskirts of a village there will often he noticed a. Buddtilat 
cenotaph or "chorten," in appearance like a large monnment with a 
globniar expansion, and terminating in a point. The whole is nsQslIy 
whitewasht, except the top. The Buddhists burn their dead, and 
after the body of a deceast Lama (Buddhist priest) has been cremated, 
the ashes are mist with clay, molded and atampt into small medallions 
with images, and are finally deposited in a cavity in one of these 
cenotaphs. 

The people in this region have Mongolian features. The men 
wear pigtails. The women have headdresses of cloth, covered with 
large tnrquoises, and balanced 
by ear-flaps of lamb's wool; 
they wear cloaks of sheep skin, 
and richly colored dresses. 

The monasteries are pic- 
turesque, irregular buildings, 
vhitewaeht and built in ter- 
races and witli flat roofs. They 
are usually located on promi- 
nent rocks or cliffs. In the 
Talley of the 8ok Cha stands 
the monastery of Suk Sun 
PoDg Gong. It is perchfc on 
an isolated rock, at the foot of 
which are clustered a miserable 
collection of mnd huts. " The 

whole thing exemplifies well ^ bdodhbt chobtdi, lidamb. 

the state of affairs in Tibet, 

the comfortable stately monastery in which the well-fed, well-drest, 
priestly monks reside, and the miserable huts occupied by the poverty- 
it rick en peasants, soul and body the slaves of the monks, and 
eronching at their feet," 

The Lamas object to foreigners being allowed to enter their 
nonaaterios, possibly because they do not wish their wealth to be 
discovered by foreign conquerors. Occasionally, however, a foreigner 
may gain admittance. On the floor of one (to which Dr. Neve was 
nimitted) were rows of flat benches for the monks. Ronnd the walls 
vere shelves and pigeonholes full of hooka and manuscripts. The 
rich vestments of the priests hung upon the wall| and here and there 
rere massive copper bowls, jugs, and basins, together with the 
A-nms, cymbals, clarinets, and shawms used by the monastery band. 
There were wooden blocks for printing books and prayer sheets. 



104 ^^E I.AMD OF THE ij^HAs. [Febmsiy 

The walls and pillars were hnng with tapestry, banners, and pic- 
tures. On a raised platform at one end of the room were rows of 
images, some of them eight feet high, and made of metal or cif 
gilded or painted clay. The images and everything else about the 
place had a Chinese aspect. On the walls were also nnmerons paint- 
ings illustrating the Buddhist purgatory. 

The prayer-cylindera or wheels of Tibet have always attracted the 
notice of travelers. They are about two feet high and revolve on a 
pivot. The prayer is either painted on the outside or is written on a 
piece of paper and thrust into a cavity. As the monks pass these 
prayer-wheels they set them in motion. Those placed outside the 
mooasteriea are kept con- 
stantly revolving by wind or 
water-power, thus causing 
continual petitions to be 
repeated without trouble 
to the worshipers. 

The "mysteries" or 
" miracle plays " of the 
Tibet monks are exceedingly 
interestinguDd unique. The 
most famous of these was 
played at Hem is, where 
three hundred monks gath- 
ered to participate in th» 
ceremonies. The object of 
the plays or masquerades 
is to impress upon the peopb 
the value of priestly inl^t 
cession. Moskt monks re[- 
* iu«T I.AM*, Di»c»a. '^^^"* horrible demons. 

Others, in monkish robes aid 
miters, with bells and holy water and incantations, represent the holy 
priesthood controlling the actions of the demons. Troops of ricbj 
drest, but horribly maskt forms march around, some armed wilh 
ghastly symbols, modela of human viscera, skulls, sickles, cana, 
hammers, swords, and instnimenta of torture. At one stage in t^e 
exercises they seem to be struggling for the soul of man, which is 
represented by a dough image. The influence of the evil spirit appcsrs 
only to partiiilly restrain the incantations of the Lamas. Finaly 
portions of the struggling soul are given to each actor. Then tiie 
whole mystery-play closes with a procession of tiger-devile, ape-devjs, 
and other roprosentiitions of lost spirits. 

The spiritual and temporal head of the Tibetan government is lio 
Dalai Lama or graud Lama of Lhasa. lie is supposed to come of ige 



1898.] THE I^ND OF THE LAMAB. 105 

at eighteen, but invariably dies before he attains hia majority. After 
death, the Dalai Lama is said once more to become incarnate in a 
child,and the monks go to look for him. Assisted by divine inspiration, 
they finally fix upon some child who, upon reaching four years of age, 
is tested by being called upon to identify property belonging to the 
deceast Lama. When the new Dalai Lama is discovered, intimation 
is sent to the Emperor of China, to whom Tibet is tributary. 

The population of Cashmere Tibet may be estimated at from three 
to four millions, Chinese Tibet, which is not open to travelers, is 
governed by its own chiefs, and has three or four millions more. Thus 
the population of Tibet must be about seven million souls. 

Tibet itself is closed to Europeans, not by Chinese exclusiveness, 
but by the power of the Lamas, wielded like that of the Papacy in the 
middle ages. The 
Dalai Lama is 
supported by 
tens of thousands 
of monks, re- 
cruited from the 
people and living 
on them — a para- 
sitic growth 
which crushes all 
freedom of 
thought or ac- 
tion, and under 
the gnise of as- 
ceticism encour- 
a£ca the vilest 

immorality. tIi» rmuMe wnpper l. mmMM «ro« the wpot. 

Nothing short 

of a military occupation of Lhasa itself by British troops would avail 
to deliver the country from their yoke. Even in Ladakh the power of 
ibe Lamas exfffcises a most baneful influence. 

But Tibet has been blockaded by missions placed in strategic points 
on its frontier, so as to evangelize Tibetan traders. As a base of opera- 
tions on the Indian side, Sikkim and Darjceling offer the advantage 
of ready communication with Europe, but this is counterbalanced by 
the jealousy with which the Tibetans watch the frontier. Ladakh is, 
perhaps, too far west to affect Central Tibet very decidedly, but the 
Moravian missionaries there are carr}'ing on a noble work among the 
Tibetan traders. Christian outposts seem most likely to affect Tibet 
if placed on the Chinese border. An indigenous Christianity in 
Upper Ynnnan and Western Sczhuan would most probably spread 
the Gospel in tlie beautiful and populous valleys of Eastern Tibet. 



106 A jouBNKY INTO TONQUiN. [February 

A JOURNEY INTO TONQUIN.* 

REV. WILLIAM UPCRAFF, SZCHUAN, CHINA, 
Missionary of the American Baptist Missionary Union. 

Among the fields yet unoccupied by the evangelical mission forces, 
none, is more needy and, in some aspects, more promising than the 
great French possessions in southeastern Asia. The reconstruction 
which always accompanies the establishment of a new form of govern- 
ment among a subject people, affords an unusual opportunity for the 
preaching of the Gospel and its affiliated good offices. At such a 
time men's minds are apt to be susceptible to new truths, and the new 
truths are essential, if the reconstruction is to be more than skin deep. 

Indo-China, the French possessions in the Orient, has been steadily 
increasing in extent since Cochin-China was definitely annext, over 
thirty years ago. It now extends from the Gulf of Siam, and the 
delta of the Menam on the south and west to the southern border of 
China proper on the north ; and by recent treaty with England the 
Mekong forms its boundary in the northwest. Current interest 
centers about Tonquin (or Tong-king), owing to its position along the' 
Chinese border, affording thus a convenient base from which to exploit 
China's western territory. 

The traveler from the north leaves Yunnan-fu (China), capital of 
the province of same name, in which there is a station of the China 
Inland Mission, and which is also the seat of the Catholic bishopric, 
and after nine days* travel through a picturesque but sparsely peopled 
country, arrives at Mengtze, where are a French consul and officers of 
the Chinese Imperial Customs. Mengtze is important as the port of 
entry for the trade route through Tonquin. The Catholics have a 
mission here in charge of a French priest, who has come since the 
place was opened by the French authorities. The interrelation 
between the missionaries of " the church " and the French officials 
has a color of suspicion to the Chinese mind, and is thus prejudicial 
to the best interests of their mission work. 

From Mengtze to Manhao, the little Chinese . town on the Bed 
Eiver, is a journey of two days, and leads one from the breezy, bracing 
highlands of the Yunnan plateaux to the stifling, fever-laden atmos- 
phere of the river valley, which has proved so fatal to French and 
Chinese alike. The Red Biver rises near Tali-fu in the western part 
of Yunnan, and follows a devious and difficult course among the 
mountains, till it nears the border of Tonquin. Here it becomes navi- 
gable for small Chinese boats, and at the frontier is large enough for 
small steamers. These connect at Yembay with other lines, and so 
make possible quick passage to the sea and the outer world. 

In the almost insufferable inn at Manhao there was a suggestive 

* Also spelt Tongking and Tonkin. 



1898.] A JOUBNEY INTO TONQtTIK. 107 

combination that could not fail to be noticed. By the door stood an 
empty coffin, while near by, on a rade straw pallet, lay a Chinese 
youth tossing in the fire and partial delirium of fever. At frequent 
intervals the host came to look upon his guest, and in forcible, oft- 
repeated request bade the sick man begone. " Don^t stay here and 
die; get outside.*' And why ? To die would necessitate a burial, the 
expense of which would fall upon the innkeeper. A question of cash 
anywhere will generally stifle the strivings of the Chinese not too- 
robust humanity. 

Next day we found ourselves part cargo of a Chinese boat headed 
for Lao-kai, the frontier post in French territory. Besides ourselves 
and such other passengers as could find a place in the narrow boat, we 
carried tin, opium, and native medicines. Of the exports through 
Tonquin, tin and opium make about eighty per cent., and opium is on 
the increase. 

About noon of the second day we came opposite to Shinfang, a 
little village, the last on Chinese soil, that serves as a kind of feeder 
to Lao-kai. A shallow, rapid stream flows into the Red Eiver on the 
left bank, and is the real boundary line between the two countries. 
Our boat stopt at Shinfang, whence we walkt to the ferry which car- 
ried us across the boundary stream, and so we stood 

ON FRENCH TERRITORY. 

A couple of revenue officers awaited us at the ferry landing to search 
all passengers, an object lesson in French colonial policy. 

Lao-kai is a garrison first; all other phases of its life are subor- 
dinate to this. The little town that nestles in the shadow of the fort 
exists principally to supply the needs of the military, of whom there 
is a large force. The fort is built about some old Chinese temples, a 
part of which we occupied during our stay in the place. 

Across the river are the quarters of the Annamese soldiers, who 
are brought up from the lower country for military duty along the 
frontier. Slim, lithe, rather under the average height of the Chinese, 
they have the features of the Celestials, but they lack the character- 
istic curiosity and impudence of their former masters. Our impression 
of the people at Lao-kai, which was intensified by further acquaintance, 
was that this people were broken in spirit, lower than the Chinese in 
development, and less markt in character. The women are active, 
better built than the men, and seem to take a prominent part in the 
affairs of life. In some places they contest with the coolies for 
their share of the hardest of manual labor. The children were there 
in shoals, merry, mischievous, black-eyed urchins in every stage of 
undress, and in splendid harmony with their surroundings. 

The trade is mostly in the hands of the Chinese,- whose influence 
and conduct are not for the well-being of Tonquin. 



108 A JOURNEY INTO TONQUiN, [February 

Prom Lao-kai to Haiphong, the port of the province, is three days* 
journey down stream. The country, for the first day, is little better 
than unclaimed jungle, so far as one can see, yet there must be many 
people there who choose to live in the retreat of the jungle rather than 
in the more conspicuous places by the river's bank. Such a tendency 
to caution has become strong in them because of past oppression. 
After leaving Yembay, the prospect opens out more, evidences of cul- 
tivation are seen, and every stopping place is busier than the last. 

Two things are prominent — the military and the missionary. Sol- 
diers are everywhere, apparently in every condition of disorder and 
neglect. " The fathers of the church '' have a good hold upon the 
people in the lower country. One earnest, isolated man took great 
pleasure and pains in explaining to us the character and extent of his 
field and the results of his work. Later he showed us over the unfin- 
i»ht cathedral. Then, seeing we did not take either wine or cigars, 
And much wishing to show us hospitality, he had the church bell rung 
that we might hear ''the sound of the church-going bell,'' a thing 
quite unknown in the far land where our work lies. 

Hanoi, the capital of Tonquin, is a neat, quiet city, standing round 
a little lake at the head of the delta, less than a hundred miles from 
the sea. The country between Hanoi and Haiphong is one large, flat, 
marshy rice field, intersected everywhere by narrow, deep canals, the 
connecting lines for different points. The villages, embowered in the 
greenest and most graceful bamboos, stand around in profusion on every 
hand. The local temple serves as a nucleus and attraction. The bamboo 
walls and brown straw thatch of the miniature houses show in admir- 
able harmony — at a distance — the same distance generally observed 
by the critical globe trotter, when he writes con amore of the poetic 
East. 

Along this open highway — tha Red River valley — lies a most needy 
field for missionary work. Tonquin has 60,000 square miles of terri- 
tory, a population of about ten millions, a stable form of government 
under French rule, and is within easy communication both East and 
West. It is probable that, owing to international jealousies and ambi- 
tions, nowhere so acute as in the Orient, an Englishman would be 
lookt upon with suspicion here. Such a disadvantage would not be 
attacht to an American citizen, and it is to them the appeal comes. It 
is probable that none of the organized societies are prepared to take 
up such a work. Shrinkage in receipts, with advance imperatively 
needed on fields already occupied, quite exhaust all the means at hand. 
But among individual Christians, with deepening convictions as to 
their service for Christ, free from home responsibilities, and financial- 
ly able to bear the cost of their own support, Tonquin offers an invit- 
ing and urgently needy field. 

The hand of God is in the opening of Asia, and the expanding 



1898-] THE ISLAND OF HAINAN. 109 

rule of Westeru powers in these strongholds of conservatism and hea- 
thenism, is the opportunity, and therefore the obligation, for all who 
can re8{>ond. 

France has recently added a new province or two to Tonquin, thus 
bringing her western frontier up to the eastern limit of British Burma. 
From the Burmese side the loyal and much-blest missionaries of the 
Baptist Missionary Union have been working since the days of Jud- 
son, and are extending their frontiers toward the sunrising. 

It remains now for some to go in at the eastern seaboard and work 
their way westward, till the forces of the Presbyterian Church, advanc- 
ing northward from Siam, the Baptist workers from the west, the 
Chinese missions from the north, shall meet the workers from the Ton- 
qnin coast, and so southeastern Asia be occupied by the forces of 
Evangelical Christendom for the glory of God and the salvation of 
the nations there. 



THE ISLAND OF HAINAN. 

BY ROBERT E. SPEER, NEW YORK, 
Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Forei^ Missions. 

The war with Japan involved the loss to China of the Korean 
peninsula and the island of Formosa, or Tai-wan. The island of 
Hainan also might have gone, had it not been too far to the south, 
where it lies within the tropics, between the eighteenth and twentieth 
degrees of north latitude. It constitutes a part of the province of 
Kwang-tung, or Canton. In Yu-lin-kang bay, on the south of the 
island, where there are traces of Mohammedanism in a mosque and 
school, the East India Company used to lay up and repair its ships a 
century ago. But the island had been little known and uncared for 
during the present century, until the French in Tonquin collided with 
the Chinese, and turned covetous eyes toward Hainan, which lies full 
across the Gulf of Tonquin, and until Protestant missionaries and 
trade workt their way in, within the last twenty years. The open 
port of the island, Hoihow, is now connected with Hongkong and 
Tonquin by a line of French steamers. 

Hainan is the southernmost territory of China, and guards the 
entrance to the southern rivers. The empire understands the impor- 
tance of the island, and in recent years had erected lighthouses and 
forts of modern construction, fitted with Krupp guns, instead of the 
harmless old structures, which, with exposed cannon and tumbling 
parapets, add greatly to the picturesqueness of Hoihow harbor. 

The island is one of the largest prefectures of the Kwang-tung 
Province, about one hundred and fifty miles in length and one hun- 
dred miles in breadth. There are no roads, however, and the paths 



110 THE ISLAND OF HAINAN. [February 

and trails over the mountains, in the heart of the island, are circui- 
tous, so that from Hoihow to Lak-loh is a twenty days' journey. The 
island is rich in many products, full of palm trees, and productive 
yearly of many thousands of pigs for the markets of Hongkong and 
Canton. There is no greater delicacy to the Chinese than pork. The 
pigs are encased in bamboo crates, each just holding one pig, and are 
handled like bags of grain and piled on top of each other, four and 
five deep, on the ships. The Chinese have solved the problem of 
handling pigs tractably. 

There are three or four strata of population in Hainan. The total 
population of the island does not exceed 1,500,000. Of these one- 
third are said to be Lois, who are different from the Chinese and the 
aboriginal tribes in the central mountains. Hainanese is the Chinese 
dialect spoken by the Chinese people. The Lois speak their own dia- 
lect. Dr. Henry supposes them to be the descendants of the Mias-tsz, 
who were brought long ago from the mountains of Kwang-tung and 
Kwang-si to serve as mediators between the Chinese and the wild Le 
tribes of the interior. How many of these latter there are is not 
known, and their origin is hidden. Laos missionaries have maintained 
that there are sufficient resemblances of character and speech to 
justify the belief that there is some family relationship between these 
people and the Laos tribes which border on the south of Kwang-si. 
There is great suspicion and dislike toward the Chinese on the part of 
the Les, who cling to their mountain homes, and are a rude and primi- 
tive people. Near Xodoa there is a large Hakka population, aggre- 
gating about 20,000, who speak their Hakka dialect. The Hakkas on 
the mainland are immigrants from northern provinces, who have 
never assimilated with the Cantonese, and who constitute about one- 
third of the population of the province. 

Protestant mission work was begun in Hainan by Mr. C. C. Jere- 
miassen, a Dane, who had been in the Chinese customs service, and 
who had withdrawn from it to give himself wholly to Christian work 
in the island in 1881. He became a missionary of the Presbyterian 
Board in 1885, and two years later three other missionaries with their 
wives joined him — the Rev. F. P. Oilman, Dr. H. M. McCandless, and 
the Rev. J. C. Melrose, who died last summer. The work at first was 
confined to Kiung-chow, the capital of the island, a few miles from 
Hoihow, and to itinerating. Mr. Jeremiassen, in 1882, made the circuit 
of the island on foot. Since then the field has been more fully opened 
up. Hoihow has been occupied and Nodoa, while Mr. Jeremiassen has 
resided and workt at Lak-loh, in the extreme south of the island. At 
Hoihow and Nodoa hospitals have been built, a ward for infectious 
cases at Hoihow having been provided by the small foreign com- 
munity and Chinese friends, without the knowledge of the mission- 
aries and with expressions of warm sympathy and commendation. 



1898.] THB lei^ND OP HAINAN. HI 

The first converts vers baptized in 1885. The only church yet 
gathered is at Nodoa with thirty-five members. The miBsioii uumbera 
now foarteen, and looks forward to a thorough itineration over the 
■wholo island. 

The Jesuit mission in Hainan is said to have been eetablisht in 
1630. The work was wiped out, however, after a few generations, and 
was only revived in 1849, At present one Portuguese priest consti- 
tutes the mission. lie is secretive and separate, but his predecessor 
met the other missionariea on kindly terma, and would even join with 
them in singing hymns. The road between Hoihow and Kiung-chow 
is one vast graveyard, containing more dead than the living popula- 
tion of the island. In this graveyard are the graves of two Portu- 
guese, who died 
in 1681, and of 
one German, who 
died in 1686, who 
probably were 
among the earlier 
missionaries. 

Hoihow is the 
commercial cen- 
ter of the pre- 
fectnre. The 
trade fiows to it 
and through it, 
but Kiung-chow 
is the political 
capital, and so 
the city where 

the Confucian ^i th« TE»>Lm OA-n, hoihow, bajxih. 

examinations are 

held. The corrupting influences of progress and western learning have 
not toncht the scholars of Hainan as yet, and they flock to the teats 
as in olden days. In the district examinations 3,000 students gather. 
In the second year about 15,000 came from ten districts. Each third 
year from all of the thirteen districts, 35,000 gather. They fill the dead 
old city, thronging the temples and ancestral halla, and crowd into 
the mission chapels and dispensariea to hear the strange doctrines of 
the barbarians. It is not any desire for light or learning that brings 
them to the missionaries' preaching. The ways of old are too dear. 
Wbat we call conservatism in America is red radicalism compared 
with the adamantine, blindfolded, invincible satisfaction with the 
past which reigns in Hainan. Even an educated, Engliah-speaklng 
Chinese in the customs service at Hainan said to me: "AVe would like 
to be undisturbed, but onr country is being cut up now jiist like meat. 



112 A STRATEGIC POINT IN CHINA. [February 

The Russians are taking the North, and the French are as bad here, 
making great trouble out of each little pretext. We do not want to 
fight. We do not want to change. We would like to live as our 
fathers did.^' This spirit of conservatism has led the officials to throw 
many obstacles in the way of the peaceful prosecution of missionary 
work, but these have been more or less overcome. 

The people of Hainan are an unresponsive people, and the confu- 
sion of dialects and population increases this reserve and suspicious- 
ness. They fear and distrust the French also, and different classes of 
the population hold aloof from one another. It is not a favorable 
atmosphere for mission work. The Portuguese priest is greatly dis- 
couraged. The Protestant missionaries, however, remember days when 
Hainan was awake and producing useful men, and they work patiently 
on in the hope that the Gospel will develop even better men than that 
Hai-Sui, whose memorial gateway declares that he was, " In prosper- 
ous times an upright minister," and " The purest influence of Can- 
ton." In the friendliness of the people which they have won, their 
readiness to listen, the popularity of the medical work, and the open- 
ness of the whole island they find encouragement and good hope. 



A STRATEGIC POINT IN CHINA. 

BY REV. ARTHUR E. CLAXTOlir, CHUNGKING, CHINA, 
Missionary of the London Missionary Society. 

Szchuan is important among the provinces of China for its possi- 
bilities and promise, both as a commercial and a missionary center. 
The official estimate of the population is no less than seventy millions, 
or more than that of any other province.* 

Szchuan (meaning " four streams *') is watered by four very large 
tributary rivers, as well as by the great Yang-tze-kiang. These tri- 
butaries — all too large for the confines of Great Britain — are them- 
selves fed by a multiplicity of smaller rivers and streams, so that the 
waterways, highly ramified and very numerous, afford the best com- 
munication possible with the ubiquitous and dense population, both 
for the missionary and the trader. 

Chungking, tlie metropolis and most important city of the prov- 
ince, had a British resident to watch for trade openings as early as 
1880, and the Foreign Customs Service has been represented here since 
1890. Tho this city is some fifteen hundred miles from the coast, and 
the nearest steamer service is four hundred miles distant, there is now 



* The London Missionary Society's annual report gives the population of the province as 
60,000,000. 



1898.1 A STRATEGIC POINT IN CHINA. 113 

an American, a Japanese, and a French, in addition to a British con- 
sul and his assistant; and special trade commissions from France, 
from Great Britain, and from Germany are reporting to their respect- 
ive conationals the result of their investigations as experts into the 
prospects of trade extension in Szchuan. 

But it is prohahly not generally known that Christian missions 
entered the province first; the work has been steadily growing, and 
has now reacht such results in converts, organizations, and other evi- 
dences of well-founded solidity, that mandarins, as well as '^ the peo- 
ple '* are convinced that 

CHBISTIANITY HAS COME TO STAY. 

Missions came first. This means not only the Boman Catholic 
propagandists, who have been in West China for two or more centu- 
ries, buc it means modern Protestant missions, the most fruitful and 
the most frequent pioneers of the advancing hosts of civilization. 
Chungking was first entered by the China Inland Mission in 1877. 
The American Methodist Episcopal Church followed in 1881, the Lon- 
don Missionary Society in 1888, and the Friends' Foreign Mission 
Association in 1890. There are also resident in Chungking agents of 
the National Bible Society of Scotland, and of the American Bible 
Society. 

Cnungki|ig, while not the provincial capital of Szchuan, is the com- 
mercial center, and is likely to continue so. It is also the distribut- 
ing center, and the propelling, throbbing heart which vitalizes the four 
great western provinces. Hence the reason for founding of missions 
at Chungking prior to founding them at Chentu, the provincial capi- 
tal, which is 300 miles further inland. The China Inland Mission, 
the Canadian Methodist Mission, and the American Methodist Episco- 
pal Church have establisht stations there, and, after being driven out 
temporarily by the riots of 1895, are now enjoying greater success than 
ever before. 

Missionary work is not confined to the two chief cities of the prov- 
ince. In the north and northeast are many stations of the Church 
Missionary Society and the China Inland Mission. In the west, at 
important centers like Yachou, Kiating, Sueifu, and Luchou, are mis- 
sionaries of the American Baptist Missionary Union, of the China 
Inland, and of the Canadian Missions. The China Inland Mission 
is extending in the direction of the south. And this year (1897) the 
Lfondon Mission has begun a forward movement eastward from 
Chungking. 

When missionaries first came to Chungking they had no choice 
bat to rent native houses, and make the best of the risks which such 
abodes multiplied. This year the last of the dungeon-dark and damp 
native dwellings occupied by missionaries has been pulled down and 



114 A 8TRATEGI0 POINT IN CHINA« [February 

replaced by the eleventh foreign-built house within the city walls. 
This in itself impresses our neighbors that Christianity has come to 
stay. We have also chapel and school and hospital buildings^ which 
are by no means *^ monuments to still life " of missionary vitality^ but 
are daily thronged by multitudes^ who^ if not appreciative in a high 
degree of new doctrine and the spiritual character of the work, now 
show a great readiness to receive the more tangible benefits which are 
also introduced with the Gospel. In Chungking itself, the converts, 
among whom are some capable voluntary workers, number about two 
hundred, besides inquirers— perhaps one-third of that number. Many 
others attend services, and are still weighing the pros and cons between 
their idols and New Testament teaching. Once a month the converts 
and adherents of the four Protestant missions in the city unite on a 
weekday for worship. It is then very delightful to see the numbers 
that come and the keen interest taken in the service, and most of all 
to hear the voices of our native brethren as they come forward one 
after another and offer a few words of exhortation or prayer. 
As an instance of the reality of 

THE FAITH OF THE NATIVE CHBISTIANS 

it might be mentioned that, in order to begin our forward movement, 
the native members of the London Mission Church contributed from 
their poverty enough to rent a house for a year at a place thirty miles 
distant. Two of the most promising of the members accepted appoint- 
ments as evangelists, arid were solemnly set apart to begin systematic 
work there last February. They have already done well. Opposition 
and hostility have been quietly lived down. Preaching, book-selling, 
and conversation have been the chief methods used. But, in addi- 
tion, medicines have been dispenst occasionally, a day-school of seven- 
teen pupils has been started and carried on, several cures of the opium 
habit have been effected, and an inquirer's class of candidates seeking 
baptism and church membership begun. This is only an example of 
the manner in which new stations may be multiplied, until the whole 
mass of this vast population is honeycombed with them. First there 
may be prejudice and hostility, which must be patiently overcome, 
but there will follow a sure, if slow, recognition that we have a " bet- 
ter way," and in course of time the " new station " will become a new 
center of propagation. The first requisite is a foreign missionary who 
will select and equip, and then inspire and direct native workers. 
There is need of native Church members who do not enter the Church 
simply to insure their souls for the next world, but who will be strenu- 
ous workers in this. But most of all, there must be such an outpour- 
ing of the Spirit as shall fill all the channels of Christian effort and 
enterprise. 



1898.] HENRY M. STANLEY ON MISSIONS IN AFRICA. 115 



IL— MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. 

HENRY M. STANLEY ON MISSIONS IN AFRICA. 

The following extracts from Mr. Stanley's valuable article in Tfie 
AtlaTUic Monthly for October, g^ve some idea of his opinion of mission- 
aries and their share in helping forward the prog^ss of civilization in 
Africa. Mr. Stanley first visited the Dark Continent as a newspaper cor- 
respondent, and was so imprest with the awful condition, but latent pos- 
sibilities of the country, that he urged the sending of Christian mission- 
aries, and has frequently borne testimony to the noble work accomplisht 
by them there. He says in part: 

The first body to move toward Africa in answer to appeals was the 
Church Missionary Society, which sent five missionaries to Uganda. The 
honor of first mention must, therefore, be accorded the Uganda Mission, 
not only because it preceded the army of missionaries now at work, but 
for the splendid perseverance shown by its members, and the marvelous 
success which has crowned their efforts. The story of the Uganda Mis- 
sionary enterprise is an epic poem. I know of few secular enterprises, 
military or otherwise, deserving of greater praise. I am unable to view 
it with illusions, for I am familiar with the circumstances attending the 
long march to Uganda, the sordid pagans who harast it at every camp, 
the squalid details of African life, the sinister ambition of its rivals, the 
atmosphere of wickedness in which it labored; when I brush these 
thoughts aside, I picture to myself band after band of missionaries press- 
ing on to the goal, where they are to be wof ully tried with their motto of 
"Courage AND Always Forward," each face imbued with the faith 
that, tho near to destruction, " the gates of hell shall not prevail " against 
them. For fifteen years after they had landed at Uganda we heard fre- 
quently of their distress ; of tragedy after tragedy, of deaths by fever, of 
horrible persecution, the murder of their bishop, the massacre of their 
followers, the martyrdom of their converts, and finally of their expulsion. 
Still a glorious few persevered and wrestled against misfortune, and at 
last^ after twenty years' work, their achievements have been so great, 
that the effect must endure. 

The letter which invited this mission was written by me April 14, 
1875, and was publisht the following 15th of November in the London 
Daily Telegraph, The editor, in commenting upon it, was almost pro- 
phetic when he said: ** It may turn out that the letters which bring this 
strange and earnest appeal to Christendom, saved from oblivion by a 
chance so extraordinary, had this as their most important burden; and 
that Mr. Stanley may have done far more than he knew." My letter had 
been committed to Col. Linant de Bellefonds, who, with his entire com- 
pany of thirty-six Sudanese soldiers, was murdered by the Baris. Near 
the body of the colonel it was found by General Gordon, blood-stained 
and tattered. The care of the message from Uganda, as well as the won- 
derful results which followed its publication, was wholly due to another. 

Eight days after the appearance of my appeal in The Telegraph 
the Church Missionary Society was stimulated by an offer of $25,000 to 
undertake the enterprise. A few days later the fund was increast to 
$75,000. In the following March the mission left England, and on the 
30th day of June, 1877, while I was yet six weeks from the Atlantic 



116 MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [February 

Ocean, the missionaries entered Uganda. For five years they labored 
with poor results. In the seventh year twenty-one converts partook of 
the Lord's Supper, and seventy -five had been baptized. In the eighth 
year the baptized numbered 108. After eleven years' work the mission- 
aries were expelled from Uganda by the young Nero, the son of King 
Mtesa, who had received them. In 1800 they reoccupied it, and by Janu- 
ary, 1891, the Christians here numbered 2,000. By January, 1807, 
Uganda contained twenty-three English Protestant clerg^ymen, 009 
native teachers, 6,005 baptized Christians, 2,591 communicants, 57,380 
readers, 372 churches, and a cathedral which can hold 3,000 worshipers. 

These figures do not represent the whole of what has been achieved 
by the missionaries, for the church of Uganda imitates the example of 
the parent church in England, and dispatches native missionaries to all 
the countries around it. Nasa in Usukuma, south of Lake Victoria, has 
become a center of missionary effort. In Usoga, east of the Nile, native 
teachers impart instruction at nine stations. Unyoro, to the north of 
Uganda, has been invaded by native propagandists. Toro, to the west, 
has been so moved that it promises to become as zealous as Uganda, and 
Koki witnesses the power of native eloquence and devotion to the cause. 
What is most noticeable among all these people around the lake is their 
avidity for instruction. Every scrap of old paper, the white margin of 
newspapers, the backs of envelopes, and parcel wrappers are eagerly 
secured for writing purposes. Books and stationery find ready pur- 
chasers everywhere. The number of converts has become so formidable 
that it would task the powers of a hundred white missionaries to organ- 
ize, develop, and supervise them properly. 

British Central Africa has a native population of 845,000, and covers 
an area of 285,000 square miles. It has sprung mainly from the reverence 
which Scotchmen bear the memory of Livingstone. In the year 1850 the 
British Oovemment confided to Livingstone the task of opening the region 
about the Nyassa Lake to trade, and at the same time the universities 
sent out a mission under Bishop Mackenzie to avail itself of Livingstone's 
experience in missionary work, in which he had spent sixteen years in 
South Africa. The region at that time was very wild, owing to slave 
raids and internecine wars. Through overzeal the missionaries were 
soon drawn into strife with the natives, and what with native fevers and 
other accidents due to their ignorance of African habits, few survived 
long. Accordingly, Livingstone was withdrawn, and the universities' 
mission was transferred to Zanzibar. In 1881 Bishop Steere undertook a 
journey to Lake Nyassa, and being more practical than his two prede- 
cessors, saw enough to justify him in reestablishing the universities' mis- 
sions in Nyassa Land. The Livingstonian Free Church Mission planted 
itself at Blantyre as early as 1875. The Church of Scotland Mission fol- 
lowed in 1876; then came the Dutch Reform Church in 1880, the Zambesi 
Industrial Mission in 1892, and the Baptist Industrial Mission the same 
year. Altogether thei-e are now thirty-six white clergy and five white 
women teachers, who, with 129 native teachers, conduct fifty-five schools, 
in which 6,000 children are taught. 

The following tabulary summary may enable the reader to realize 
more clearly the difference between the tropical Africa of 1872-77 — in 
which Livingstone, Cameron, and myself were the only white visitors, 
and which had neither mission school, church, convert, nor any trade — and 
the Equatorial Africa of January, 1897, exhibiting the following results: 



1898.] 



HBNRY M. STANIiBY ON MISSIONS IN AFRICA. 



117 



Name of State or Territory. 



Uganda Protectorate. . 
British East Africa. . . . 
British Central Africa 

Kongo Free State 

Kongo Franfaise 

German East Africa. . . 
German Kamemn 

Total 



« 4 . 
-3 9 



68 
90 
289 
1,S00 
800 
878 
286 



8,816 






• ■ • « 

166 

• • • • 

80 



868 



u 

o 



^-1 



878 
6 
66 
67 
86 
15 
6 



646 



§ 



So 



97,575 

600 

6,000 

10,000 

8,500 

8,500 

900 



119,075 



o o 

i5^ 



$ 148,000 
1,094,000 
611,480 
6,886,808 
8,861,414 
8,907,500 
8,419,880 



$15,661,916 



« 



bo 
a I 



b3 



QQ 



sll 



S 



$ 850,000 
86,000 

100,000 
1,873,860 

618,109 
1,098,500 

176,706 



$4,197,174 



It was only about twenty-five years ago that Monteiro said he could 
see no hope of the negro ever attaining to any considerable degree of 
civilization, and it was impossible for the white race to people his coun- 
try sufficiently to enforce his civilization. Burton wrote, a few weeks 
before, that the neg^ro united the incapacity of infancy with the unpli- 
ancy of age, the futility of childhood with the skepticism of the adult 
and the stubbornness of the old. The old Athenians employed similar 
language regarding all white barbarians beyond Attica, and the Roman 
exquisites, in the time of Claudius, as contemptuously underrated our 
British ancestors. We know to-day how grossly mistaken they were. 

When I think of the cathedral church of Blantyre, which, without 
any exaggeration, would be a credit to any provincial town of New Eng- 
land, and which has been built by native labor; or of the stone and brick 
mission buildings on the shores of Lake Tanganika; or of the extensive 
establishments in brick erected on the Upper Kong^ by the Bangalas, 
■who, so late as 1883, were mere ferocious cannibals; or of the civilized- 
looking town of Ujiji; or of Brazzaville's neat and picturesque aspect; or 
of the ship-building yards and foundries of Leopoldville, where natives 
have turned out forty-five steel steamers — when I contemplate such 
achievements, I submit that Burton and Monteiro must have been some- 
what prejudiced in their views of Africa and her dark races. 

Twenty-five years ago the outlook for Africa was dark indeed. Its 
climate was little understood, and inspired terror in the white pioneer. 
But to-day travelers go and return by fifties, and they have ceast to gen- 
eralize in a bitter style. The white men retain kindly memories of the 
Africans among whom they have lived and labored, and their dearest 
wish is to return at the end of their furlough to the land once so dreaded. 
The postbags are weighted with the correspondence which they maintain 
with their dark friends. It is only the new and casual white who speaks 
of the African as a "nigger,*' and condemns the climate of the tropics. 
The whites have created valuable interests in the land; they understand 
the dialects of their workmen; and they know that the black who dis- 
ting^uishes himself in his village, by his self-taught art and industry, in 
fashioning his fetish god, his light canoe, his elegant assegai or sword, 
may be taught to turn a screw at the lathe, to rivet a boiler plate, to 
mold bricks, to build a stone-wall or an arch of bricks. No one now 
advocates, like Monteiro, the introduction of coolies, or Chinese or Euro- 
pean ** navvies," to show the native Africans how to work. There are 
7,200 native navvies on the Kongo railway, and all the stone piers and 
long steel structures which bridge the ravines and rivers, and the gaps 
cleft in the rocky hills, have been made by them. 

Twenty-five years ago the explorer might land on any x>art of east or 



118 MISSIONARY mGEST DEPABTMSNT. [February 

west Equatorial Africa, unquestioned by any official as to whither he 
was bound or what baggage he possest. To-day, at every port, there are 
commodious custom-houses, where he must declare the nature of his 
belongings, pay duties, and obtain permits for traveling. In 1872, the 
whole of Central Africa, from one ocean to the other, was a mere con- 
tinental slave park, where the Arab slave raider and Portuguese half-caste 
roamed at will, and culled the choicest boys and g^rls, and youths of both 
sexes, to be driven in herds to the slave marts of Angola and Zanzibar. 
To-day the only Arabs in Africa, excepting some solitary traders, who 
observed the approach of civilization in time, are convicts, sentenced to 
hard labor for their cruel devastations. 

Twenty -five years ago it took me eight months to reach Ujiji from 
the coast, whereas now it takes a caravan only three months. Up to four 
years ago it required five months to reach Uganda from the coast, but 
to-day loaded porters do the journey in less than ninety days, while bicy- 
clists have performed the journey in twenty-one days. Fourteen years 
ago the voyage from Stanley Pool to Stanley Falls was made by me, in 
the first steamer that was floated in the Upper Kongo, in 379 hours. Now 
steamers accomplish the distance in 120 hours. In 1882-83 1 was forty -six 
days going from Europe to Stanley Pool. The ordinary passenger in 
these times requires but twenty-five days ; and two years hence the trip 
will take only twenty days. 

Throughout the region now known as the Kongo State death raged 
in every form twenty-five years ago. Once a month, on an average, 
every village, of the hundred thousand estimated to be in the State, wit- 
nessed a fearful tragedy of one kind or another. In each case of alleged 
witchcraft, upon the death of a chief, a sudden fatality, the outbreak of 
a pest, the evil effects of debauch or gluttony, the birth of twins, a 
lightning stroke, a bad dream, the acquisition of property, a drought or 
fiood, ill-luck or any mischance, native superstition demanded its vic- 
tims according to savage custom. The mganda, or witch doctor, had but 
to proclaim his belief that expiation was necessary, and the victims were 
soon haled to the place of death. I should not be far wrong, if I placed 
these public murders at a million a year for the State, and two millions 
for the whole of Equatorial Africa. Added to these was the fearful 
waste of human life caused by intertribal war, the wholesale extermina- 
tions under such sanguinary chiefs as Mtesa, Kabba Rega, Mirambo, 
Nyungu, Msidi, the destructive raids of such famous slavers as Said bin 
Habib, Tagamoyo, Tippu-Tib, Abed bin Salim, Kilonga-Ijonga, and hun- 
dreds of others. In fact, every district was a battlefield, ana every tribe 
was subject to decimation. I do not say that the awful slaughters result- 
ing from native lawlessness and superstition have ceast altogether, but 
the 540 missions, churches, and schools, and as many little military forts 
that have been planted across the continent, with the aid of the steam 
flotillas of the Kongo and the swift cruisers which navigate the great 
lakes, have completely extirpated the native tyrants and the Arab free- 
booters ; and wherever military power has establisht itself, or religion 
has lent a saving hand, the murderous witch-doctors can no longer prac- 
tise the cruel rites of Paganism. But altho in parts of the far interior 
there yet remains many a habitation of cruelty awaiting the cleansing 
light of civilization, there is every reason for t>elieving confidently that 
the time is not far distant when Africa, neglected for so long, shall as 
fully enjoy the blessings of freedom, peace, and prosperity as any of her 
sister continents. 



1898.] JXTUAN HAWTHORNB ON INDIA. 119 

JULIAN HAWTHORNE ON INDIA.— II.» 

Mr. Hawthorne's description of the famine scenes in India is so graphic 
and symi>athetic, his insight into the situation so clear, and his tribute to 
the missionaries so hearty and well deserved, that we give further ex- 
tended extracts from his valuable and interesting reports. He continues: 

At Allahabad I was nearly in the center of the famine district. I 
sent to its address a letter of introduction to a local American mission- 
ary, t and in the morning he made his appearance. He was clean, whole- 
some, and hearty from the core outward. His glance was direct and 
clear, and his talk succinct and vigorous. Would there were more 
Americans like him at home ; yet I was glad, for the credit of our country, 
to find him abroad. 

*'Tou can't see the famine at the works, or even at the poorhouse," 
said he ; " the place to go to is the native village. 1*11 take you there, and 
show you the inside of all my work. Tou*ll have to rough it a little, but 
you'll see things. We've put in all we've got ; we're here for life ; we'r6 
hard at work ; but," he added with a cheery smile, "we're happy." We 
made an appointment, and he went away. 

I spent the afternoon in a visit to the fort. It was not imposing, but 
is one of the oldest sites and most sacred places in India. I descended 
some steps into a pitch-dark crypt, the holy of holies of Brahmanism. 
Three sly and sinister-faced priests met me with servile gestures; 
they lighted a lamp, and backt before me along a narrow and low pas- 
sage underground, the smoke of the burning wick streaming in my face 
with a most villainous odor. The place had the appearance of a noisome 
dungeon ; but every foot of it was oppressively sacred. At every few 
paces the Brahmans paused to let me do reverence to some grimy frag- 
ment of a statuette, Iturking in its little niche. After a while we seemed 
to have reacht the consummation of holiness. I peept into an aper- 
ture and saw the piece of a tree about four feet in length, consisting of a 
trunk divided into two branches ; the diameter was, perhaps, nine inches. 
It was fitted in between the rock above and the rock below, so as to give 
the appearance of growing out of the latter and into the former. Behind 
it^ in the depths of the recess, was a square hole, a foot in height, enter- 
ing the thickness of the rock. What were these things ? Why, this was 
the famous undying banyan tree ; and the square hole led direct to the 
holy city of Benares, distant about one hundred and fifty miles. Under 
this tree Brahma performed his sacrifices, and through that tunnel, I 
suppose, the entire Hindu pantheon was wont to march and counter- 
march ten thousand years ago. In front of the tree was a little dish-pan 
for offerings, containing withered fiowers and small bits of silver. Here, 
if anywhere on earth, the grand, historic religion of countless millions of 
intelligent human beings found its most glorious manifestation. Towards 
this stifling, stinking rat-hole the eyes of all India turned with adora- 
tion ; at the feet of these sorry potsherds they bowed themselves down 
in their hundreds of millions, and knew the awful rapture of worship, and 
this section of a ten-year-old fig-tree, revealed by the flaring oil-wick of 



* Condeost from The Coamopolitan. 

t Rey. Rockwell Clancy, of Allahabad, la a true American and a true Christian ; devoted 
heart and soul to bis work, beloved by thousands of natives as well as by his own native con- 
verts, and able to account for any sums, placing every cent of it where it will do most good. 
Bury him up to the neck in gold, and see how he will turn it inU> life and happiness. J. H. 



120 wseioMABT DiQEST DEPABTHENT. [Febmaiy 

the jackal ^estB. might stand for the hub of the Brahmanical nnlTerse— 
a wooden lie, annually renewed, fitly coDUnemorating the immemorial 
desecratioa of the name of tpe one true God. I came out of the pit with 
relief and joy, ajid there was the sky as pure and young as man's perver- 
sions of its teachings are false and Bubterranean. But I lookt abroad 
over the iUuminable plain and saw in ita helpless barrenness, peopled 
with skeletons, the fruits of idolatry. Visiting India makes one value 
Christianity, 

The following day my life with the missionary at Allahabad began. 
We first drove to the poorhouse, which was not very different from the 
one at Jubbulpore. But there was no division between the sexes — the 
men's huts adjoined those of the women, and even skeletons retain their 
vicious instincts. But to imagine the squalid and forlorn carnivals that 
went on after night had fallen in these hovels, made one shudder. 

The cry of "not enough to eaf'waA sii^ularly prevaJent; and in 



Bf eoiin«r of T11< QmnopoMan. 

proof thereof the men would gather up the handful of wrinkled skin over 
the place where their bellies used to be, and show us that there was 
nothing but skin there. Nevertheless there were Other men, a noticeable 
minority, who lookt sleek and well-fed ; and yet all alike, according to 
the imperturbable overseer, got their daily pound and a half of grain. 
When the empty ones heard the overseer make this statement, they 
would turn away with a sullen, hopeless gesture. But I saw a look of 
deadly hatred gleam in the wolfish eyes of one of them ; could he have 
caught the ovprHecr alone, he would have done his beet to make carrion 
of him. The sturdy missionary stood in a reverie for a moment, and 
then mused hini»elf with a sigh. "There's not much I can do here," he 
remarkt. " If we interfere, the overseer complains to the government 
that we are trying to convert the people; and the government fears 
trouble from that. But wait till 1 show you my converts to-morrow, and 



1898.] JTJUAK HAWTHORNS ON INDIA. 121 

then say whether you don't think Christianity is the hest core for this 
kind of trouble that's been found yet." 

"Travelers in India," remarkt my friend with a cheery smile, as we 
drove up to his house, " report us missionaries as living in luxury, waited 
on by troops of servants, demoralizing native simplicity by an imprac- 
ticable morality, stuffing them with theological dogmas which they can't 
understand, forcing them to wear unsuitable and unaccustomed clothes ; 
and that the upshot of our work is to make them hypocritically profess a 
faith they don't believe in in order to curry favor, and to ruin them with 
the vices of civilization, instead of saving them with its virtues. Well* 
now you have a chance to see how it is for yourself." 

The household consisted of the missionary and his wife and a young 
lady who was assisting them ; three or four immaculate Mohammedan 
servants, at wages of from one to two dollars a month ; a horse and a 
buggy, a chapel, and, within the wall of the compound, some ranges of 
neat buildings for the accommodation of the native children who were 
supported and instructed by the mission. The family sat down thrice a 
day to a wholesome but Spartan meal. The husband workt with all his 
might from dawn to dark, and after dark in his study, helping distress, 
averting evil, cheering sorrow, enlightening ignorance, and praying with 
heart and soul to the God and Christ, who was more real to him than 
any earthly thing. His lovely, artless, human, holy wife, with faith like 
a little child, and innocent as a child, yet wise and steadfast in all that 
toucht her work, labored as luitiringly and selflessly as her husband ; and 
so did the other angel in the house. There were, perhaps, a hundred na- 
tive children, either orphaned or deserted, who had begun to get flesh on 
their bones, and were busy and happy in learning to read and write their 
native language, and in singing hymns of praise to the new living God 
who loves children, meeting morning and evening in the chapel for that 
purpose, and to listen to stories about this God's loving dealings with His 
creatures, told by native Christian teachers and by the missionary him- 
self. They also learned, for the first time in their lives, what it was to 
live in clean, orderly rooms, and to be fed abundantly and reg^arly, and 
to be treated with steady, intelligent, and unselfish affection. These 
children woidd have died of the famine, had not the mission found and 
saved them. Many of them, in spite of their present good appearance, 
were liable to succumb at the first touch of any illness, for famine fatally 
saps children's constitutions ; but they would be happy while they did 
live, and have an opportunity of discovering that there is a Divine Spirit 
outside of cobblestones and brass monkeys. But tho the siirroundings 
and influences were of the loveliest Christian kind, there was no trace 
of that fanatic hunger for nominal converts — that blind eagerness to 
fasten the badge of the cross on the sleeve, whether or not it were in 
the heart — which has often been ascribed to missionary work. I con- 
fess that I had prepared myself to flnd something of the kind. But 
one must live with the missionaries in India in order to understand what 
they are doing and how they do it. From first to last during my 
sojourn in India I saw many native Christians. Those that I saw are 
a remarkable and impressive body of men and women. I was always 
saying to myself, *<They are like the people of the Bible." Some wore 
European dress, others did not. Their aspect was simple, sincere, and 
modest. 

In the torrid morning we went by rail to a village a few miles dis- 



122 MifisiONABT DIOB8T DBPABTMBNT. [February 

tant. At the station we were met by a smiling, clean, likable native, 
about five and thirty years of age, who at once entered into an earnest 
talk with the missionary. He was the local Christian preacher, having 
occupied that position for several years. As he talkt* I scrutinized him 
soundly for symptoms of humbug, but detected none. A number of vil- 
lages, in a district covering a hundred or more square mUes, are under 
the missionary's care, and he makes the round of them as often as pos- 
sible, say, every fortnight. In this village the famine was sore. The 
order was that every person found starving should be brought to the na- 
tive missionary's house, fed and ministered to, and told to come at least 
twice a day. Money or grain was supplied to native missionaries by the 
superior (my friend), and they made their accounting tO him for it when 
he visited them. - It was easy to see that the white man and the brown 
were on terms of complete mutual confidence and respect. 

Ten minutes' walk brought us to the native's house-rit was rather a 
somewhat extended hut. The porch, a structure of bamboo poles, cov- 
ered with palm leaves, gave it a little breadth of shadow in front ; with- 
in the rooms were dark, but clean. Cleanliness is one of the distinguish- 
ing marks of the homes of native Christians in India. There were some 
half -naked figures squatting on the hard, smooth earth of the yard in 
front of the porch. The missionary carried on conversations, first with 
one, then with another, translating to me as he went along what was said. 
The women were modestly silent, unless when questioned directly. They 
were very gentle and happy-looking women ; the expression in their 
faces was quite different from that of the pagan women. Their eyes 
met my eyes with a soft, trustful, guileless look. They were drest in 
flowing garments of dull, harmonious Eastern hues, draped round the 
body and drawn over the head. A little apart squatted an old woman, 
one of the skeletons. She had been dismist from the hospital. But for 
the mission support she must have died. As long as she lived she could 
come here twice a day and be fed and gently treated. She did not 
know what Christianity was, but she knew that its effects upon her were 
good. 

Before we left, the missionary, looking gravely and kindly upon his 
audience, said a few words to them, telling them who Christ was and 
what he had done, and then he prayed. It was very primitive and simple 
— the elements of what good a Christian may do to others. The native 
Christians joined devoutly and affectionately — I can not find a better word 
— in the prayers. Then we returned to the railway station and took the 
train again. 

The only salvation of India, even from the economic point of view, 
in the opinion of those who have longest and most deeply studied it, is 
its Christianization. Hindu idolatry and Islam are the blights that are 
destroying the country. The paralysis of caste on the one side, and the 
fetters of bigotry on the other, delay civilization and obscure enlighten- 
ment. England has not fulfilled her duty to the souls of her Indian 
dependents ; and, therefore, her administration has measurably failed to 
rehabilitate their minds and bodies. Let England inspire India with a 
veritable Christian faith, and nine-t«nths of the present difficulties would 
spontaneously cease. But in order to inspire such faith, one must possess 
it; and England, conscientious, energetic, just, and proud of her religious 
history, is not a Christian nation, and, therefore, forfeits the meaaure- 
less power for good which might otherwise be hers^ 



1898.] THIS GBNBBATION OF THB CHINBSE. 123 

THIS GENERATION OF THE CHINESE. 

BY REV. J. HUDSON TAYI-OB. 

Twenty years a^ the missionaries of China, assembled in general 
conference in Shanghai, appealed to the churches of Europe and America 
for more workers, in order that an effort might be made to give China 
the Gospel in this generation. They said, *' We earnestly appeal to the 
whole Christian world for help to do this. It is possible: . . . the 
Church of God can do it, if she be only faithful to her great commission." 
But alas, since this appeal was made, two hundred millions of Chinese 
have died without the Gospel 1 

Fourteen years ago Mr. George King wrote another appeal, based 
upon that of the conference, entitled, ** Shall the Gospel Be Preacht to 
this Generation of the Chinese ? " At that time Mr. King was living in 
the city of Si-gan-fu« a solitary witness for Christ amidst half a million 
of heathen; and not only so; he and his fellow- worker, Mr. Easton, who 
resided in Han-chung-fu, sixteen days distant, were the only witnesses 
for Christ among all the millions of Shen-si province. Thank God! there 
has been great advance since that day; now the two workers have become 
seventy-seven, and there are over twenty stations in the province, while 
about five hundred have been baptized, not a few of whom are now in the 
presence of the Lord. 

It is impossible to estimate how many in Shen-si have heard the Gos- 
pel, for there has been great evangelistic activity; but this we know, that 
there still remain vast numbers who have never been reacht. In this 
province, were the missionaries equally distributed, there would only be 
about one worker to each county, and a missionary and his wife would 
find they had two counties to work. As every county has numberless 
towns and villages, the impossibility of reaching all without further and 
special reinforcement is apparent. What is true in Shen-si is a sample 
of the need in the other eighteen provinces. 

As we wrote at the time of Mr. King's first appeal, " Whether all his 
plans will prove equally practicable, experience alone can decide ; much 
will depend on the extent to which the help and cooperation of mission- 
aries already in the field can be secured. Unquestionably it would be 
better, where there is the needful zeal and fitness, for the whole time of 
a worker to be devoted to the work; and besides those whose own incomes 
would BufiAce for their support, thousands of Christian men, without 
much self-denial, could have the joy of sustaining a laborer as their o\i^ 
representative in China.*' 

The following extracts from Mr. King's appeal are interesting in this 
connection, and are as forcible to-day as when first penned : 

Shall the Gospel be preacht to //tw. generation ? That suggests the 
thought of other generations, for whom our preaching is too late. Oh, 
merciful Lord, our God, rebuke us not in Thine anger, neither chasten us 
in Thine hot displeasure, that we have suffered generation after genera- 
tion to drift unwarned, unheeded, to destruction! 

The Oospel preacht to this generation ? Then there is not much time 
to lose if tJiai is to be done. / can't reach them, neither can all our mis- 
sionary brethren, even with the aid of our dear C'hinese fellow- workers. 

Seeing that to accomplish so great a work some 1,500 missionary 



124 XI88IONABT DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [Febmarj 

preachers would be all too few,* we encounter at the very outset the 
objection that such a thought is *' Utopian," "impracticable," "unrea- 
sonable," and all the other big words by which many a God-inspired 
thought has been crusht as soon as bom. Surely, when God is taken 
into account, it is no impracticable, unreasonable matter we come to 
discuss, when we ask, " How may the Gospel be preacht to this genera- 
tion of the Chinese ? " 

Now the first step is a thorough and general stirring up of believers, 
so that the great duty of the Church to disciple all nations may be 
recognized as tJie burning question of the day. We may be sure God 
never intended that a mere sprinkling of earnest souls — a few here and a 
few there — should be the only ones possest by an intense longing for the 
salvation of the heathen. Many Christians who might do so, still lack 
toiUingneaa to give themselves first, and then their substance, to the Lord 
for this mighty work. There are probably not a few of God's children in 
England, etc., who have a private income. If so, why not live on it 
among the heathen ? t 

Then in the case of those anxious to go forth, but possessing no pri- 
vate income, might not the plan be more generally tried of each church 
sending forth one or more of its members, and looking upon him as its 
own missionary, tho he might wisely work in connection with the mis- 
sionary organization preferred by the church sending him forth ? A little 

less — and less ornate — ^furniture, dwellings not quite so spacious, dress 
not too scrupulously following the fashion, might wonderiully simplify 
the question of senaing forth more missionaries. 

Sometimes a desire has been exprest that (only) men of superior edu- 
cational and other attainments should be sent to this great mission-field. 
Ah me I What would be said if the infantrv were not allowed to go to 
war because they were not life-g^uards ? Nelson's renowned signal was, 
" England expects every man " — seamen and marines, as well as officers 
and captains — " to do his duty. " Does not God expect every Christian to do 
his duty ? And while Satan still usurps the rule over such immense parts 
of our Redeemer's dominions, is there much doubt where our duty lies ? 
Does it need a g^at amount of learning to tell a poor sinner that an 
Almighty Savior waits to save him ? What is needed is, first heart, then 
head — ** heart to heart,** As a matter of fact, we find in China, as else- 
where, that it is "the poor" who hear the Gospel gladly; not many wise, 
not many noble, are called. God still chooses "the weak," "the base," 
"the despised," "yea, and things which are not;" and to reach and 
influence these it is not so mucn learning as the constraining love of 
Christ and the mighty power of the Holy Gnost, that are essential. 



The " Appeal of the Shanghai Conference of 1877," says : 

" We want China emancipated from the thraldom of sin in this genev" 
ation. It is possible. Our Lord has said, * According to your faith be it 
unto you.' The Church of God can do it, if she be only faithful to her 
great commission. When will young men press into the mission-field as 
they struggle for positions of worKiy honor and affluence ? When will 
parents consecrate their sons and daughters to missionary work as they 
search for rare openings of worldly influence and honor? WTien will 
Christians give for missions as they give for luxuries and amusements ? 
When will they learn to deny themselves for the work of God as they 
deny themselves i or such earthly objects as are dear to their hearts ? Or, 
rather, when will they count it no self-denial, but the highest joy and 
privilege, to give with the utmost liberality for the spread of the Gospel 
among the heathen ? " — Condensed from China^a Milfians, 

* As there were then 1,500 ex>im^ie« still without resident missionaries: perhaps 1,000 might 
suffice now. 

t Mr. King suggested $%0 as a sufficient amount for the support of a single missionary. 
This is only true by rigid self-denial and in some parts of China 



1898.J VABIBD VIEWS OP THE SULTAN. 125 

VARIED VIEWS OF THE SULTAN. 

The NoTember number of TJie Century contains an interesting and 
apparently candidly written article in defense of Abdul Hamid II., by 
the late Minister of the United States to the Sublime Porte, Hon. A. W. 
Terrell. In regard to this "interview," one of our editorial correspond- 
ents writes, in part, as follows : 

While we are perfectly willing that the Sultan and his government 
should have full credit for every faxst that will tend to minimize the 
verdict of public opinion on the terrible events that have transpired in 
different parts of the Turkish empire within the last two years, yet we 
would not forget two things that should be considered in accepting the 
high official of a foreign government as our intermediary. 

First. — To all such as the representatives of foreign governments the 
best possible side is turned to view in all matters where such are brought 
into connection with the officials of the government to which one is 
accredited ; and especially is this the case if the question is one where 
difiference of opinion is likely to exist or result. Our diplomatic repre- 
sentatives seldom remain long enough in such a country as Turkey to 
learn the language. If they do not see, to a considerable extent, through 
an interpreter's eyes, they hear very largely through his ears. 

Second. — A diplomatic officer does not generally remain long enough 
in one place to become thoroughly acquainted with the people. Ex-Min- 
ister Terrell tells us, on the strength of the Sultan's assertion, that the 
Koran forbids cruelty and does not permit that Christians be put to 
death on account of their religion. It is true that the Koran contains 
such precepts, but Ex-Minister Terrell may not know or has failed to 
mention another fact, namely, that in Mohammedan mosques, on 
Fridays, the day of public prayer, the congregation being assembled, 
there is a portion of the service called *^ El-Khuthet eth-TTianieh," or 
" Khutbet en-Naat." This " Khutbet " is a prayer in which the following 
expressions occur : 

" In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful. O God, aid 
M-Islam, and exalt the word of truth and the faith by the preservation 
of thv servant, and the son of thy servant, the Sultan of the two continents 
and khakan of the two seas, the sultan, son of the sultan, the Sultan 
Abdul Hamid. O God, assist him, and assist his armies, and all the 
forces of the Moslems: O Lord of the beings of the whole world I O God, 
destroy the infidels and polytheists, thine enemies, the enemies of relig- 
ion. O God, make their children orphans, and defile their abodes, and 
cause their feet to slip, and give them and their families and their house- 
holds and their women and their children and their possessions and their 
wealth and their lands as booty to the Moslems: O Lord of the beings of 
the whole world." 

How edifying it would have been if he of the ** voice low and musical " 
had given utterance to the above sentiments while assuring ex-Minister 
Terrell of the tolerant spirit of Mohammedans toward Christians! Surely 
"the kindly and sympathetic expression" of that face, "the habitual 
expression" of which "is one of extreme sadness," would have been " a 
puzzle " when considered in connection with the previous statements 
concerning religious toleration as taught by Mohammedanism. In this 
prayer, which is repeated in thousands of Mohammedan mosques every 
Friday, we find a much truer explanation of the events that have been 
transpiring in the Turkish empire, than can be found in the best possible 
exposition of the dogmas of the Koran respecting religious toleration. 



126 MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [February 

That prayer becomes practice whenever the prejudices of Mohammedans 
are stirred up against Christians, provided there is no power strong 
enough to intervene and prevent persecution and massacre. Why 
should men hesitate to go forward when a way is opened before them for 
the answer of their prayers ? Why should infidels not be destroyed, and 
their wives and property be given as booty to Moslems ? Death in battle 
is victory, too — sure victory. So there is nothing to lose. The Moham- 
medan, a fatalist pure and simple, is all his life taught to believe that 
paradise is the sure and immediate reward of all who die in war against 
the infidel. ** Through the smoke of battle " heaven is seen. 



Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, the honored veteran missionary to Turkey and a 
high authority on this subject, further writes in TJie Iruiependent con- 
cerning *< Minister Terrell and the Sultan ": 

In this article by our worthy ex-Minister, Abdul Hamid is made to 
defend himself before the American people. One argument is from the 
distinguisht kindness with which the Armenians have been treated by 
his ancestors. What his ancestors have done is rather to his condemna- 
tion. Before his day Armenians were in every branch of the public 
service — in the custom-houses, in every department of the revenue, in 
the offices and industries of the army and navy, and in the foreign ser- 
vice. Thousands were thus employed. One of the first and sacred duties 
of this Sultan, as he conceived, was to weed out all the Armenians and 
substitute Moslems. He already had Pan-Islamism on the brain ; it is 
there still. He is going to crush the Christian element or convert it to 
Islam ; that is the key to his character and course. His message to his 
poor terrified Armenian subjects is: '*You are all rebels I Now Islam 
or Gehenna isyour choice I " 

But the Koran was in his way; and certain treaties with England 
and with other countries. He felt his way, as to the treaties, with great 
adroitness ; and set one power against the other, so as to disregard them 
all. Russia f umisht him with the justification against the Koran. She 
now sent into Turkey some Armenian revolutionists, with Russian 
passports, which would shield them from Turkish law and justice. 
Some weak-headed Armenian youth were doubtless induced to form a 
society of revolution. These revolutionists, "Hunchagists," were des- 
perate men. If a rich Armenian would not give what they demanded, 
they assassinated him. The Sultan knew perfectly well that the wealthy 
Armenians gave at the point of the dagger. The revolutionists did just 
what he wanted. He could now destroy them all as rebels. The accusa- 
tion of rebellion is so absurd that the Sultan must have laught at the 
simplicity of the world in beiuK deceived by it ! Who are the rebels ? 
Two and a half million of loyaX unarmed people. The Sultan has an 
army of 260,000 trained soldiers. Yet he has been so frightened by the 
threats of thesejpoor peasants, mechanics, and traders, that he has 
slaughtered 100,000, often with the most horrible torture ! * 

But *' there was no religious persecution." Oh no, that is impossible! 
No Moslem ever does any such thing. And yet, from the beginning of 
this outbreak, rescue, safety, shelter, pardon, office, have been offered to 
all who would abandon their faith and accept Islam. They have almost 
invariably chosen death. Is such a people worthy of no commiseration ? 

It is painful to Americans that, m all this tragedy of suffering 
brought upon an innocent and friendless people, our country's voice, 
through its minister, was never heard in their defense ; but only in 
defense of the *' Great Assassin," and in frantic efforts to keep him from 
assassinating Americans. 

* There have been 828 Christian churches, Qref^orian and Protestant, changed to mofloues; 
668 destroyed; and 77 monasteries destroyed, the priests and monks being converted or killed: 
and 100,001) men, women, and children killed; 2,496 villages have been destroyed, and 600,000 
driven from their homes and all their property conflscated. What the plunderers could not 
carry olT they destroyed. More than 100,000 more perisht from starvation, oold and tjrphoid 
fever. 



1898.] 



INTBBNATIONAIi DBPABTMBNT. 



127 



III.— INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



EDITED AND CONDUCTED BY REV. J. T. GRACET, D.D, 



Qhma'B Qlaim TTpon the Qhnioli in 

Amerio& 

BEV. HUNTER CORBBTT, D.D., CHINA. 

Without controversy, the at- 
tempt to evangelize four hundred 
million of the Chinese by expelling 
manifold superstitions and plant- 
ing in every heart the ennobling 
and saving influences of the Chris- 
tian religion, is an enterprise which 
stands high among the glories of 
the century. A moment's glance 
at the gigantic work to be done, 
and the difficulties to be overcome, 
will show that heroic faith, un- 
sw^erving courage and enduring 
perseverance on the part of God's 
people are of vital importance. 
That men who do not see Ood's 
hand in history, and have no faith 
in the supernatural power of the 
Gospel, should regard the mission- 
ary enterprise as an absurd under- 
taking, and worthy of the most 
scathing criticism, is no special 
wonder. That any who claim Jesus 
Christ as their personal Savior 
chould look with indifference upon 
t. «e non-Christian world, and make 
no worthy effort to reach the un- 
saved, is, indeed, the wonder of 
wonders. 

After years spent in walking 
through the streets of the great 
and crowded cities, and traveling 
thousands upon thousands of miles 
over vast plains teeming with in- 
numerable towns and villages, one 
begins to understand something of 
what '* China's millions " mean. 
The greatness of population is, 
perhaps, the least difficult factor 
in China's evangelization, however. 

*' In China is found a homogene- 
ous mass of people bound com- 
pactly together by bonds of super- 
stition, idolatry, and by tribcd and 



family relations, such as are not 
found in any other land.". Chinese 
character has been so molded by 
many centuries of study in ancient 
history, and an unchanging system 
of religion, science, and govern- 
ment, that they are a people unique 
among the nations of the earth. 
As in Europe, there are many lan- 
guages, or dialects, in central and 
southern China. The Mandarin, 
however, is not only the spoken 
language of two-thirds of the em- 
pire, but is also the language in 
which the plays and novels are 
written. The Wen li, or the classic 
language, is understood by every 
educated man in the empire. It is 
a wonderfully expressive and terse 
language, and so flowery as to give 
China the name of the ''Flowery 
Kingdom." In every school and 
college is found a tablet to the 
memory of Confucius, who is wor- 
shipt by teachers and pupils. In 
1,700 temples, erected and supported 
by the government, probably 70,- 
000 victims of various kinds are 
yearly offered in sacrifice. When 
these offerings, with rolls of silk 
and other valuables, are presented, 
the mandarins and literary gradu- 
ates meet twice annually in the 
Confucian temple, prostrate them- 
selves, and offer the most profound 
worship. 

Undoubtedly the Chinese know 
more of truth than any other non- 
Christian nation. This truth has 
been polisht in the finest minds of 
many generations, and set in the 
most attractive forms. There are 
truly many gems, of which all are 
justly proud and never weary in 
quoting. In spite of the rays of 
light that flash through here and 
there, heathenism is hopeless night, 
powerless to change the heart and 



128 



INTERNATIONAL DEPABTMBNT. 



[February 



reform this life. To the honor of 
China, neither lust nor vice of any 
kind has ever been deified* So 
pure are the moral teachings of their 
sacred writings that they might be 
read in any Christian family. The 
Chinese officials are selected from 
a vast multitude of graduates by 
competitive examinations. 

Men holding literary or military 
degp^ees and undergraduates, who 
are numbered by hundreds of thou- 
sands, are found in every city, vil- 
lage, and neighborhood. They pos- 
sess tremendous influence. Hitherto 
this class has united with the offi- 
cials in opposing or counteracting, 
as far as possible, the preaching 
and influence of the missionary. 
The widespread riots and persecu- 
tion of native converts are, as a 
rule, traceable to the open or secret 
efforts of these classes. They write 
the placards and books defaming 
Christianity, and which have again 
and again led to riot and murder. 
They correspond closely to the 
proud Scribes and Pharisees who 
constantly met and opposed our 
Savior when on earth. The Chi- 
nese, like the Jews, are found in 
almost every part of the earth. 
They are able to speak all Ian-, 
guages. They remain unchanging 
in their peculiar nationality and 
customs. They are industrious, 
energetic, persevering, and econom- 
ical. They are able to compete so 
successfully with all others, that in 
many places legislation has been 
secured to restrict or push them 
out. 

They are the leading merchants, 
bankers, and artisans in many of 
the countries and islands of the 
East, where they have gone as 
colonists. In their own land they 
are proving more than a match for 
merchants and officials from West- 
tern lands. 

It is stated that Messrs. Russell 
A Co., a promi^^^nt American busi- 
ness firm, ' xring the fifty years of 



its existence in China, employed 
thousands of Chinese, and never 
one betrayed his trust or became a 
defaulter. Loans amounting to 
many millions were paid by the 
Chinese without the loss of a dollar. 
An American business man in 
China testified that during twenty-' 
five years he never knew a China- 
man to break his word in a busi- 
ness transaction. 

The Chinese are preeminently a 
home-loving, law-abiding, indus- 
trious, and patient people, with 
brains capable of mastering any 
task set before them. 

For centuries the Chinese have 
been educated in the firm belief 
that the golden age existed more 
than twenty centuries ago, in the 
time of Confucius and still more 
ancient sages. The nearer the peo- 
ple could keep to the customs and 
civilization of that age, the more 
prosperous and happy all would 
be. Moreover, firmly believing 
that all people out of China were 
barbarians, or, at best, semi-civil- 
ized, with no lessons to teach China, 
their pride and self-satisfied spirit 
ran riot. 

Under such circumstances, what 
did they care for Western arts and 
Western civilization, or for the 
Christian religion, ignorant as they 
were of its power to bring life, 
hope, and salvation to all who be- 
lieve ? 

It will thus be understood why 
China has been so fearfully handi- 
capt, and for centuries remained 
almost stationary. To-day temples 
filled with idols of clay, wood, and 
stone, and altars to innimierable 
objects of worship, are found not 
only in cities and towns, but in 
every valley and upon the highest 
hills and mountain peaks. The 
sun, moon, and stars are all objects 
of worship. There are gods of 
wind, rain, thunder, mountains, 
rivers; the god of war, of litera- 
ture, the queen of heaven, the g^od 



1898.] 



INTEBNATIONAL pEPABTMENT, 



129 



of cereals, of disease, etc., all 
worshipt. Long and weary pil- 
grimages are yearly made to famous 
mountains and sacred places. Mil- 
lions of money are spent yearly in 
the support of religion. The Em- 
peror is still as much the chief 
priest of the nation as in the re- 
motest ages. Annually he has at 
least f oHy-three different sacrifices 
to offer. He must fast sixty-four 
days in the year. The worship of 
ancestors is held to he the most 
sacred of duties. The giving up of 
ancestral worship is often the chief 
stumbling-stone in accepting of 
Christianity. The popular notion 
is that deceast ancestors know 
nothing but want, which must be 
relieved by the living descendants. 
This system sanctions, or at least 
does not discourage, polygamy, so 
common among the oificial class, 
both civil and military, and also the 
rich. Polygamy, wherever prac- 
tised, degrades women, and gives a» 
death-blow to happy and peaceful 
homes. Whatever degrades women 
also degrades men. The cruel sys- 
tem of foot-binding brings sorrow 
and suffering to every girl, and 
adds to life's heavy burdens. De- 
nying women the privileges of edu- 
cation, and keeping their minds 
dwarft and undevelopt, intensifies 
the burdens which ever press 
heavily upon the millions who are 
living without the Bible, without 
prayer, without hope, and without 
God. Think of what sickness, want, 
and helpless old age mean in a land 
where there are no asylums for 
orphans, the blind, the feeble- 
minded, the widow, the leper, and 
the insane I Think of neither hos- 
pitals nor dispensaries where those 
in need can receive skilful treat- 
ment and care, of the hopelessness 
when death draws near; the wail of 
despair, everywhere heard, when a 
life ends, for all believe courts, 
prisons, tortures, and executions are 
in the imseen world as well as here. 



These facts unite in testifying to 
the desperate needs of the people, 
and of the Christian obligation to 
give the Gospel, which is still the 
power of God iinto salvation, to 
every one who believes. The Gospel 
is the Gk)d-given power to save 
China's seething, sm*ging tide of 
woes, arouse the conscience to know 
and forsake sin, and accept of the 
salvation which only can give hope 
and joy when suffering comes and 
passes in the hour of death. 

So much for the past. What 
about the present and future? 
China is a land of great possibili- 
ties. China has nearly 3,000 miles 
of coast-line, and numerous rivers 
and lakes abounding in fish. Mines 
of gold, silver, iron, coal, and min- 
eral wealth of almost every kind 
abound, but as yet practically un- 
toucht. 

China possesses almost every va- 
riety of climate, from almost per- 
petual summer and tropical vege- 
tation in the south, to the coldest 
weather in the north, where not 
only plains and mountains, but the 
sea along the shores are held, at 
times, in the icy grasp of winter. 
Every variety of fruit, flowers, and 
. grain can be cultivated in some part 
or other of the empire. 

The beneficial results of the late 
"jvar with Japan are daily becoming 
more apparent. Instead of preju- 
dicing the people against the mis- 
sionary, it has awakened a desire 
as never before to receive instruc- 
tion from him. During the war, 
the newspapers and magazines pub- 
lisht by missionaries, were eagerly 
sought by all classes, as tbere they 
expected to find reliable informa- 
tion not to be obtained from Chi- 
nese sources. One Chinese firm 
printed the editorials from a mis- 
sionary magazine in book form, to 
supply the demand for such infor- 
mation. The scholarship and intel- 
lectual power of western men is 
now recognized. Many non-Chris- 



130 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[February 



tian parents are pleading to have 
their children educated in the mis- 
sion schools, tho they know that the 
Bible is a daily text-book, and that 
those who make it a constant study 
will probably become Christians. 

Non-Christians have said that 
none are so blind as not to see that 
mission schools teach reverence for 
parents, a love for honesty and vir- 
tue, and equip for any special call- 
ing, as native schools do not. In 
the minds of the people education 
is beyond price, and Christianity 
and education are aiming to be re- 
garded as inseparable, so that when 
parents become Christians their 
sons and daughters are trained and 
educated in such a way as to give 
them special advantages. 

It is said when Mr. C. D. Tenney 
started to secure the most promis- 
ing students for the newly-estab- 
lisht college at Tientsin, with the 
view of educating men for govern- 
ment service, the late viceroy, Li 
Hung Chang, told him to secure all 
he could from the Christian schools, 
as there he would find the best ma- 
terial. 

The evangelistic, educational, and 
medical work carried on by mis- 
sionaries are effecting changes, 
moral, social, and intellectual, truly 
wonderful. During the past year 
there has been a growing demand, 
as never before, for all the books 
missionaries have written or trans- 
lated — ^such as histories, works on 
science, political economy, natiu*al 
and moral philosophy, and all text- 
books for schools and colleges, as 
well as religious books and the 
Bible. 100 copies of Review of the 
Times now go to Hunan, paid for 
by the literati. There has been an 
intense desire awakened to learn 
the English language, and wherever 
it IS taught the schools and colleges 
are overcrowded. Many are offering 
to pay well for such instruction. 
All concede that our physicians and 
urgeons are possest of sk ill un- 



known to native doctors. Physi- 
cians are now frequently called to 
treat men holding the highest offi- 
cial positions. Lady physicians are 
sent to enter the homes of the 
wealthy and aristocratic, and treat- 
ed with the deepest respect and 
kindness. Mission hospitals and 
dispensaries are crowded by suffer- 
ing people, who often show the 
truest gratitude for help received. 
In Chow-fu, last year, 19,000 pa- 
tients were treated. The Emperor of 
China has conferred the '* Imperial 
Order of the Double Dragon " upon 
B. C. Atterbury, M.D., of the Pres- 
byterian mission. This honor was 
in recognition of service in connec- 
tion with the Red Cross Society 
during the late war. Not a few of 
the hospitals, lately erected, have 
received liberal subscriptions from 
Christian converts, and from offi- 
cials and merchants not yet Chris- 
tians. 

Wherever the Gospel has been 
persistently preacht, there are not 
only communicants, but many se- 
cret believers, who have not yet the 
grace and courage to meet the per- 
secution which an open profession 
often brings. 

The conviction is gaining in the 
minds of many that Christianity is 
a power which will help solve the 
many perplexing problems the peo- 
ple are compelled to face. Many 
are asking what is the secret of the 
power, wealth, and influence of 
western nations. What can the 
reception of Christianity do for 
China? It is the remedy for official 
corruption and incompetency, re- 
garded by many as the chief factor 
in the humiliating defeat China 
sustained in the late war. 

Beyond doubt China, like a great 
and sleeping giant, is slowly but 
surely awakening, and will, in no 
distant day, astonish the world by 
radical and manifold changes. The 
gates, closed for centuries by seclu- 
sion, selfishness, pride, and ig^o- 



1898.] 



DTTERNATIONAI* DEPABTMEI9T. 



131 



ranee, are now swinging wide open, 
and a highway is being prepared 
for the coming of the King of 
kings. 

The organization of a complete 
postal system has been entrusted 
to Sir Robert Hart, who, during the 
past one-third of a century, has 
been at the head of the Chinese 
customs, and brought the service 
to an efficiency and purity unex- 
celled in any land. Railroads are 
being built, mines opened and oper- 
ated by foreign machinery, under 
foreign direction. Presses and dies 
have already been shipt from 
Bridgeton, N. T., so that hereafter 
China will have a silver as well as 
a copper coin. 

Ninety years ago Robert Morri- 
son, a man of heroic faith and cour- 
age, had the honor and the privi- 
1^^ of being the first Protestant 
missionary to China. He struggled 
against hatred, opposition, and per- 
secution, as few men have ever 
done, for twenty-seven years. Dur- 
ing all that time he was only per- 
mitted to see, as the direct results 
of his labors, two converts won for 
Christ. He died, however, strong 
in the faith that China would yet 
become a Christian nation. 

It was not until the signing of 
the Treaty at Nanking in August, 
1842, five ports for the residence of 
merchants from western lands were 
opened, and stiU two years later be- 
fore the toleration of Christianity 
was granted. Previous to that time 
a profession of Christianity was re- 
garded as a crime worthy of death. 
The Chinese, acting on the prin- 
ciple that, as the treaty was forced 
upon them, they were under no ob- 
ligation to keep it, except so far as 
pressure was brought to bear from 
the foreign governments, have made 
the work of planting the Church 
one of continual struggle and un- 
ceasing opposition, difficult to un- 
derstand by any but those who 
have been called to meet it face to 



face. Natives who have dared to 
sell their property, or even assist 
the missionary in securing houses 
for residences, schools, etc., have, 
as a rule, been arrested, thrown 
into prison, beaten, and shamefully 
treated, and no redress. When the 
minds of men have become distort- 
ed by prejudice and hatred, no na- 
tive Christian can hope for justice. 

In 1843 there were twelve mis- 
sionaries, and, so far as known, only 
six converts to the Christian faith 
in China. 

To-day there are upwards of 70,- 
000 communicants in connection 
with the different Protestant mis- 
sions in China, and perhaps 300,000 
secret believers, who have not yet 
the courage and grace to make an 
open profession, and endure the 
persecution so of ten met. The num- 
ber of communicants has almost 
doubled the past five years. At the 
same rate of increase, another fifty 
years will give China more than 
00,000,000 of Christians. 

But God does not work by man's 
arithmetic. If all God's x>eople in 
America and in other Christian 
lands were to consecrate them- 
selves, their children, and their pos- 
sessions wholly and unreservedly 
to the Lord, and have their hearts 
filled with love for Christ and for 
perishing souls, so that each would 
feel constrained to do the utmost to 
obey the last command our Savior 
gave when on earth — a command 
which has never been repealed— 
•* Go into all the world and preach 
the Gospel to every creature," be- 
fore another fifty years might not 
only the whole of China, but all the 
unsaved world be brought to know 
and love the Lord Jesus Christ? Is 
there anything too hard for the 
Lord? Has not God long been wait- 
ing for His people to awaken and 
take hold upon God^a strength^ 
claim His promises, and take pos- 
session of the world for Christ? Has 
not God said, '<Ask of me and I 



132 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[February 



shall g^ ve thee the heathen for thine 
inheritance, and the uttermost 
parts of the earth for thy posses- 
sion " ? 

In conclusion, let us neither, on 
the one hand, underestimate the 
task which God has given us to do, 
or exaggerate the victories already 
given, nor, on the other hand, des- 
pond on account of the slow pro- 
greiSs we seem to be making. Let 
us, in the spirit of humble obedi- 
ence and quiet confidence, attempt 
our whole duty to the unsaved, and 
persevere in the assured conviction 
that in due season we shall reap if 
we faint not. Let us, day and night, 
keep fresh in our memories the vital 
truth, ** Ye know the grace of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that, tho He 
was rich, yet for your sakes, He be- 
came poor, that ye through His 
poverty might be rich." 



Annual Meetings of the Boarda 

The annual meetings of the sev- 
eral missionary societies in this 
country are held at different peri- 
ods during the . calendar year, 
and not, as in Great Britain, in 
the single month of May. The 
proceedings of these vary, not all 
being merely anniversary occa- 
sions. The Methodist Episcopal 
Missionary Society observes no 
anniversary, save those of a hun- 
dred or more auxiliary societies or- 
ganized in the annual conferences. 
The General Committee meets 
annually strictly for business pur- 
poses, receiving the reports of the 
officers of the Board and making 
the appropriations in detail (or the 
work of the ensuing year, at home 
and abroad. Its constituency, in- 
cluding all the bishops, i^epresen- 
tatives of the Board, and other 
representatives from fifteen dis- 
tricts into which the church in the 
entire country is divided, makes 
it a very widely representative 
denominational body. Its pro- 



ceedings are open to the public, 
and the discussions are often of 
the ablest character. There are no 
prepared papers, nor any formally 
provided-for public meetings, tho 
generally one or more such occur 
during the annual session of the 
body. Even the annual report of 
the society is not issued in con- 
junction with this meeting, so that 
this body has nothing which an- 
swers to the anniversaries of the 
Baptist Missionary Union, nor of 
the annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Board; but the information 
elicited in official statements and 
in discussion is widely dissemi- 
nated through the secular and de- 
nominational press, according as 
the enterprise of their editors leads 
them to secure and use it. Being a 
strongly connectional body, the 
General Missionary Society is but 
one of many of the denominational 
ligaments. 

The Baptist MiiSsionary Union 
holds its anniversary in May. Dr. 
Colby, President of the Union, in 
his address last May said that mis- 
sions showed our loyalty to Christ, 
our sympathy with his world— em- 
bracing love, our confidence in 
Christ's Gospel and the only power 
of God unto salvation, and are a 
test of our trust in the Lord's liv- 
ing providence. This Missionary 
Union claims 280,000 souls con- 
verted to God as the result of its 
efforts. 

A significant paper was presented 
on the attention paid to missions 
in Baptist institutions of learning. 
Rochester Theological Seminary 
has one course of lectures on mis- 
sionary history ; Colgate one on 
missions and one on comparative 
religion ; Newton has seven courses 
on the subject, and seven collateral 
courses, fourteen in all, and Chica- 
go has twenty courses, and count- 
ing the treatment of missions in 
the New Testament department 
and in Church History, three or 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAIi DEPABTMENT. 



188 



four courses are credited to each 
of the seminaries. This paper 
suggests what further might be 
attempted, included in which would 
be a department of the colleges of 
Applied and Aggressive Christian- 
ity, including sociology, so far as 
applicable to missionary work. This 
paper also suggests that the Mis- 
sionary Concert of Prayer, as it 
originated as a meeting for prayer 
in 1784, be restored to its original 
purpose, from which it seems to 
have declined into a "concert of 
instruction and not prayer." 

The admirable discussions which 
preface the reports of each mission 
are of unusual worth and suggest- 
iveness. The American Board is 
the preeminent connexial center of 
the body of strong Congregational 
churches who contribute to its sup- 
port, and their Annual Meeting has 
long stood out as a unique occasion; 
perhaps the most markt annual 
meeting of any of the missionary 
organizations of this country. An 
annual survey of the work of the 
Board is presented by the foreign 
secretaries, and carefully prepared 
papers are read on this occasion, 
which may or may not be of a 
general character. Two such pa- 
pers, presented at the last annual 
meeting of the American Board, 
deserve wide reading throughout 
all the churches. Dr. Judson 
Smith's paper on '*The Success 
of Christian Missions" gives a 
survey of missionary questions in 
a candid and catholic discussion, 
with special reference to current 
criticisms, such as the assertion 
that as India, China, and Japan 
have thriven for centuries under 
their own religions, they may still 
thrive without Christianity. Dr. 
Smith declares that Hinduism, Bud- 
dhism, and Confucianism have been 
on trial for centuries, and have been 
found wanting; that their national 
fruit has been superstition and 
stagnation, and that» as the classic 



paganism of Rome vanisht before 
the superior Christian faith, so 
these religions must give place to 
the more spiritual and energizing 
religion of Christ. To the sneer 
about the lack of capacity of mis- 
sionaries, he answers that within 
two years the events which have 
taken place in the Turkish Empire 
have set the missionary body in 
that land above all charges of inca- 
pacity or lack of character. Against 
the charge of imperfection of mis- 
sionary methods, he challenges any 
one to point to any spot on the 
habitable globe, where, by different 
methods, better results have been 
accomplisht. As to the foreign 
missionary movement being a fail- 
ure, the tremendous revolution 
which turned the civilization of the 
Roman Empire from pagan to 
Christian, was the result of Chris- 
tian missions, and they are re- 
peating the process steadily and 
successfully among all the great 
non-Christian civilizations of the 
world to-day. 

A "Special Business Paper" 
came from, the , Prudential Com- 
mittee through the Hon. J. M. W. 
Hall, which contains matter of 
wide interest to all concerned in 
the issues involved in the mission- 
ary work of the world. Two facts 
are declared to stand out promi- 
nently; that the several missions 
of this Board never before promist 
such large and satisfactory results, 
while the apathy and uncertain 
support of too many of the 
churches of the denomination, so 
seriously affects the revenue as to 
make it difficult to sustain the 
work, even on the reduced appro- 
priations which were made in the 
face of the large debt of two years 
ago. Out of 5,554 Congregational 
churches, 2,046 gave nothing to for- 
eign missions last year. This is 
attributed largely to a lack of mis- 
sionary intelligence and a deca- 
dence of missionary spirit. This 



134 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[February 



paper looks, without blinking, at 
the serious problem of how far they 
shall continue to support the well- 
establisht and long-continued mis- 
sions, some of which missions have 
been maintained for over seventy- 
five years. In twenty-seven years 
not a mission has been graduated. 
This paper recommends that more 
time be given at the annual meet- 
ing for frank discussion of these 
and other great problems, and that 
no program should be presented by 
the business committee that pre- 
cludes this, or restricts freedom of 
inquiry. The very methods which 
have prevailed at the annual meet- 
ing are courageously called in ques- 
tion, as not affording sufficient and 
fair opportunity for the fuller dis- 
cussion of the great crises which 
changed conditions are constantly 
imposing on missionary boards. 
Yet this paper declares that the 
time has come for an advance in 
foreign missionary work. It calls 
a clear halt to the retreating forces 
and narrows the issue to ** aban- 
donment or advance." 

The deficit of the year was forty- 
five thousand dollars, twenty-one 
thousand of which was pledged in 
a few moments in an unpremedi- 
tated, spontaneous subscription. 
The opinion was freely exprest 
that the outlook for the Board is 
most auspicious, and there was 
general cheer in the markt har- 
mony of the constituency of the 
Board, and the renewed confidence 
in the wisdom and efficiency of the 
administration. 

"We can not follow this review 
further at this time in regard to 
this Board, nor make suitable men- 
tion of the similar annual assem- 
blies of the other denominations. 
The Baptists at their anniversary 

were borne down with their finan- 
cial embarrassments, but they have 
cancelled the debt of both their 
Home and Foreign Missionary 
Societies and are greatly rejoiced.. 
The Missionary Society of the 



Methodist Episcopal Church South, 
at its anniversary, also struggled 
with its financial incumbrance, out 
it has received pledges for the ex- 
tinguishing of its debt, tho we be- 
lieve these subscriptions extend 
over a term of five years. The 
Moravian Missionary Society at 
its anniversary had a considerable 
debt, and a single member of the 
community offered to pay it all, 
with the sole condition that the 
society should not retrench at any 
point of its work. J. T. G. 



The IndianB of BiamL 

BT HORACE M. LANE, M.D., 

Preeident of the Protestant Ck>Uege at 

S. Paulo, BnuEiL 

The whole subject of South Amer- 
ican Indians, in all of its various 
aspects, ought to be intensely in- 
teresting to Americans, but the 
scientific study of the indigenous 
people of America seems to have 

?:one out of fashion in the mad rush 
or the North Pole and the hunt 
for the buried cities of the old 
world, while Christian people, cap- 
tivated by the ^lamoiu* of missions 
in central Africa, far India, and 
shut-up China, all most worthy ob- 
jects, seem to have lost sight of the 
Ttatwe Ameirican Pagans at their 
very door, who are easily acces- 
sible, and some of whom are actually 
asking for light. 

During the past year it was our 
privilege to entertain Joaquin Sepe, 
a baptized Pagan, head chief of the 
Cherentes, a g^ve, dignified, and 
intelligent man, who reminded us 
strongly of Chief Joseph, of the 
Nez-Perces, whom it was our privi- 
lege to know. This Chief Sepe 
brought a group of his people 
overland from the head waters of 
the Tocantins to Rio, a journey of 
many months, and presented them 
to the president, asking for a 
teacher and agricultural imple- 
ments, that his people might be- 
come civilized. He was on his way 
back, having failed in the object of 
his visit, when he made us a visit 
of several weeks in S. Paulo. 

These Cherentes, numbering 4,000 
adult men (in giving their numbers 
the Indians refer to adult males 
only), and living in fourteen vil- 
lages on the upper Tocantins and 
its tributaries, are one of the eight 
great families into which Von 
Martins divided the Indians of 
South America. Along the lower 



1898.] 



INTBBNATIONAI. DEPARTMENT. 



135 



conrse of the Mortes, at its junction 
i^th the Araguaya, is found the 
powerful tribe of the Chavantes, an 
ofifshoot of the Cherentes, and said 
to be physically the finest race of 
men in America. To the south of 
them are the Cavapos, and on the 
north the Canoeiros. All of these 
tribes belong to the Ges or Crans 
(the j^reat people), and are dis- 
tinguisht from the Tupys, or Gua- 
ranys (the warrior people), and the 
Crens or Guerengs (the ancient peo- 
ple) by their intelligence, habits of 
industry, and high character. 

Many large tribes of two of these 
great families, the Ges and the 
Crens, are still to be found in a 
quasi primitive condition, uncor- 
rupted hy close contact with whites, 
while the Tupys or Guaranvs (war- 
rior tribe) received the shock of the 
Portugese invaders and are scat- 
tered; ny taking the names of small 
chiefs, their identity even is lost. 
The same is true, in a lesser degree, 
of the Crens, tho they may still be 
found in large bodies in parts of 
Matto-Grosso, S. Paulo, and Pa- 
rana. 

About fifty years ago a Capuchin 
monk, Hafael Ta^a, went among 
the Cherentes ana ccUechized them 
from a state of wild savagery to 
the condition of tame, without, 
however. Christianizing them. 

Several weeks of close intercourse 
with this intelligent Pagan brother 
showed that, while he had some 
knowledge of Christian ceremonies 
and the names of some of the 
saints, he was totally ignorant of 
the central truth of Christianity, 
and still retained his Pagan beliefs, 
tho holding in affectionate remem- 
brance Frei Rafael. He gave many 
interesting facts concerning the 
language, folk-lore, customs, tradi- 
tions, and beliefs of his people, of 
which careful note was taken by 
an intelligent Brazilian scholar. 
These notes will be translated and 
publish t at some future time. 

Mr. George R. Witte is now on 
his way to the Cherentes. He was 
touched by the story of Sepe's 
fruitless search for a teacher, left 
his studies in the medical school, 
and started for the Tocantins with- 
out any stated support, relying en- 
tirely ujwn the spontaneous contri- 
butions of Christian friends. He 
is now in Portugal studying the 
language. He will leave for Para 
in time to catch the first nutting 
steamer up the river to the rapids, 



where it is expected the chief will 
have men waiting to accompany 
him on the long journey up the un- 
navigable part of the stream to 
Piabanha, the principal village of 
the Cherentes and residence of 
Sepe. The way is open through 
the Cherentes for reaching the 
great tribes on the Araguaya, 
Mortes, and the vast region beyond. 
Letters addrest to care of Ameri- 
can Consul, Lisbon, Portugal, will 
reach him for the next two months. 
The small society, under whose 
auspices Mr. Witte is going to cen- 
tral Brazil, seems to have adopted 
the plan of not soliciting funds, 
but to depend upon spontaneous 
offerings. This may work well in 
the long run, when people know 
more about the work, out it is sure 
to work hardship to the early mis- 
sionaries who go out under it. I 
understand that Mr. Witte*s pas- 
sage is paid to Para, but that he is 
almost without funds for an outfit 
and even for current expenses. 



The Obina Mission Hand-Book. 

Persons who are familiar with the 
records of the Missionary Confer- 
ence held at Shanghai, in 1877, and 
that at the same place in 1890, will 
need no description of the splendid 
mission hand-oook for China, which 
has been issued under the auspices 
of all the societies doing missionary 
work in that land, with a view to 
furnishing a similar volume " mid- 
way between their great Decennial 
Conferences." This handsome re- 
pertoire includes a sketch of the 
leading features in the spread of 
the great relijgions of the world, 
also a sketch of the leading features 
in the history of Christian missions 
in the world, especially in China; 
also the strength and weakness of 
the various non-Christian religions 
in China, other matters of general 
interest to missionaries, and sketch 
reports of various missions, cover- 
ing such phases as mission work 
among the masses, among native 
Christians, among the children, 
among young men, among women, 
among the sick; mission work by 
Christian literature, present pro- 
blems and outlook, with statistical 
tables, evangelistic, educational, 
medical, and literary; and a series 
of maps, illustrating the distribu- 
tion of mission forces, and a very 
comprehensive bibliography, Eng- 
lish and Chinese. The special 



136 



INTERNATIONAIi DBPABTMENT. 



[February 



papers, among which are one on 
Confucianism, by Dr. Faber; two 
on Buddhism, bv Dr. Edkins and 
Timothy Richards; on Taoism, by 
Drs. Faoer and Martin; on Moham- 
medanism, by Drs. Washbume and 
Noyes, will oe recognized as pro- 
ductions by masters in these several 
departments; while Dr. A* H. 
Smith's paper on **The Need of 
China," and that on "The Foreign 
Languages Spoken in China and 
the Classification of the Chinese 
Dialects," by P. G. Von Mollen- 
dorff, and one on "The Riots in 
China," by Rev. T. Richards, wiU 
be found of exceptional interest. 
It seems as tho persons who have 
to do with foreign^ missions in 
China, whether they be there or 
here, could scarcely get along with- 
out this volume. It may be pro- 
cured by addressing the American 
Presbyterian Mission Press at 
Shanghai, or from the Presbyterian 
F. M. Library, 156 Fifth Ave., New 
York, price, $1.50. 

Dr. Pierson's "Seven Years in 
Sierra Leone," the revised life of 
William A. B. Johnson, receives 
special mention in the Church Mia^ 
sionary Intelligencer. The editor 
says that Dr. Pierson's emphatic 
utterance that, "after a score of 
vears of research into missionary 
history and biography," he regards 
the story of «lohnson's labors as 
"the most remarkable story of 
seven years of missionary labor 
that he has ever read," seemed to 
him the lan^age of hyperbole. 
He was astonisht to find Dr. Pier- 
son repeating this on a later page, 
where some of the most eminent 
missionarv victories were instanced 
as possible parallels. The editor 
declares that " he read these words 
at first with a certein feeling of 
incredulity" , . . "but on lay- 
ing Dr. Pierson's book down," he 
was "indisposed to challenge 
them." 



Oanada Baptist Telngn Mission, India. 

BY REV. H. p. LAFLAMME, 
COCANADA. 

The Telugu Mission of the Bap- 
tist Foreign Mission Board, of On- 
terio and Quebec, Canada, was 
establish t by the Rev. John McLau- 
rin, D.D., with the first station at 
Cocanada, in the year 1874. He took 
over some 150 aault converts and 
the work which had, for several 



years, been prosecuted by the Rev. 
Thomas Gabriel. There were then 
but one ordained minister. Rev. 
Thomas Gabriel, who died a short 
time after; two unordained preach- 
ers, and three school-teachers. The 
annual income of the home society 
for that year amounted to $1,882, a 
portion of which went to the sup- 
port of a family then working with 
the A. B. M. U. Telugu mission to 
the south. The baptisms of believ- 
ers for the first year numbered 67. 

Through the !& years of the mis- 
sion's history, 18 men, with their 
wives, and 11 single ladies have 
been sent out from Canada. Of 
these, three men and one married 
woman died, and one single lady 
and four families have been forced 
to retire, owing to ill health, in- 
cluding thp founder of the mission, 
who is now under the A. B. M. U. 
on one of their hill stations. 

There are at present 11 families 
and 11 single ladies on the staff. 
There are ten stetions, of which 
three are in Vizagapatam, one in 
the Kistna, and six in the Godaveri 
districts of the Madras presidency. 
There are now 11 ordained native 
ministers, 58 unordained preachers, 
2 colporteurs, 28 Bible women, 50 
male and 20 female teachers, and 1 
medical assistant, or a total native 
staff of 170, amongst whom are in- 
cluded 2 very competent Eurasian 
Bible women. 

The churches number 27, one be- 
ing English, and the entire mem- 
bership totels 2,949. Of these, 472 
received believers' baptism last 
year. The native Christians con- 
tributed, alone, some Rs. 25,337 in 
1806; 2,051 scholars are gathered in 
931 Sunday-schools. The day schools 
number 60, with an average attend- 
ance of 838. There are 7 Doarding- 
schools, with 192 boys and 125 girls, 
or a total of 317 pupils. The mis- 
sion property is worth about $47,- 
000, or at Rs. 3 to a dollar, some 
Rs. 141,000. The converts are mostly 
from the outeaste classes. 

There are two medical mission- 
aries, one of them being the wife of 
a missionary. 

The work amongst the English 
and Eurasians in Cocanada includes 
a day and boarding-school for boys 
and girls, known as The Timpany 
Memorial School. Only girls are 
admitted as boarders. Boys up to 
15 years of age may attend the day 
classes. The attendance last year 
reacht 64. 



1898.] 



PTBIiD OF MONTHLY SURVETY. 



137 



IV. -FIELD OF MONTHLY SURVEY. 



Qhina,* Tibet,t Foniio8a,t Chmfdoiaiiiflin and Taoism, The Opium Traffia 

% 

BY DELAY AN L. PIERBON. 



The QzioB in Qhiiuk 

The partition of China is the 
topic of present interest in inter- 
national circles, but to what extent 
this is to be carried out is as yet un- 
<sertain. The murder of German 
missionaries in Shan-tung, and the 
tardiness of China in punishing the 
offenders and paying an indemnity, 
was the immediate cause or pre- 
text for Germany's seizure of Kiao- 
chau. Russia has since then oc- 
cupied Port Arthur under pretext 
of seeking a place for wintering her 
fleet, and France has raised her flag 
on the island of Hainan (see p. 100). 
England and Japan seem to be un- 
decided as to whether they will 
jMirticipate in the general **grab" 
or oppose the acquisition of Chinese 
territory by other powers. 

Meanwhile the Emperor of China 
is in terror because of the ap- 
proaching eclipse of the sun (Jan. 
22, 1808), which he thinks portends 
evil to his Empire. He has issued 
a decree which reads in part as 
follows: 

** According to the Chun Chiu (roringand 
autumn annals) it has been stated that an 



This list of references is not intended to be 
complete, but is simply to call attention to 
some of the principal books and articles of 
the year which have come under our notice. 
We note those which have appeared since 
our last list was given on these subjects, i. e., 
February, 1897. 

« See m the ICibsiokart Rsynw, pp. 868 
(April, *97); 849 (May, 'W); T54 (Octolw, ^TT); 
IS, 49, 68, TO, (January); 89, 106, 109, 118, 188, 
18t, (present issue). 

New Books: '* China Mission Handbook'* 
(see p. 185); "A History of China,'' S. 
Wells Williams: *'Twenty-mz Tears of Mis- 
sion Work in (Thina," Grace Stott; '' China 
and Formosik" Rev. James Johnston; '' Sis- 
ter Martyrs of Kucheng," D. M. Berry; " Eye- 
gate," wm. Wilson; ''The Toung Manda- 
rin/' Rev. J. A. Davis. 

Rbcxxt Abticlbs: *'C3iina, Present and 
Future," Fortnightly Review (March, '97); 
** Chinese Onsor,^' Bladcwood'B (October, '97). 

t See also p. 108 (present issue). 

New Books: *' Pioneering in Tibet,'* Annie 
R. Taytor; **On the Threshold of Three 
Closed Lands," Graham. 

t Nkw Books: *•" China and Formosa,** Rev. 
James Johnston. 



eclipse of the sun on the first day of the year 
betokens an Impending calamity. . . . 
According to the Board of Astronomy, on the 



first day of the twenty-fourth year of our 
reign (January 88. I8QB), there will be yet 
another eclipse of the sun. We are flued 
with forebodings at this news and hasten to 
seek within ourselves for sins which may 
have thus brought the wrath of High Heaven 
upon the land. 

we further command that the ceremonies 
of congratulation usually held on New Year's 
Day in the Tai Ho throne hall be curtailed, 
and only ordinary obeisances be made, the 
place being changed to the Chien Tsing 
throne hall instead of the Taio Ho throne 
haU. The banquet usually given to the im- 

Krial clansmen on New Year's Day must also 
stopt, and when the eclipse occurs let all 
members of the court wear somber garments, 
and assemble in the inner palace l>ef ore the 
altar set up to Heaven to pray for forbear^ 
anoe and mercy to the country at large." 

In case European protectorates 
or dependencies are establisht, 
missionaries in such districts will 
be relieved of much trouble from 
local misgovemment, but in any 
case the effect on the natives will 
probably, for a time, be antagonis- 
tic to the progress of Christianity. 
In the meantime markt progress 
is reported from many parts of the 
Flowery Kingdom, especially from 
Hunan, which for so long a time 
violently resisted all attempts to 
establish Christian missions there. 
The change is largely the result of 
the efforts of one of the converts, 
Mr. Peng. The opposition has now 
ceast, and the prefects of Heng- 
chow, of Heng-yong, and of Tsing- 
chuan have all issued proclamations 
calling upon the people to respect 
the rights and privileges of the mis- 
sionaries. More significant still, 
however, is a long '* Proclamation 
Concerning Foreigners Traveling in 
theSiang Valley, Hunan." This 
document recounts the services of 
the missionaries, the way repre- 
sentatives of China have been re- 
ceived in Western lands, and calls 
upon all to observe the laws, and to 
extend courtesy to the missionaries, 
and warns them that violence will 
be followed by penalty of death. 



138 



FIELD OP MOMTHLT SUKVEY. 



[February 



Mr. Timothy Richard speaks, in 
part, as follows in an address before 
the "Secretaries' Association" in 
London, Feb. 17, 1807:— 

I.— The Crisis in China (due to 
its defeat by Japan) has brought 
with it the possibility of the speedy 
conversion of the yellow race to 
Christianity. Since the Japanese 
war, there has been a profound 
impression produced compelling re- 
consideration of their past attitude 
toward Christianity. 

There are now four competitors 
for the yellow race: (1) The modem 
Materialists and Agnostics^ without 
God or religion. These are form- 
ing syndicates of scores of millions 
of pounds sterling to exploit China 
for their own benefit. (2) The 
Romanist^ who (in China) are 
Romanist first, French or German 
second, and Christian last. They 
have a million followers, led by 
Jesuits, (3) The Rusaiana, with a 
mixture of modem materialism and 
with devout but dark and loveless 
medifleval Christianity. (4) Re- 
formed Christianity^ which recog- 
nizes the Divine wherever found, 
and seeks to bring the pure life, 
light, and love of God to the 
Chinese. Protestants have 200,000 
followers. 

II.— The Methods op Protes- 
tant Mission Work are in the 
main four, and they are all indis- 
pensable. 

(1) The Evangelistic method in- 
volves traveling far and wide to 
seciu*e personal contact with as 
many Cninese as possible. Nine- 
tenths of the converts are brought 
in by the natives themselves. The 
missionary's work, then, is chieflv 
inspiring, organizing, superintend- 
ing, and training native evangel- 
ists. 

(2) The Ediicational method in- 
volves the opening of primary or 
day schools, seconaary or boarding 
schools, and advanced or theologi- 
cal institutions. 

(3) The Medical method deals 
with men in an abnormal state. 
Christianity must commend itself 
to men in nealth also before pre- 
vailing generally. 

(4) The Literary method deals 
with all the classes that the other 
methods reach, and some that they 
do not reach. The method of dis- 
tributing books to guide the mind 
of China is to scatter books among 
all the civil officers of the govern- 



ment of the rank of mayor and up- 
ward throughout the empire, and 
among all the students (they aver- 
age about 6,000 students for each 
center) gathered annuallyat the 200 
centers for examiation. The future 
rulers of China are chosen from 
among these. Prizes are offered to 
the students for essays on subjects 
dealt with in the books. The re- 
sults of the Literary method prove 
it to be rapid, widespread, ana pro- 
found, and yet it has been sadly 
neglected. 

The Fast and Fntue of Fonnosai 

The Island of Formosa, now part 
of the Japanese Empire, lies about 
one hundred miles from the West- 
em coast of China. Its area is about 
15,000 square miles, or one-half the 
size of Scotland. The climate is 
mild, the natural resources rich, 
and the soil fertile. 

The first effort to Christianize 
the inhabitants was made in the 
seventeenth century by the Dutch, 
who sent 37 ordained pastors to en- 
gage in missionary work. These 
were finally driven out, and Chris- 
tianity declined. The present Chris- 
tian missions are carried on by the 
English Presbyterians (1865) in the 
south of the island, and the Cana- 
dian Presbyterians (Dr. Mackay) in 
the north. The Japanese Christians 
have also formed the plan of send- 
ing preachers to their new posses- 
sions. One has only to read Dr. 
Mackay's remarkable and thrilling 
story of his work ("From Far For- 
mosa ") to be convinced 'of the trans- 
forming power of Christianity 
among these peoples. Under the 
influence of the Japanese, the Chi- 
nese mandarins and literati have 
left the island or sunk into obscur- 
ity, thus removing disturbing anti- 
foreign elements. The Japanese 
authorities have forbidden the im- 
portation of opium, and have, in 
other ways, made improvements 
which are calculated to better the 
material condition of the people, 
and to promote civilization, if not 
Christianity. Now is the critical 
time in the history of the island. 



189a] 



SDITORIAIi DEPABTMENT. 



139 



v.— EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT, 



The third convention of the Sta- 
dents' Volunteer Movement will be 
held in Cleveland, O., Feb. 2^-27, 
1806, where the first convention 
was held in 1801, the second being 
in Detroit, Mich., in 1894. Each of 
these was, at the time, the most 
representative gathering of stu- 
dents which had ever met. At 
present there is a branch of the 
movement in ahnost every nation, 
the intercollegiate Christian work 
being affiliated with the World's 
Student Christian Federation. The 
Volunteer Movement of Great 
Britain held a great convention 
at Liverpool in January, 1895, 
as a result of which the British 
churches have been wonderfully 
quickened to greater missionary 
zeal. The movement in this coun- 
try has progrest; the largest force 
of secretaries which has ever been 
employed in the cultivation of the 
American field is at work, one of 
these being Robert P. Wilder, who 
was used of God so largely in the 
first organization of the movement 
in America. Large plans are being 
made for this coming convention, 
which promises to be perhaps the 
largest and most representative 
missionary convention ever held. 

Will not all the readers of this 
Review remember in daily prayer 
this great convention? Pray espe- 
cially that a large and representa- 
tive number of earnest students 
may be gathered together in a spirit 
of prayer and expectation; also 
that the speakers may be given 
clear and powerful messages from 
God, and that all the plans and 
conduct of the convention may be 
under the guidance of the Holy 
Spirit. 

December 12th was observed as a 
National Day of Prayer for the 
awakening of India. A series of 
articles had api)eared in the relig- 



ious press of that country, through- 
out which ran one thread of appeal 
for believing and united prayer, 
and this was but the expression of 
a profound conviction felt by hun- 
dreds of workers, not only through- 
out the Indian Empire, but through 
Ceylon, Burmah, and other neigh- 
boring fields of missions. The ap- 
peal was definite; and, as we expect 
a great awakening as the Divine 
response to such united supplica- 
tion, we give the substance of the 
appeal a permanent record: 

" We appeal to aU Christians, 
whether EuropeaTis or Indians, 
whether workers or not, to set apart 
this day for the special and sa/^red 
ministry of intercession, thai the 
Holy Spirit niay be manifested in 
greai power, both among Chris- 
tians and non-Christians, If the 
Christians in this land can be led to 
see how much God can do and 
wishes to do through them, the 
whole of India will feel the throb- 
bingof this more abundant life. 

"The following objects of prayer 
are suggested. Opportunity should 
be given at the meetings for united 
prayer for any of these objects to be 
emphasized and others presented: 

1. The Christian Church in India; 

Consistency, Faithfulness, 
Fruitfulness. 

2. The Missionary A^ncies at 

work; Wisdom, Unity, Power, 

3. The Christian Workers; Faith, 

Prayerfulness, The Holy 
Spirit. 

4. The Children of India and the 

Agencies at work for them. 

5. The Young Men of India, espe- 

cially the Student Classes. 

6. The Women of India. 

7. The Mohammedans. 

8. The Europeans in India, espe- 

cially the 80,000 soldiers. 

9. The Unreacht Multitudes. 

10. The Awakening op India. 

The spirit of prayer; the spirit 
of expectancy; the spirit of 
revival; the spirit of self- 
sacrifice; the spirit of victory ; 
above all, ana as a means to 
all. The Spirit op God. 
•* Considering the possible results 

of a day of united, believing prayer 



140 



EDITORIAL DBPABTMENT. 



[February 



throughout the whole Christian 
Church of the land, will you not 
set apabt this day, sunday, de- 
cember 12, for waiting upon 
God fob the Awakening of In- 

DLA.? 

(Signed,) 

The Bishop of Lucknow, AUa' 
hahadm 

(Bishop) J. M. Thoburn, Bom- 
hay, 

T. Walker, Pcdamcottah. 

S. Satthianadhan, Madras. 

RoBEBT Hume, Ahmednagar, 

K. 8. Macdonald, Calcutta. 

K. C. Banubji, Calcutta. 

Jacob Chambeblain, Madifui' 
jxdle. 

D. L. Bbayton, Rangoon, 

J. Febguson, Colombo.^^ 



The ordination of Mrs. Maud B. 
Booth, wife of Commander Balling- 
ton Booth, of the Volunteers of 
America, at Carnegie Hall, New 
York City, in December last, was 
an event that may be more signifi- 
cant than we now comprehend. It 
seems to us to make a new depar- 
ture, especially as it was recog- 
nized, if not actively participated 
in, by clergymen of various denom- 
inations, for example. Rev. Dr. Mac- 
Arthur, Baptist; Rev. Dr. Amory 
H. Bradford, Congregationalist; 
Dr. David Gregg, Presbyterian, 
and Dr. Josiah Strong, of the Evan- 
gelical Alliance. Mrs. Booth is, so 
far as we know, the first woman to 
be thus recognized as "minister of 
the Church of God in general," with 
authority to perform ministerial 
functions, including the adminis- 
tration of the sacraments and the 
marriage ceremony. Chauncey De- 
pew presided at the meeting, and 
spoke of the work of the Volunteers 
from a philanthropic standpoint. 
Commander Booth made his report 
for the year, and Mrs. Booth told 
of her work among convicts. 

It is a g^at sorrow to all who 
love unselfish work to know that 
this noble woman, as we write, lies 
dangerously ill at the hospital. 
May God give her recovery. 



A new and important movement 
has been recently inaugurated by 
the Evangelical Alliance for the 
United States. One of the greatest 
needs of the times is the education 
of public opinion and of the popu- 
lar conscience. The Alliance now 
proposes to the pastors of every 
community to district the same, to 
enlist their young people as mes- 
sengers, and to assign one to each 
district for the monthly distribu- 
tion of leaflets. If one in ten of 
these young people should dis- 
tribute a dozen leaflets a month, 
they could scatter 00,000,000 in a 
year, at least one-half of which 
would reach famUies who never at- 
tend church, who take no religious 
paper, and who presumably see no 
reform literature. 

The Alliance is now preparing ex- 
cellent leaflets under the general 
heading of " Truths for the Times." 
There will be a series for foreign 
Americans on such topics as The 
Meaning and Value of Naturaliza- 
tion, The Rights of the Naturalized 
Citizen, .The Duties of the Natural- 
ized Citizen, The Value of a Vote, 
Fundamental Principles of Ameri- 
can Institutions, etc. These will 
be translated into as many lan- 
guages as may be necessary. There 
will be another good citizenship 
series for native Americans, and 
still others in the interests of Sab- 
bath reform, temperance reform, 
social purity, etc.* 

These are prepared by such 
men as Bishop Huntington, Pres. 
Andrews, Dr. Washington Glad- 
den, and Dr. Josiah Strong. 

Others may be expected from 
Prof. Woodrow Wilson, Richard 
Watson Gilder, Dr. Albert Shaw, 
Prof. E. J. James, Charles Dudley 
Warner, and Dr. Charles H. Park- 
hurst. 



* For information and literature address 
the General Secretary of the Evangelical 
Alliance, United Charities Building, New 
York. 



1898.] 



BDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



141 



Bev. Hunter Corbett, after spend- 
ing one-third of a century in mis- 
sionary work in China, says: 

When I arrived in the province 
of Shantung in 1863 there were not 
ten converts in the province. Now 
there are more than 10,000 com- 
municants in the province. Then 
the missionaries were not well re- 
ceived; now they are. Of the com- 
municants 4,500 are enrolled in the 
I^resbyterian church. There are 
thirty - six regularly organized 
churches. Two hundred preachers 
are preaching Christ. Tnousands 
of children are being instructed in 
our schools, which are popular 
among the natives, because they 
see we teach what improves the 
children in all respects. With all 
this prosperity the JBoard has been 
oompellea to cut our esttTnatea for 
the present year by^,665. Last 
year they cut us $5,000, and it lookt 
as if the work would have to be cur- 
tailed, but our preachers and teach- 
ers kept much work open by con- 
tributing from their meager sala- 
ries, some giving $25 out of a salary 
of $100. We are willing to make 
the sacrifices we are called upon 
to make, but we are not willing to 
abandon our work. 

And this is but one cry of remon- 
strance and appeal, in this new 
crisis of missions, when, with doors 
open as never before, and men and 
women offering in unprecedented 
numbers, the whole work of mis- 
sions is in danger of disastrous con- 
traction at the very hour when ex- 
panaion is most urgently demanded. 



Bev. D. M. Steams has returned 
from his tour in the mission fields, 
and gives his numerous friends a 
brief epitome of his experiences 
abroad: 

Ten days traveling hj rail, cover- 
ing 0,470 miles, and sixtv days at 
sea, covering 17,830 miles; also 
about 300 miles by rail in Japan, 
and over 1,000 miles by steamer on 
the Yang-tse from Shanghai to 
Hankow and return, and scores of 
miles by jinrikisha, chair, kano, and 
houseboat. 

Two hundred and thirty services 
on land and sea: 177 in English and 
53 in five different languages, 
through interpreters; commenta- 



ries written on 48 Sunday-school 
lessons, and over 200 letters to 
friends at home and abroad. Per- 
mitted to pass on for God over 
$700, thus gladdening many sad 
hearts and sending forth more 
laborers. Of this amount, $128 
used to help the famine sufferers; 
$205 to send forth six new workers, 
and provide for two children for a 
year; and $306 to help forty mis- 
sionaries either to do work that 
might otherwise be undone, or for 
some personal need that might be 
otherwise unmet. 

During his absence there have 
been received and remitted over 
$3,000 to missions. The money re- 
ceived this year to date, to lielp 
give the Gospel to every creature, 
IS over $16,500; of which $2,300 has 
come from his own congregation, 
$3, 100 from the Bible classes, and 
the rest from friends in many 
places. 

Jewish fanaticism has had a 
strange outbreak of late. The rab- 
bis took offense at an inscription 
on a new hospital built in the sub- 
urbs of Jerusalem by the London 
Society for the Spread of the Gos- 
pel Among the Jews, and issued, 
and posted on public buildings, a 
violent edict against the institu- 
tion, threatening with the ban any 
Israelite who enters it as patient or 
attendant. The innocent inscrip- 
tion, which has provoked such a 
storm of hostility and indignation, 
was simply this: 

"Hospital of the Society for Spread of 
Christianity Among the Jews.** 

The hospital was opened in the 
city some years ago, but has been 
so largely patronized by the Jews, 
that tnis larger structure has been 
found necessary. Since the open- 
ing of this crusade against the 
institution by the hierarchy, the 
Jewish patients and attendants 
have left it, so that its existence is 
imperilled, as well as that of the 
school connected with it. The op- 
position has also extended to other 
Jewish schools of the city con- 
trolled by Christians. The upris- 
ing, instigated by the embittered 
rabbis, is a serious setback to the 
good work of the London Society, 
and is greatly to be regretted. The 
proclamation issued by the rabbis 



142 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



TVi 



February 



has been justly characterized as " a 
remarkable illustration of Oriental 
religious intensity and a singular 
survival of medievalism in the 
modem religious world.' 



» 



Rev. James Legge, D.D., LL.D., 
Professor of Chinese in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, has recently 
fallen asleep in his home in Eng- 
land at the ripe age of eighty-two 
years. Dr. Legge was bom in 
Scotland and received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws from the Uni- 
versities of Aberdeen and of Edin- 
burgh. In 1839 he was appointed a 
missionary of the London Mission- 
ary Society to China, and after- 
ward took charge of the Anglo- 
Chinese College at Malacca. For 
thirty years he labored in Hong- 
kong, until, in 1875, he accepted 
the newly-founded chair of the 
Chinese language and literature at 
Oxford. Probably no living man 
was better informed concerning 
the languages and religions of China 
than Prof. Legge, and he has writ- 
ten many valuable works upon 
these subjects. He was always in- 
terested in all that concerned tho 
advancement of the kingdom of 
God, both at home and abroad, and 
tho his active life ended some years 
ago his influence continues to be 
felt. He was a man who compelled 
respect. 

Rev. David A. Day, D.D., the 
honored missionary of the Luther- 
an Church, who has zealously 
labored for the past twenty-five 
years at Muhlenberg, West Africa, 
died on his way home to America. 
The funeral services were held in 
Baltimore on Dec. 21, 1897, and 
the body was buried at Selin's 
Grove, Pa. We hope to have an 
extended account of Dr. Day's life 
and work in a subsequent issue. 



Another of the deaths which are 
conspicuous in the necrology of 
1897, is that of Ann Wilkinson, 



who departed on August 28. She 
was the wife and true yokefellow 
of Rev. John Wilkinson, so well 
known as head of the Mildmay 
Mission Among the Jews, London, 
England. 

Mrs. Wilkinson was converted 
at thirteen, and early exhibited 
that passion for souls which moved 
her whole life, and made all labor 
for the unsaved so sweet. Before 
her marriage she became deeply 
interested in work among the Jews, 
and was wont to gather funds in 
their behalf. She was, therefore, 
prepared to join her husband con 
amore, in his work for Israel. For 
nearly twenty years of their wed- 
ded life he was at home but one- 
third of the year, the other eight 
months being absorbed in pleading 
for the Jews all over the United 
Kingdom. 

Two aspects of her character de- 
mand notice even in this brief 
sketch. 

First her personality was beauti- 
ful. Her one text-book was the 
Word of God. She believed it 
fully from cover to cover. She 
studied it for herself and translated 
it into holy living. She studied it 
for others, and translated it into 
holy serving. The Holy Spirit waa 
in her the spirit of power and of love 
and of a sound mind. No one who 
knew her will forget her serene 
spirit, her unselfish affection, her 
well-governed tongue, and her wise 
judgment. It was her habit of mind 
to give thanks, and her attitude was 
one of confidence and dependence 
toward God. 

Second, her influ£nce was far- 
reaching and consecrated. She had 
a mind by no means conmion, and 
it was improved by culture. Her 
trained voice and gifted pen were 
with aU else put at her Master's 
disposal. She was invaluable as 
a correspondent, and even through 
years of suffering she gave untold 
help in letter-writing, that most 



1898.] 



EDITORIAIi DBPABTICENT. 



14S 



delicate and difficult department of 
personal and mission work* 

Nowhere did Mrs. Wilkinson 
shirie more than in the dark days 
when she and her husband were 
called to walk by faith without de- 
pendence on man. The time came 
when it became plain to John Wil- 
kinson that he was to sever a con- 
nection with a society, which had 
lasted a quarter of a century, and 
cast himself upon God for all sup- 
plies, both for himself and his mis- 
sion work. Any man who has ever 
faced a similar crisis, knows that it 
is well nigh impossible to take that 
step without the cordial sympathy 
and cooperation of the wife and 
mother of a family. But her sim- 
ple faith reinforced his own, and in 
many respects led the way rather 
than followed. When the story of 
John Wilkinson's work is written, 
it must be permeated and penetrat- 
ed by the golden thread that has so 
long bound these lives together. 



All the friends of Bev. James A. 
O'Connor, of Christ's Mission, 142 
West 2l8t Street, New York, wiU 
be grieved to learn of the death of 
his youngest son, Luther B., a very 
noble and clever lad of eleven years, 
who was fatally injured by a heav- 
ily-laden truck, Nov. 30th, 1807. He 
died about four hours afterward, but 
in the triumph of faith that was sin- 
gularly mature for a Uttle fellow of 
his years. His father writes: 

"Death is always a shock, but 
our Luther's was so pathetic, in his 
heroic fortitude ana clear confes- 
sion of faith and trust in Christ, 
that every thought of him as he lay 
dying, looking into our faces, moves 
the heart to its verv depths. 

" I had spoken to him of the Great 
Physician, and he said, 'I know 
my Savior, Jesus Christ, I believe 
in Him, I trust Him, I love Him 
with all my heart. I always did, 
papa.' 

"To his mother he said, as she 
knelt at the foot of his couch, * Why 
won't you let me die, mamma? If 
JesuB wantB me to live, I will live; 



if He wants me to die, I'll die. It's 
all right, mamma' — and he threw 
her a kiss with his fingers. These 
were the last words we heard." 

Father O'Connor has been of un- 
told service to those who, like him, 
have been reared in Catholicism, 
and this sorrow may be God's fur- 
nace-fire purifying him, and per- 
fecting him for further work of 
soul-saving. Let him be made the 
subject of most earnest and believ- 
ing prayer, that this great sorrow 
may, in God's wonderful way, open 
a new door to service. 



One of the most notable men 

who past away in 1897 was George 

M. Pullman, of Chicago. The 

town of Pullman, founded by him, 

is his sufficient monument. It was 

a daring undertaking to plant a 

town on the dreary prairie outside 

of Chicago, and a liberality that is 

seldom equaled that was willing to 

expend upon such a settlement 

about eight millions of dollars. 

"This unique city," says an ex- 
change, "has now twelve thousand 
inhabitants, churches, shaded ave- 
nues, a public library and hall, 
attractive houses, and many other 
attractions. To its credit, be it 
added, that it is without a single 
saloon, jail, or hospital, and has yet 
to meet its fii*st tramp or pauper. 
Financially, the enterprise nas 
been a remarkable success. Some 
of those who would cheaply criti- 
cize such results should try to do 
better. Mr. Pidlman himself, like 
many pluto - millionaires of the 
American self-grown type, was 
Very unassuming and sympathetic 
in his personal manners. He would 
often eat his lunch from off a 
standing counter, and chat with 
any one who happened to be next 
to him. Such familiarity in his 
case bred not contempt, but cordial 
regard." 

"OampbeUism" in Oarolina. 
We are in receipt of several com- 
munications, private and printed, 
which take exception to state- 
ments made in our November (1897) 
issue in regard to the "Campbell- 



144 



EDFTOBIAL DEPARTMENT. 



[February 



ites," as they are sometimes called, 
but who are properly known as 
Christians or Disciples of Christ. 

We can see that the statements 
as to '*the benumbing influence 
of Campbellism," and that ''the 
Campbellites have discredited be- 
lief in the Trinity, in regeneration, 
in the Holy Spirit^ and in personal 
salvation,*' are open to serious mis- 
understanding. They are decidedly 
not true of the Disciples as a whole, 
and have no foundation in their 
teachings as set forth by their ac- 
credited theologians, * among whom 
are such men as Dr. B. B. Tyler, of 
New York; Alexander McLean, of 
Cincinnati, and F. D. Power, of 
Washing^n. 

The article had, however, especial 
reference to Madison County, N. C, 
and the information in regard to 
the points in question was gathered 
from personal conversation with 
those who had labored long in that 
district. One who is a devout and 
charitable Christian worker there 
writes: 

" I have heard one of the minis- 
ters of this denomination say in his 
pulpit: *You read Christ's words 
ana you get Chriist's spirit, just as 
you read the * * Tempest, "or • * Ham- 
let," and get Shakespeare's spirit. 
Read ** Paradise Lost," and you get 
John Milton's spirit, read Ood's 
Word, and you get God's sjjirit.' If 
there is any i)er8onality in that 
kind of a spirit I fail to understand 
it. 

"With regard to regeneration, it 
is commonly reported, and I believe 
it, that some oi their preachers tell 
their audiences that if they will 
hold up their hands and say: ' I be- 
lieve Jesus Christ to be the Son of 
God,' and receive baptism, they are 
saved 

** Again, I have heard one well 
read in their doctrines, say: 'There 
is no such thing as heartfelt relig- 
ion.' If these things are not • be- 
numbing,' I do not know what cold- 
ness is." 

Doubtless similar errors could be 
pointed out in certain adherents of 

• See article In '* Schaff-HerUog^Encydo* 
piBdJa." 



other denominations, especially 
those who, like the Disciples, have 
the congregational form of govern- 
ment. No comparison was intend- 
ed, however, and reference was only 
made to <<the Bluff Mountain Dis- 
trict. " If the references were •* slan- 
derous," we shall be most happy to 
make full apology ; if they are true, 
we hope this exposure will lead to 
their correction. 

As to the offensive terms, " Camp- 
bellites" and ''Campbellism," no 
more offense was intended than if 
Wesley an had been applied to Meth- 
odists or Calvinism to Presbyter- 
ianism. The titles are those uni- 
versally used in Madison County. 



The article on Malaysia^ which 
appeared in our November (1887) 
issue, unfortunately contained sev- 
eral typographical errors in the 

spelling of names : 
pp. 886 for Macsassar read Maoassar. 
44 44 44 puiopenanz read Pulopenang. 
" 887 *' Ermels read Ermelo. 
" " ** doopsgezQnde read doopflgezinde. 
'' 888 " takes read taUng. 
'' 889 '' Oerrike read Qerike. 
'* " " Savo read Savu. 
" '' " Talant read Talaut. 
»( 840 " " 



44 



44 



44 



" Hellendoom read Hellendoom. 
Orapsland read Grafland. 
Dajabo read Dajaks. 
" 841 '' Brooks read Brooke. 
" ** Marassar read Macassar. 
** *^ Berginese read Buginese. 
** ** Sangiresa read Bangirese. 



44 



44 



44 



44 



«t 



44 



44 



44 



4» 



Books Beodved. 

The Wabioeb Classics. Selections from the 
Charles Dudley Warner Library. Four 
volumes, 16mo. $1.00. Harper^s Weekly 
Club, 91 Fifth Avenue, N. Y. 

SrrBS AND Scenes: a Description of Missions 
to Jews in Eastern Lands— Part I. By 
Rev. W. T. Gldney, M.A. 12mo, 900 pp. 
The London Society for Promoting Chris- 
tianity Among the Jews. 

Christian Martyrdom in Russia. Edited by 
Vladimir TchertkofT. 12mo (paper). One 
shilling. The Brotherhood Publishing 
Co., London, England. 

A Life for Africa (Dr. A. C. Gkxxl). By Miss 
E.M. Parsons. 12mo. $1.00. Fleming H. 
Revell Co., N. Y. 

Primer of Modern Brttish Missions. By 
Rev. R. Lovett, M.A. 12mo, 166 pp. 40c. 
Tlie same. 

The Zenana; or, Woman's Work in India. 
Volume rv. S. W. Partridge, London. 

A Century of Missionary Marttrs. Rev. F. 
8. Harris. Jos. Nisbet & Co., London. 



1898.J 



EXTRACTS AND TRANSLATIONS. 



145 



VL— GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 

EDITBD BY REV. D. I^ LEONARD, D.D. 



Extracts and TraiifllationB From F^ign 
Periodioals. 

bt rev. o. c. starbuck, andover, 

MASS. 
MiSCELlULNBOUS. 

— We learn from Der Christliche 
Apologete, the M. E. journal of Cin- 
cinnati, that the municipal council 
of Paris has forbidden the Scrip- 
tures to be read to the Protestant 
patients in the public hospitals, and 
has directed all copies of the Scrip- 
tures to be removed from the Prot- 
estant libraries attacht to the hos- 
pitals. As we know, the council 
had previously expelled from the 
hospitals all priests and sisters of 
charity. It is evidently resolved 
that the patients. Reformed or Ro- 
man Catholic, shall have no com- 
fort or advantage of their own 
religion, duriqg their time of weak- 
ness, if it can prevent. It has not 
yet» that we know, forbidden re- 
ligious conversation with visiting 
friends, but that will doubtless 
<H>me next. 

Yet, says the Apologete, when M. 
Berthelot, the present Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, who had been fore- 
most in expelling the Sisters of 
Charity, had a daughter sick, he 
placed her in a private hospital con- 
trolled by the Sisters of Charity. 
He could entrust his daughter to 
the kindness and care of Christian 
women, but he could not entrust 
her to the heartlessness of atheistic 
physicians and nurses. 

In Italy they are Improving on 
France. Voices are already heard 
there calling for the entire abolition 
of the hospitals, that the weak may 
perish the sooner. 

— ^Papa Sophsonios, says the 
Apologete, the Greek Patriarch of 
Alexandria, is the oldest prelate of 



the world. Bom at Constantinople 
in February, 1792, be now numbers 
106 years. He has been in some 
clerical position for 06 years, and 
has now attained to the supreme 
rank of Patriarch. The Alexan- 
drian Patriarch ranks second in the 
Greek Church, altho he has but a 
handful of adherents, most of the 
small number of Christians still left 
in Egypt being Coptic Monophys- 
ites. The venerable man is even 
yet fresh and sound in body and 
mind. 

— It is deeply to be regretted that 
Protestant controversy against 
Catholicism should be so ignorant 
and so absolutely unscrupulous, as 
it very commonly is. This lamen- 
table fact has been remarkt by Dr. 
Schaff, Dean Stanley, Adolf Har- 
nack, and many others. Dr. Schaff 
declares, and with good reason, 
that in this respect it has little to 
boast of over Catholic controversy. 
Adolf Harnack, himself an extreme 
Protestant, raises the question 
whether Protestants really believe 
the Ninth Commandment to be 
binding on them when dealing with 
Roman Catholicism. The forged 
and interpolated and mutilated 
documents which are circulated 
through the Protestant world, are 
innumerable. Thus a certain book 
is sold everywhere, accusing the 
saintly Innocent XI., the friend of 
Port Royal and enemy of the Jesu- 
its, of sanctioning perjury, the fact 
being that this Pope recites a cer- 
tain detestable proposition in order 
to forbid the faithful ever to main- 
tain it. So we have lately seen a 
hideous form of cursing heretics, 
declared to be found in the Roman 
Pontifical, as something imposed 
on priests to recite. Now the Pon- 
tifical, first, contains no formulas 
for conmion priests to recite ; it is 



146 



GEKEBAIi MI8SIONABT INTELLIGENCB. 



[February 



intended only for bishops, and, in 
part, for mitred abbots. Next, 
having carefuUy examined every 
page of the three great volumes, we 
are able to testify that no such for- 
mula is there from first to last. 
The form of the greater excom- 
miinication, of which it is a hide- 
ous amplification and distortion, 
briefly declares, using essentially 
the words of the Savior and of St. 
Paul, that M. M., having continued 
refractory to all admonition, is de- 
clared excommunicated, and an 
anathema is pronounced that he be 
excluded from the threshold of Holy 
Church in heaven and on earth, 
and, if he continue impenitent, be 
doomed to suffer with the damned 
in hell. The bishop, therefore, gives 
him over to Satan for the destruc- 
tion of the flesh, that the spirit may 
be saved in the day of the Lord 
Jesus. 

This is the sum total. Not a word 
of the horrid details ascribed to the 
Pontifical. Not a word of impre- 
cation on the offender's posterity. 
Not a word of his burial with dogs 
and asses. Not a wish that his 
candle may be put out in the day 
of judgment, but a wish and hope 
exprest that he may be saved in the 
day of judgment. Whoever has in- 
vented this hideous fiction is a son 
of Belial. Whoever has been mis- 
led by it, is bound to a solemn re- 
traction. 

Undoubtedly there have been bar- 
barous priests that have belcht 
forth even such cursings as this. 
But Home has never admitted them 
in.to her Pontifical, has never pre- 
scribed or authorized them. Even 
the violent imprecations poured 
out upon Louis the Bavarian by an 
Avignon pope, are far removed 
from such foulness. 

How can we ask a blessing on our 
efforts to extend Protestantism, if 
we show it forth as a spirit of false- 
hood, malice, and all uncharitable- 
ness? 



China. 
— The Rev. Arnold Foster, of Han- 
kow, writing in the Chronicle of a 
Japanese convert who spent some 
time in America, and whose faith 
was for a while severely tried by the 
gross defects and inconsistencies of 
our current Christianity, remarks : 
*• In due time our convert retiu*ned 
to his native land, and toward the 
end of his book he sums up the 
general impression made upon him 
by his three years' sojourn in 
America. The longer he stayed 
there, the more he perceived the 
bright side of Christian life and 
civilization in America. Not that 
he came to think he had exag- 
gerated the evil side of it; but two 
considerations imprest him during 
the later days of his life in Christen- 
dom, to which he felt he had not 
given due weight at the beginning. 
The first was the difference between 
the Western and the Oriental na- 
tures, the second the difference be- 
tween the good men of Christen- 
dom and the good men of heathen- 
dom. Speaking of the. first of these 
two points, he says: * Two elements, 
belief and believers, determine the 
practical morality of any nation. 
Fierce Saxons, piratical Scandina- 
vians, pleasure-loving Frenchmen, 
trying to manage themselves in 
this world by the Divine Man wof 
Nazareth — that is what we witness 
in Christendom. Lay no blame, 
then, upon Christianity for their 
untowardness, but rather praise it 
for its subduing power over tigers 
such as they. What if these people 
had no Christianity?* And then 
he goes on to point out how utterly 
feeble and useless Confucianism or 
Buddhism would be to tame and sub- 
due the strong, vehement passions 
and natures of Western poople. 
Weak and impotent in controlling 
even the milder, gentler, less in- 
tense natures of the Chinese and 
Japanese, these religions would be 
infinitely weaker in dealing with 



1898.] 



EXTRACTS AND TRANSLATIONS. 



147 



Saxons, Teutons, and other races of 
the West. 'It is only hy the 
Church militant arrayed against 
the huge monstrosities of Mormon- 
ism, rum traffic, Louisiana lottery, 
and other enormities that Christen- 
dom is kept from precipitating into 
immediate ruin and death.' 

" Our convert's remarks upon the 
good of Christendom and the good 
of heathendom are very striking 
and forcihle, and his illustrations 
of what he means are very apt and 
impressive. ' But if Christendom's 
bad is so bad, how good is its good I ' 
he exclaims. 'Seek through the 
length and breadth of heathendom 
and see whether you can find one 
John Howard to ornament its his- 
tory of humanity. We have heard 
of our magnates (Japanese) hoard- 
ing millions and spending them 
upon temples, or feeding the poor, 
for their own future's sake; but a 
George Peabody or a Stephen Gi- 
rard, who hoarded for the sake of 
giving, and took delight in giving, 
is not a phenomenon observable 
among the heathen. And not these 
select few only, but widely distrib- 
uted throughout Christendom, tho 
necessarily hidden from view, are 
to be found what may be specially 
named good men — souls who love 
goodness for its own sake, and are 
hcTit toward doing good, as mankind 
in general is bent toward doing 
evil. How these souls, keeping 
themselves from the view of the 
public, are striving to make this 
world better by their efforts and 
prayers ; how they often shed 
tears for the wretchedness of 
the state of the people of whom 
they read only in the newspapers; 
how they lay upon their hearts the 
welfare of all mankind; and how 
willing they are to take part in the 
work of ameliorating human misery 
and ignorance — ^these things I saw 
with my own eyes, and I can testify 
to the genuine spirit that underlies 
them all. Those sUent men are 



they who in their country's peril 
are the first to lay down their lives 
in its service; who, when told of a 
new mission enterprise in a heathen 
land, will give their own railway 
fares to the missionary who is un- 
dertaking it, and return home, 
tramping on their own feet, and 
praising God for their having done 
so; who, in their big, tearful hearts, 
understand all the mysteries of 
Divine mercy, and hence are merci- 
ful to all around them. No fierce- 
ness and blind zeal with those men, 
but gentleness and cool calculation 
in doing good. Indeed, I can say 
with all truthfulness that I have 
seen good men only in Christen- 
dom. Brave men, honest men, 
righteous men are not wanting in 
heathendom, but I doubt whether 
good men are possible without the 
knowledge of Jesus Christ.' " 

This belongs rather under Japan, 
but we give it here because Mr. 
Foster writes from China. 

Dr. Hering, in the ZeitschHft 
fUr Missionskunde, draws a very 
interesting parallel between the 
Chinese and Japanese. In it he 
says: "How different are the two 
people in point of character. The 
Japanese mobile, of eminently san- 
guine temperament; the Chinese 
slow to take up what is new, how- 
ever evident its advantages, but 
clinging tenaciously to it when 
once taken up; the Japanese, gifted 
with astonishingly practical sense, 
taking up novelties with great ad- 
dress, altho often only superficially, 
and, therefore, often with unfortu- 
nate results. Yet toward them 
from whom they receive these 
novelties they remain full of mis- 
trust, bent on scrutinizing every- 
thing for themselves, from a new 
invention to the Gospel. 

"The Chinese are inclined to 
philosophical speculation. This is 
shown by the systems of a Confu- 
cius, a Lao-tsze, a Mencius, as well 
as by the immense Chinese litera- 



148 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



[February 



ture, concerning especially geogra- 
phy and history, and hiding yet 
unappropriated treasures. The 
Japanese have remained unproduc- 
tive in the sphere of philosophy, 
and, indeed, their literatui*e gener- 
ally will sustain no comparison 
with that of China. Only in the 
field of myth and legend has it 
been eminent. 

"The Chinese can hardly be 
called warlike. Her vast territo- 
ries China has acquired less by con- 
quest than by colonization. The 
Japanese, on the contrary, are dis- 
tinguisht by a great predilection 
for weapons and the trade of arms. 
They are born soldiers, pliable, 
capable of self-devotion, wonted 
from of old to discipline, abso- 
lutely intoxicated with warlike 
renown. 

"The Chinese inclines rather to 
the works of peace. In these he 
is industrious, saving, sober, and 
thoroughly^trustworthy. The Chi- 
nese artisan, over and above his 
skilfulness, has the virtue of abso- 
lute punctuality. You can not say 
that of the Japanese mechanic, 
tho he is just as skilful. As a ser- 
vant of the European the China- 
man is matchless, working with no 
noise and with the regularity of a 
timepiece, faithful and honest, 
altho the consciousness of his 
heaven- wide superiority to the for- 
eign barbarian never forsakes him. 
Inquire of the European merchants 
of East Asia as to their Chinese 
and Japanese business correspond- 
ents, and you will find them 
unanimous in their praise of the 
Chinese merchant and clerk, and 
quite as unanimous in their com- 
plaints of the Japanese. The fact 
is, that in all the European bank- 
ing-houses in China and Japan 
there are Chinese installed, and 
that defalcations are as good as 
unknown. Mr. Chamberlain, for 
years manager of the Hongkcmg 
and Shanghai Bank at Shanghai, 



has declared that he knows no one 
in the whole world that he would 
sooner trust than a Chinese mer- 
chant or banker. ... In the 
last five-and-twenty years, he re- 
marks, the bank has had transac- 
tions with Chinese in Shanghai 
amounting to hundreds of millions, 
but * we have never fallen in with 
a dishonest Chinese.' 

" In view of the great extent of 
the Chinese Empire, the difference 
of the tribes and dialects, and the 
great independence of the several 
provinces, one in China can hardly 
speak of patriotism, but at most of 
a consciousness of race, while the 
Japanese are inspired with a glow- 
ing patriotism. Should a foreign 
power ever attempt to conquer 
Japanese soil, and to take posses- 
sion of it, it would meet with a re- 
sistance compared with which the 
obstinacy of the Poles, the stubborn 
conflicts in the Caucasus, or the In- 
dian mutiny would be as nothing." 

Madagascar. 

— Mr. Jonson, of the Norwegian 
mission, writing to M. Boegner, of 
the French Society, i*emarks: "It 
must be owned that it is by no 
means easy to govern the Mala- 
gasy; they are such liars, and so 
servily that they lie with the great- 
est possible address to gain the 
favor of their superiors; and when 
this bad habit of character enters 
into the service of the Jesuits, the 
I'esult can only be a regular peree- 
cution, against which we hav^e no 
help but in the help of our Lord." 

— We see from the Aug^ist J&ur- 
fuil deft MIhsioiis that the French 
Catholic i)erseeution in Madagascar 
is making rapid progress. The 
agents of the Jesuits have, for 
months, been threatening the Prot- 
estants that if they did not turn 
('atholic, they should be shot, but 
hitherto this has been little more 
than a threat. Now, however, we 
learn from the Jownial the French 



1898.] 



ENGLISH NOTES. 



149 



are carrying out the threat in mur- 
derous earnest In various districts 
of Imerina and Betsileo, the two 
central provinces, a number of per- 
sons have been shot, most common- 
ly on mere discrimination, without 
any form of law. Of course, they 
are accused of disloyalty, but every- 
thing, communicated alike in the 
Journal and the Chronicle, makes 
it certain that their disloyalty con- 
sists simply in adherence to Prot- 
estantism in connection with the 
Jjondon Missionary Society. 

The Devil, the Jesuits, and the 
French Republic seem thoroughly 
agreed to break up the chief Chris- 
tian work in the great island, con- 
temptuously reserving the lesser 
Protestant societies, especially the 
Norwegian, to be devoured at lei- 
sure. These men have been just as 
truly murdered by France for their 
Protestantism as the victims of St. 
Bartholomew's. Catharine de Me- 
dici was an atheist, flattering the 
bloodthirstiness of Catholic fanat- 
ics, and her Republican successors 
are just the same thing. 

That mischievous assumption 
that religion must make itself a 
servant of nationality, which has 
done so much evil in almost every 
Christian country, seems to be now 
raging in its fullest virulence in 
France. 



English Notes. 

BT REV. JAMES DOUGLAS, M.A. 

LoTuUm Missionary Society, — In 
connection with Christ Church, 
Westminster, of which the Rev. F. 
B. Meyer is pastor, a valedictory 
service was held on Thursday, No- 
vember 3d, when Mr. Wilson H. 
Gelier, a student of Harley House, 
Bow, and a member of Mr. Meyer's 
church, was formally designated to 
his work in Hian-kan, China. Mr. 
Gelier has proved a valued coadju- 
tor of Mr. Meyer in his endeavor to 
reach the outlying masses in the 



populous neighborhood around 
Christ Church, and has not only 
commended himself to his pastor, 
but to the large class of workers 
that meet there. The valedictory 
service, which was largely attended, 
was characterized by great depth 
of feeling and sympathetic interest. 
All seemed to know Mr. Gelier, and 
to hold him in honor as a brother 
beloved. Nor is this to be won- 
dered at, for, tho still a compara- 
tively young man, his zeal for years 
has been conspicuous; and both as 
superintendent of the Lodging- 
house Mission, and as an open-air 
preacher, his work has been at- 
tended with signal blessing. 

Outward Bound. — In addition to 
Mr. Gelier, nine other recruits are 
outward bound, four for China and 
five for India. Of these Mr. Bitton, 
who is appointed for Shanghai, is a 
distinguisht Hackney student, be- 
ing in the honors list of the Theo- 
logical Senate and ''First Homes 
Jubilee prizeman. " Mr. Edward F. 
Mills is a fully qualified doctor, the 
son of a Madagascar missionary, 
was born in the Hova capital, 
and his destination is King-shan, 
Central China. Miss Alice W. 
Esam has already served four years 
in the China Inland Mission, and 
now, with restored health, is re- 
turning to a much-beloved land. 
Miss Mabel Neal is designated for 
Canton, and has been trained at 
Dr. Guinness's Institute, in Poplar. 

The appointments to India are 
Mr. Nathaniel C. Daniell, a Cornish- 
man, whose labors as an evange- 
list have been greatly blest; Mr. 
Sydney Nicholson, a native of 
Yorkshire, and student of Hackney 
College; Miss Annie Budd, of Ho- 
merton Training College; Miss 

Maud Pepper, of Doric Lodge, Bow, 
and Miss Annie R. Lloyd, who, 
after ten years' training at Not- 
tingham University (College, be- 
came a certificated mistress, and is 
now enrolled among the teaching 
staff of the girls' school in Calcutta. 



150 



OBNE!RAI« MI88IONART INTELIJOENCB. 



[February 



[Tmen statistics are designed to include only Missions among either non-Christian or non- 
reduced. Accuracy has been sought, but also completeness, and hence conservative estimates 
within the space afforded by two pages of this Magazine, a large number of the smaller and 



Namb! or MnsioHART Socnms nr 
Obsat Bbttain and upon ths Con- 
tinkmt, and sum marus fob asia, 
AnuGA, AnsTBALiA, era 



Baptist (England) 

London Society (L. M. S.) 

Church Society (C. M. S.) 

Propagation Society (S. P. G.) 

Universities' Mission 

Society of Friends 

Weeleyan Society 

Methodist New Connection 

United Methodist Free Churches 

Welsh Calvinistic 

Presbyterian Church of England 

Presbyterian Church of Ireland 

China Inland Mission 

Established Church of Scotland 

Free Church of Scotland 

Reformed Presbyterian 

United Presbyterian 

Other British Societies 

Paris Society 

Basle Society 

Berlin Society 

Gossner'B Society 

Hormannsburg Society 

Leipsic Society 

Moravian Church 

North German Society 

Bhenish Society (Barmen) 

Eleven other German Societies. 

Fifteen Netherlands Societies 

Nineteen Scandinavian Societies 

Societies in Asia, Af rica,Au8tralia,etc. 

Totals for Europe, Asia, etc 

Totals for America 

Totals for Christendom 






s 



o 



17W 
1706 
1790 
1701 
1860 
1807 
1816 
1860 
1887 
1841 
1847 
1840 
1866 
1829 
1818 
1849 
1847 



188S 
1816 
1824 
1886 
1864 
1886 
1732 
1886 
1829 



6 

a 

8 



$420,890 

762,216 

1,706,975 

667,680 

121,620 

69,675 

668,779 

82,600 

49,866 

68,962 

118,810 

114,010 

192,000 

181,470 

426,280 

8,786 

276,470 

718,000 

125,884 

285,847 

160,996 

45,000 

61,6M 

107,820 

180,670 

88,000 

144,480 

127,000 

168,156 

806,880 

678,670 



18,798,655 



$5,255,006 



$14,018,661 



ll 
11 


• 

1 


118 


84 


160 


28 


872 


110 


5RR 


70 


80 


28 





28 


60 


90 


6 


2 


26 


7 


15 


1 


18 


16 


22 


8 


60 


178 


22 


7 


«5 


61 


2 





TT 


18 


85 


806 


87 


4 


158 


56 


76 


IS 


18 


14 


66 





87 


8 


96 


76 


17 


8 


106 


4 


15 


54 


57 


88 


123 


88 


470 


581 


2,929 


1,796 


1,872 


592 


4,301 


2,888 



118 

152 

298 

840 

1 

20 

120 
6 
10 
18 
24 
17 

270 

21 

67 

1 

66 

178 
84 

100 
76 
20 
68 
27 

156 
10 
86 
88 
80 
Si 

600 



go 



2,980 



1,521 



4.501 



5 

70 

288 

170 

80 

19 

40 



1 

6 

22 

16 

190 

53 

78 



89 

481 



7 

8 

8 



4 

21 

8 

18 

100 

2 

72 

08 

1^ 

1,209 

2,996 



a 
o 



JS o 



275 

410 

1,018 

1,168 

84 

67 

810 

14 

48 

85 

60 

68 

098 

112 

266 

8 

105 

047 

75 



167 

66 

100 

71 

848 

88 

206 

907 

172 

817 

1.594 



0,447 



4,754 



14,901 



1^ ll 
11 l« 



40 


886 


896 


2,417 


861 


5,660 


188 


8,804 


10 


117 





429 


ISO 


8,922 


25 


80 


4 


10 


6 


814 


15 


148 


8 


961 


14 


469 


10 


708 


28 


1,848 








20 


865 


86 


8,060 


7 


810 


81 


1,018 





184 


19 


440 





402 


22 


610 


19 


1,986 


1 


50 


28 


296 


6 


157 


12 


601 


68 


1,466 


868 
1,876 
1,707 
8,648 


12,720 


48,790 


16,104 


50,028 



1898.] 



MISSIONARY STATISTICAL TABLB8. 



151 



ProtestaDt peoples, and hence the figures of certain societies doing colonial work have been 
have been made concerning certain Items omitted from some reports. Mainly in order to keep 
special organizations have been grouped together.] 



Total Force In 
the Field. 


Is 

1,084 

867 

1,483 

2,500 

80 


S 

•^* 
q 

a 
i 

o 
O 


Added 
Last Year. 


Adherents 

(Native 
Christians). 


1 

9 

i 
1 

660 
1,278 
2,171 

860 
67 


Q 

1 


Countries in which 


1,100 
2,887 
6,693 
4,467 
201 


53,284 
84,478 
62,786 
88,000 
1,722 


8,865 
1,500 
4,221 
8,200 
168 


200,000 
188,842 
283,110 
206,000 
6,705 


88,458 
60,890 
92,804 
41,000 
8,084 


India, China, Palestine, Africa, West 

Indies. 
China, India, Africa, Madagascar, 

Polynesia. 
Persia. China, Japan, India, Africit, 

North America, etc. 
India, China, Japan, Malaysia, 

Africa, West Indies, etc. 
Africa (Lake Nyassa and Zanzibar). 


406 


70 


2,748 


880 


10,000 


400 


16,800 


Pale.stine, India, China, Madagas- 


4^282 


2,652 


44,578 

1,818 


2,221 
20O 


180,000 
8,000 


480 
88 


22,663 
464 


CHr« 
India, China, Africa (West and 

South), West Indies. 
China (Shantung, Tien-tsin). 


68 


25 


8,419 


264 


18,000 


20 


1,808 


China, Africa, Australia. 


849 


292 


2,948 


868 


18,245 


241 


6,542 


N. E. India, France (Brittany). 


228 


116 


4,946 


676 


17,000 


62 


8,820 


India, Chhia, Formosa, Mahiysia. 


884 


61 


1,288 


206 


6,000 


120 


6,018 


China, India (Kathiawar), Syria. 


1,155 


277 


6,118 


1,262 


25,000 


84 


1,077 


China (Fifteen Provinces). 


800 


105 


8,077 


806 


10,000 


826 


18,811 


India, East Africa, Palestine. 


1,596 
12 


818 
2 


9,912 
48 


881 
8 


80,000 
150 


629 
8 


26,844 
848 


India, Africa (South and East), Ara- 
bia, Palestine, New Hebrides. 
Syria (Antioch. etc.). 


580 
4,016 


2SM 
7S0 


21,028 
12,158 


1,079 
8,200 


60,000 
86,000 


804 
680 


18,100 
65,000 


India, CHiina, Japan, Africa (West 
and South), West Indies. 


885 


807 


18,868 


260 


85,000 


860 


10,000 


Africa, South and West, Tahiti. 


1,886 


680 


17,174 


1,870 


88,740 


406 


15,049 


South India, China, West Africa. 


861 


802 


14,700 


858 


80,000 


200 


6,W1 


Africa, East and South, China. 


496 


150 


18,020 


970 


28,000 


120 


8,140 


India (Oanges, Chota, Nagpore). 


511 


147 


88,989 


1,780 


86,250 


89 


6,679 


India, South Africa, New Zealand. 


(NO 
2,888 

88 


205 

171 
81 


7,849 

88,801 

1,088 


865 

1,800 
143 


16,070 

94,812 

2,500 


216 

850 

84 


6,823 

24,759 

878 


South India, Burma, British and 
German East Africa. 

South Africa, Australia, South Am- 
erica, West Indies, Eskimo, etc. 

West Africa, New Zealand. 


606 

864 


846 

45 


27,464 
900 


781 
140 


64,817 
8,000 


280 
60 


10,962 
1,588 


Africa, East Indies, New Guinea, 
China. 


778 


607 


44,918 


1,880 


150,000 


65 


1,600 




1,788 


670 


82,156 


8,700 


90,000 


800 


88,854 




14,814 


1.600 
15,681 

6,091 
21,T« 


885,804 


8,500 


700,000 
2,415,241 


1,200 

12,137 

6,672 


156,538 




58,151 


772,950 


44,064 


685,017 




80,046 


856,880 


86,288 


1,143,275 


241,180 




74,097 


1,189,880 


70,872 


8,558,516 


18,809 


926,197 





152 



GENERAX UISSIONART INTELLIGENCE. 



[February 



THE KINGDOM. 

— ^Our lives would be sing^arly 
incomplete if there were in them 
no chance for giving as worship. 
I am of the opinion, and very 
strongly, that we ought to hail 
every opportunity to give some- 
thing for the advancement of relig- 
ion, for charity, for the missionary 
effort of the Church, as a means of 
grace, a way of increasing oiu* 
generosity and of reproving our 
natiu*al selfishness. Instead of 
suffering in ourselves any impa- 
tience with the collection box, we 
ought to hail it with love and joy, 
remembering the blessing of the 
Lord bestowed upon her who crept 
meekly to the treasury and dropt 
in her two mites. — Margaret E, 
Sangster, 

— Christianity can not be, must 
not be, watered down to suit the 
palate of Hindu, Parsee, Confucian- 
ist, Buddhist, or Mohammedan; 
and whosoever wishes to pass from 
the false religion to the true can 
never hope to do so by the rickety 
planks of compromise, or by the 
help of faltering hands held out 
by half-hearted Christians. He 
must leap the gulf in faith; the 
living Christ will spread His ever- 
lasting arms beneath him, and land 
him safely on the eternal rock. — 
Sir Monier Williams. 

—"We hear much of various sys- 
tems of prison discipline, as the 
separate, the silent, and the con- 
gregate systems, but unless the 
Christian system be brought to 
bear, with Divine power, on the 
understanding and consciences of 
criminals, every other system, pro- 
fessedly contemplating their refor- 
mation, must prove an utt«r fail- 
ing. We willingly concede to 
various modes of prison discipline 
their just measure of importance, 
but to expect that human machin- 
ery, however perfect, can take the 
place of God's own i)re8cribed 



method of reformation, involves 
not only ignorant presumption, 
but practical infidelity. — Dr, Colin 
A, Brotoning, R.N, 

— General Brinckerhoff, president 
of the National Prison Congress, 
recently said: ** I want to put it on 
record, with all the emphasis I can 
command, that if we are to make 
any large progress in the reforma- 
tion of prisoners, or in the pre- 
vention of crime, or in the better- 
ment of mankind, we must utilize 
more fully than we have heretofore 
the religious element which is in- 
herent in the universal heart of 
man. You may call it a supersti- 
tion, if you will, but yet the fact 
remains that man, altho he may be 
a mere animal, ' whose little life is 
rounded by a sleep ' and ends with 
the grave, nevertheless is the only 
animal whose life is governed by 
what he believes, and who rises 
and falls in accordance with his 
mental ideas." 

— Practical vivisection without 
anaesthetics — that is the apt phrase 
by which Dr. J. M. Buckley de- 
scribes the cutting down of appro- 
priations to mission fields in order 
to avoid debt. 

— Quoth Bishop McCabe: " How 
to get the Church to consecrate its 
money to God is tJie question of the 
hour. We could go swiftly onward 
with the work of evangelizing the 
world, if we only had the money to 
send the messengers of salvation. 
The total income of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church alone can not be 
less than $600,000,000. One-tenth 
of that is $60,000,000. We give 
$24,000,000 now. We rob God of 
$36,000,000, or $3,000,000 a month, 
or $100,000 a day." 

— Church at Hotne and Abroad 
puts it this way: •* If all the commu- 
nicants of the Presbyterian Church 
would only deny themselves the 
pleasure of eating one plate of ice- 



1898.] 



GBNEBAL MI88IONABT INTEIiLIQENCE. 



153 



cream less every year and give the 
saving to the Board of Ministerial 
Relief, money enough would be 
forthcoming to pay all the appro- 
priations for aged and worn-out 
ministers of the denomination in 
all the world." 

— Rev. Myron Eells, missionary 
at Skokomish Indian mission, 
Washington, puts himself on rec- 
ord thus: " On a recent Saturday I 
went by boat 10 miles, then walkt 
12 more to Holly, preacht there 
Sunday morning, attended Sunday- 
school, preacht again at half -past 
two, after which I administered 
the Lord's Supper. Then I walkt 
back 6 miles to Harrison, where I 
I>reacht at eight o'clock, after 
ivhich I again administered the 
communion. It was the first time 
it had ever been administered in 
the latter place, and some church 
members present had not partaken 
of it for fifteen years." 

— The intelligence comes that 
Prince Oscar and Princess Ebba, of 
Sweden, contemplate leaving Frid- 
hem, their beautiful home on Goth- 
land Island in the Baltic, and sail- 
ing to Africa as missionaries, in 
response to the appeal from jungle 
and slave pen in that unhappy 
land where men, women, and little 
children are hunted as beasts, and, 
like beasts, sold for burden-bearing 
and to be slaughtered for food. 

— An illustration of the variety 
of the difficulties which beset trans- 
lators of the Word of God is given 
by a veteran missionary in India, 
who tells us that Hindi "offers 
special difficulty as a medium for 
the expression of Biblical truth. 
We have no word in Hindi for 
•person,' none for * matter,' as dis- 
tinct from 'spirit.' The word for 
'omnipresence' suggests rather 
universal pervasion than what we 
mean by presence. There is often 
difficulty in finding exact words 
even for moral ideas. Thus there 



is no one word to express the idea 
of chastity, which can be applied to 
a man; the word which denotes 
this can only be used of a woman I 
Neither is there any word which 
connotes the same thought as our 
word 'ought,' so that, naturally, 
Hindi has no word for 'con- 
science.'" 

— And an English Wesleyan mis- 
sionary, in Ceylon, writes in Work 
and Workers of the exceeding diffi- 
culty of securing a sufficiency of 
good Tamil hymns for worship. 
The people, in their entire intellec- 
tual and spiritual make, are so un- 
like Anglo-Saxons, and the two 
tongues are so radically different, 
that Watts, Wesley, etal., in a Ta- 
mil dress are intolerably senseless 
and dull. South India waits with 
longing for a native hymnist. 

— "Provost Vahl calculates that 
from 1845 to 1890 the number of 
male missionaries was multiplied 3 
or 4 times, while that of women 
missionaries was multiplied about 
26 times." 

— When an Armenian comes to 
this country, and you find him not 
all that you had imagined, please 
remember that for centuries he has 
been groimd down by oppression. 
The bad side of his nature has been 
developt, the good side sadly 
dwarft. Do not judge him by the 
Anglo-Saxon nineteenth century 
standard. He can not stand it. Be 
just, and you will have more char- 
ity. He thirsts for education, and 
he needs the gospel of love. Will 
you continue to supply his need ? 
Sometimes the refugees called me 
an angel, and it was delightful that 
I could be a tangible angel, with 
plenty of English gold in my 
pocket. — Miss Kafherine Fraaer, 

YOUNG PEOPLE. 

— The International Committee 
of the Y. M. C. A. reports that in 
thirty-one years the number of as- 
sociations has grown from 90 to 



154 



GENERAL MI86IONAKY INTELLIGENCE. 



[February 



1,429, and the total membership 
from 16,488 to 248,734. Then there 
were no buildings, now there are 
390, valued at over $17,000,000 ; then 
the expense of local work was $50,- 
000, now it is nearly $2,500,000. The 
international work in this country, 
including all superintendence of 
the local organizations and the de- 
velopment of the departments, was 
$522 ; it is now a trifle over $73,000. 

— In the latter part of October an 
All-India Epworth League Conven- 
tion was held at Calcutta. There 
were addresses not merely from 
missionaries who are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
but from representatives of the 
Christian Endeavor Society, and 
Christian workers in every depart- 
ment in India. The League of In- 
dia and Malavsia is in close affllia- 
tion with the parent League in this 
country. It operates in 14 different 
languages in India. 

— The following resolution was 
adopted by the General Missionary 
Committee (Methodist) at its meet- 
ing in Philadelphia: "We see in 
the million and a half of our young 
X)eople organized into Epworth 
Leagues and other young people's 
societies, a most inviting field for 
the reception of missionary infor- 
mation and inspiration. The brav- 
ery and heroic adventure that have 
characterized the advancing Church 
from the earliest ages will be ex- 
ceedingly fascinating to these 
young minds; therefore, Resolved, 
That we direct our secretaries to do 
their best to have these young peo- 
ple's societies devote one meeting 
each month to the study of the mis- 
sionary fields and cause." 

— Canada and Great Britain have 
past the two - hundred - thousand 
mark in the membership of their 
Christian Endeavor societies at 
about the same time. 

— tDuring two years in succession 
the "Sojourners* Society of Chris- 



tian Endekvor" was organized at 
the mountain sanitarium, Ku-ling, 
near Foochow, China. This society 
is in existence during the tempo- 
rary stay of missionaries in this 
healthful spot during the hottest 
part of the summer. Under their 
leadership about 50 Chinese are or- 
ganized for Christian Endeavor 
work, which includes going out 
among the scattered villages of the 
mountains, talking to the people, 
and inviting them to the services. 

— Schools in the United States 
cost last year $185,000,000. Pupils 
niunbered 14,500,000. Of male teach- 
ers there were 130,000; female teach- 
ers, 270,000. Expended per pupil, 
$18.92. There are in private schools 
1,250,000 pupils, in public high 
schools, 4,000,000, and in universi- 
ties and colleges, 100,000. There 
were 1,500,000 colored children in 
the Southern schools. The value of 
school property amounts to $456,- 
000,000. 

UNITED STATES. 

— In September last, upon the 
steamship Empress of China, no 
less than 42 missionaries took pas- 
sage for their fields lying beyond 
the broad Pacific. Classified accord- 
ing to destination, there were, for 
China, 22 ; for Japan, 12, and for 
Korea, 8. There were represented 
seven societies — Presbyterian, 10, 
including 1 Southern Presbyterian, 
and 3 going out independently ; 13 
Methodists, including 1 from the 
Canadian Methodist Church, and 2 
from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South ; Church Missionary 
Society, 6 ; China Inland Mission, 
2 ; Congregational, 3 ; 1 Baptist and 
the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, 1. Classified according 
to homeland, England was repre- 
sented by 6, Canada by 2, Scotland 
by 2, and the United States by 32. 

— The report of The Tribune 
Fresh Air Fund shows that la«t 
summer 10,285 children were sent 



1898.] 



OBNBIbiX HIB8IONABT INTBLLIOENCB. 



155 



into the country for a longer or 
shorter period at an expense of 
$20,703, an average of about $2.60 
each. During the twenty-five years 
since the establishment of the fund 
it has benefited 161,600 children at 
a cost of $388,401. The first year's 
record (1877) was 60, the next year 
1,077, from which there was a very 
steady increase until 1882, when 
the highest number was reacht — 
15,238. 

— The Children's Aid Society has 
completed its fortieth year, and 
among many other good things is 
able to report that last year 20 day 
schools and 12 night schools were 
sustained, with 14,017 children 
taught and partly fed and clothed ; 
meals to the number of 763,050 
were fumisht; in 6 lodging-houses 
6,848 difFerent boys and girls found 
shelter, to whom 243,580 meals 
were supplied. During the hot 
weather a day's outing was given 
to 42,353. One of the '* graduates " 
of this institution is now governor 
of Alaska. 

— ^The churches are accomplish- 
ing great good by their work of 
education and by the planting of 
Christian churches in Utah. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church has 25 
ministers in that field, 35 churches, 
1,500 church members, 220* teachers 
and officers in Sabbath schools, 
and 2,165 pupils. The Presbyte- 
rian Chxux:h has 28 ministers, 23 
churches, 1,116 members, 237 Sab- 
bath-school teachers, with 2,302 pu- 
pils; 22 mission schools, with 2,300 
pupils, 4 of these schools being 
academies, and 1 a college. The 
combined forces of all Protestant 
churches in Utah are 84 ministers, 
98 churches, 5,101 members, 115 
Sabbath-schools, with 7,653 pupils, 
and 42 Christian day schools, with 
8^635 pupils. 

— ^The work of the American 
Board last year is thus summa- 
rized: "In 1»227 centers 543 mis- 



sionaries, men and women, assisted 
by a force of 2,966 native preachers, 
teachers, and other helpers, are 
preaching the Gospel in 27 lan- 
guages, and directing a great evan- 
gelistic, educational, and medical 
enterprise. In 470 churches there 
is gathered a total membership 
of 44,606, of whom 3,910 have 
made confession of their faith this 
year. In 17 theological schools 179 
students are in direct preparation 
for the work of the ministry. In 
118 colleges and high schools 6,991 
pickt youths of both sexes are in 
training, under the most favorable 
conditions, for a share in the work, 
and 43,221 pupils are under Chris- 
tian instruction in 1,049 common 
schools." 

— The American Missionary As- 
sociation, which occupies a station 
at Cape Prince of Wales, the most 
westerly point of North America, 
and has there a herd of reindeer, is 
assisting the United States Govern- 
ment in efforts to relieve the 
whalers who are ice-bound in the 
Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. 
The missionary has been author- 
ized to render every assistance. 
The station has the largest day 
school in Alaska, with an average 
attendance of more than 100. It 
has also an industrial department, 
and has aided in training the Eski- 
mos to herd the reindeer intro- 
duced from Siberia. 

— The Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion has 7 missionaries in Africa 
and 7 native helpers. There are 6 
churches, with a membership of 
282, who gave last year $393. 

EUROPE. 

Great Britain. — Losses caused to 
charities by the special jubilee col- 
lections are reported in the Quiver, 
The diminution of income of the 
Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals amounts to 
£10,000 ; that of the London City 



156 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTBLLiaENCB. 



[February 



Missions to over £5,000 ; Dr. Bar- 
nardo*8 Homes, £4,900 ; Church of 
England Home for Waifs and 
Strays, £2,600, and the Ragged 
School Union, £1,500. The British 
and Foreign Sailors' Society, Brit- 
ish Home for Incurables, British 
and Foreign Bible Society, and 
others, also ascribe a falling off in 
receipts to the special efforts in 
other directions. 

— The Mission World quotes 
several remarkable statements on 
good authority, among them : 
** There are in the Christian Church 
over 100,000 proselytes from Ju- 
daism, and in the Church of Eng- 
land alone 250 of the clergy are 
either Jews or the sons of Jews. 
As each Lord's day comes round 
the Gospel is proclaimed in more 
than 600 pulpits of Europe by Jew- 
ish lips. Over 350 of the ministers 
of Christ in Great Britain are 
stated to be Hebrew Christians." 

— ^The Archbishop of Canterbury 
has dispenst with the use of wines 
at Lambeth Palace, where, during 
all Episcopal regiinis since the 
Reformation, such refreshments 
have been habitually served. 

—By the will of the late J. T. 
Morton, of Aberdeen, some £500,- 
000 are left for missions, and seven- 
sixteenths of the residuary estate 
goes to the Moravian Church. Of 
this large sum, however, none is to 
be available for use in work already 
undertaken, but, being paid in ten 
annual instalments, is to go to 
open and sustain new work. 

— The Church Missionary Society 
has 48 medical missionaries in its 
service, 

— ^The London Religious Tract 
Society sends forth its publications 
at the annual rate of 59,000,000, and 
its total circulation to date has ag- 
gregated 3,215,000,000. Every Prot- 
estant Christian mission in the 



world has helpt to circulate these 
publications, and in 220 languages. 
Its work dates from 1707. 

The Continent.— -The Paris Mis- 
sionary Society is straining every 
nerve to meet the present emer- 
gency in Madagascar, where the 
French government is manifesting 
such hostility to the London Mis- 
sionary Society, and is insisting on 
the use of the French lang^uage 
among the natives. Already they 
have sent out missionary parties, 
the last, which sailed on 10th No- 
vember, consisting of M. and Mme. 
Rusillon, M. Robert, and Miles. 
Petrequin and Rousseau. In all 17 
men and 13 women have gone. 
After deducting for deaths and re- 
turns, there are 26 French Protes- 
tant missionaries in the field, in- 
cluding missionaries' wives. The 
Norwegian Missionary Society sent 
out last year to Madagascar 12 Nor- 
wegian missionaries, 2 French mis- 
sionaries, 2 French teachers, 1 
printer, and 3 women teachers. 

— The Netherland Missionary So- 
ciety has just celebrated its cen- 
tenary. In 1797, under the founder, 
Johann Vanderkemp, it commenced 
operations in friendly relations to 
the London Missionary Society. 
Early in the present century these 
two societies jointly sent mission- 
aries to South Africa and to Java, 
but the work was soon given up. A 
little later they began work to- 
gether among the Molucca Islands. 
The N. M. S. did noble work for 
many years, but discontent sprang 
up in 1858, and occasioned the for- 
mation of 4 societies, viz., the Gen- 
eral Missionary Society of the Re- 
formed Church, the Dutch Mission- 
ary Union, the Dutch Reformed 
Missionary Union, and the Utrecht 
Missionary Society. In 1804 the 
first and third of these societies 
w^ere united. In 1882 the Dutch 
Lutheran Missionary Society was 
also founded. 



1898.] 



OENERAJL MISSION ART INTELLIGENCE:. 



157 



— The Methodist Episcopal 
Church has property in Rome 
worth $200»000, consisting mainly 
of a large and commodious mission 
house, containing ample rooms for 
2 chapels, 2 parsonages, a boys' col- 
lege, a printing establishment, etc. 
Bishop Fobs regards this large in- 
vestment as supplying ample evi- 
dence that the Methodists are in 
Rome "to stay." 

ASIA. 

India. — The Rev. William Carey, 
a grandson of the eminent mission- 
ary of the same name, and now a 
missionary in Bengal, has issued a 
booklet entitled ''Christian Endeav- 
or in small Village Communities," 
in which he shows the value of the 
Endeavor movement in meeting 
the needs of such communities as 
exist in India. In multitudes of 
small villages where there are a few 
Christians, too few to maintain a 
preacher, or even a teacher, yet 
specially needing some organiza- 
tion in which they may have fel- 
lowship and mutual help, these 
Christian Endeavor societies just 
meet the need. Mr. Carey describes 
one section in which there are now 
54 separate societies, with 621 mem- 
bers. These small societies are 
groupt together, and can be visit- 
ed frequently by some wide-awake 
evangelist, or, perhaps, by a mis- 
sionary. 

— A Lutheran exchange states 
that Superintendent Bahnsen, of 
the Brecklum Missionary Society, 
attended a church service in Pan- 
dur, India, which lasted four hours, 
and during which 186 native con- 
verts were baptized, including 32 
heads of families. 

— More than 32,000 are on the 
books of the Ongole church (Bap- 
tist) as having been connected with 
it since it was organized in 1868. 
They lived in about 1,200 different 
villages. The original Ongole field 
has now been divided into 14 fields. 



each with its central station and 
independent churches. The mem- 
bers on the whole American Telugu 
field exceed 55,000 in number. 

— The first Parsee convert to 
Christianity in India is still living. 
His name is Dhanjibhai, and he was 
baptized in the year 1830. He is a 
minister of the Free Church of 
Scotland, and is held in high honor 
even by non-Christians in Iiidia. 
He is now an old man still at work, 
tho of him it has been said, as Dr. 
Candlish is reported to have said 
of Dr. Robert Gordon, ** It is far 
more important that he should live 
for several years more than that he 
should do any work." His presence 
is a benediction. 

— A Telugu Baptist Home Mis- 
sion Society was formed at the first 
meeting of the Telugu Baptist Con- 
vention, held at Ramapatam in 
August, at which 400 rupees were 
subscribed, and it was voted to 
send 2 native missionaries at once 
to the Chenchus, an aboriginal 
tribe of people numbering about 
6,000, living in the hills of the 
Nellore and Kurnool districts. 
This is the first movement of the 
Telugu Baptist churches toward 
missionary work for others, and is 
a gratifying and encouraging ex- 
hibition of growth in self-depend- 
ence and strength of Christian pur- 
pose. 

— Sixty-nine rescued famine girls 
who have been under Pandita 
Ramabai's care for some time, were 
baptized last month by the Rev. 
W. W. Bruere at Poona, on the 
public confession of their faith in 
Christ, together with 4 of the other 
inmates of her Home, and a Brah- 
min, who has been the Pandita's 
clerk for a number of years. 

China. — The new railroad from 
Tientsin to Peking is said to be 
realizing more than $1,000 per day. 
Crowds of students have been flock- 



158 



OENSRAL MISSIONARY INTELUGENCB. 



[February 



ing to Peking for the triennial ex- 
amination. Rather than come on 
the boats as of yore, they rode on 
open flat cars. It is supposed by 
the authorities that the road from 
Tientsin will be an advertisement 
that will do more for railroads in 
China than anything else. The 
students will return to their prov- 
inces prejudiced in favor of this 
more rapid and more comfortable 
method of travel. 

— The city of Peking is so filthy 
that it is deserted by all people 
who can get away from it in the 
summer. Our missionary, Dr. Vir- 
ginia Murdock, who remains there 
for medical work, wrote in July 
last: **The city is full of smells, 
dirt, and disease. I wish that 
while most are away, notice could 
be given the rest of us in time to 
get out, and that the place could 
be cleaned ; then -have a fire big 
enough to take in the city, have a 
fiood to wash out streets and sew- 
ers, and an earthquake to turn in 
the whole I It would not be fair to 
mother earth not to have a cleans- 
ing before turning it under." — Mis- 
sionary Herald. 

— A placard against the binding 
of women's feet has been posted all 
over the city in the province of 
Honan. It was written by a non- 
Christian Chinese literate, and is 
an interesting evidence of a dawn- 
ing consciousness that they have 
something to learn from the "bar- 
barians" besides the making of 
cannons — in which they have, for 
many years, been willing to ac- 
knowledge our superiority. Its 
arguments are quaint : " The mis- 
fortune of binding feet makes not 
only women suffer, but men too. 
Before bandits arrive men could 
often escape, but they have wives 
and daughters whom they can not 
leave behind. Foreign women have 
natural feet. They are fierce and 
can fight. But Chinese women are 



too weak to bear even the weight 
of their clothes." — TTie Presbyte- 
rian, 

— I was very much imprest in 
China — both there and everywhere 
— by the effect upon Chinese faces 
of receiving Christianity. I could 
almost pick from a mixt assem- 
blage those who were Christians. 
There is so much brightness and 
cheerfulness about their faces. 
And there is another thing I would 
speak of, and that is, that in China 
(and I think that missionaries from 
China, from whom I have learnt 
most of what I know, would bear 
me out in saying so) the converts 
have a very great desire to preserve 
their churches pure. It is a re- 
markable thing how anxious they 
are for purity, and how strong they 
are against anything which is in- 
consistent. And I suppose there 
is no Chinese church in China in 
which the excesses and immorali- 
ties of the Church at Corinth, for 
instance, are in any way — even in 
the mildest form — repeated. And 
that says much for the training 
and teaching which the Chinese 
converts are having from the mis- 
sionaries. — Mrs. Bishop. 

— Rev. Jee Gam, of San Francisco, 
says of education in his native land: 
** School life is very dull for the 
boys. They go to school at day- 
break, and are dismist at sunset. 
The schools are all private, except 
the universities. The pupils study 
out loud, and recite one by one, with 
their backs turned toward the 
teacher. If a boy makes four or five 
blunders, his ears are boxt, and if 
he makes more than that, the rat- 
tan is brought into use. Should he 
make a complete failure, black 
rings, giving the appearance of 
spectacles, are painted around his 
eyes, and these he must wear until 
school is dismist. Any boy would 
rather take a severe rattaning than 
wear those bogus spectacles. There 



1898.] 



GENKRAX MI8SIONART INTBLLIOENCB. 



159 



is no recess, for it is the belief there 
that if a boy goes out to play he 
will forget all he has learned. They 
are taught not to run, but to walk 
like gentlemen.'* 

— A medical missionary tells of 
several operations 'which resulted 
in restoring sight to the blind, and 
of another operation — the amputa- 
tion of a man's foot. This man, 
knowing of the successful eye ope- 
rations, concluded that it would be 
a small matter for the physician to 
give him a new foot, and pleaded 
with him to do so. When the doc- 
tor confest his inabUity to furnish 
him with a new foot, he still insisted 
upon it, saying that he was not par- 
ticular as to the kind of a foot; in- 
deed, he would be satisfied tcith a 
cow's foot if he could get no other. 

AFRICA. 

— A conference of Kongo mission- 
aries was held at Ikoko in August. 
Twelve members of the Baptist 
mission were present. The fact that 
this gathering was possible shows 
how the appliances of civilization 
are advancing into the interior of 
Africa. Rev. Joseph Clark, the mis- 
sionary in charge at Ikoko, writes 
that these 12 missionaries repre- 
sented an average service of 13 
years on the Kongo, and 11 chil- 
dren in Europe or America that 
were born on the Kongo, and are 
now all doing well. This would 
seem to indicate that the Kongo is 
not such a deadly place for white 
people as it has sometimes been 
represented to be. 

— The London Missionary Society 
is considering a scheme for the es- 
tablishment of an industrial and 
educational institute for the civili- 
zation of the heathen Bechuanas. 
The new enterprise will be conduct- 
ed on the lines of the famous Love- 
dale Institution in Cape Colony, 
and it will embrace within its scope 
not only the Bechuanas, but the 



whole of the tribes living in the 
center of the continent between the 
Yaal River and the Zambesi. The 
site of the institution will, of course, 
be in British territory, probably at 
Mafeking or Vryburg. 

— Fifteen tonsi 65,000,000 carats t! 
$500,000,000!!! of diamonds un- 
earthed in South Africa in 30 years, 
and gold worth $40,000,000 a year, 
rolling down her sands. 

— "German East Africa now 
reckons 3 Roman Catholic apos- 
tolic vicariats, viz.: Those of the 
White Fathers, the Bavarian Bene- 
dictines, and the Fathers of the 
Holy Ghost ; 3 bishops, an apos- 
tolic provicar, 53 priests, 46 broth- 
ers, and 43 sisters, a total of 146 
missionaries, not including a nu- 
merous body of native catechists.*' 

— The Uganda Book Society is in 
a very flourishing condition. Dur- 
ing the last eight months 13,200 
Bibles and portions have been 
bought, and 20,000 natives can now 
read the Bible. The receipts for 
books during the past four years 
have amounted to £3,000, two- 
thirds of which have been received 
from Uganda. This represents an 
average of £500 a year paid by the 
Christians of Uganda for Bibles, 
prayer-books, etc., a truly wonder- 
ful fact to be said of a people whose 
civilization has not advanced be- 
yond a currency of cowrie shells 
and cloth. — Church Missionary In- 
ielligencer, 

— A missionary in Livingstonia 
testifies to the importance of seek- 
ing in education the development 
of the spiritual nature. Intellec- 
tual awakening invariably follows 
the perception and reception of 
spiritual truth, and change of life 
results from this. Formerly we 
may have sought to interest the 
people, but a vacant stare or utter 
listlessness has been the only res- 
ponse, while of intellectual ac- 
tivity or ambition there seemed to 



160 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLiaENCE. 



[February 



be none outside the daily round of 
village life. Especially, as might 
be expected, is this most markt in 
the women, who have so long been 
lookt upon as the slaves rather than 
the companions of their husbands. 
When, however, spiritual awaken- 
ing has taken place, the intellectual 
faculties remain no longer dormant, 
but show themselves in the ambi- 
tion of the natives to master the 
alphabet and to read the Word of 
God for themselves. Following 
this has come the desire for im- 
proved houses and for acquiring 
the arts of civilization — in fact, 
the desire for technical instruction. 

ISLANDS OF THE SEA. 

— One would not naturally look 
to the Island of Mauritius as a 
place which should yield a native 
Christian of high intellectual at- 
tainments, but the Christian Pa- 
triot of Madras states that one of 
the two scholarships awarded to 
the best students of the Royal Col- 
lege, Mauritius, has this year been 
won by an Indian Christian stu- 
dent. The scholarship entitles the 
holder to pursue any professional 
study he may choose at any insti- 
tute in the United Kingdom. It is 
of the value of $1,000 per annum, 
tenable for a period of four years, 
with a passage allowance of $375, 
and a like sum for the return pas- 
sage. 

—The work of the W. C. T. U. 
among the native races of New 
Zealand has greatly helpt in bring- 
ing back to Christianity many who, 
according to their chiefs, were re- 
turning to their old superstitions. 
About 3,000 Testaments, hymn and 
prayer-books in the Maori lan- 
guage have been distributed, 600 
pledges circulated, and a quantity of 
temperance and Gospel literature 
distributed. Six Maori branches 
of the W. C. T. U. are at work 
conducting 6 Sunday-schools and 6 
Bible classes. 



— It is very gratifying to learn 
that the revision of the Malay 
Scriptures, delayed for two years 
by disagreement in regard to the 
word by which to designate our 
Divine Lord when he was upon 
earth in the form of man, will be 
proceeded with immediately. The 
choice lay between Tuaii and Tu- 
han. The Malaysia Message in- 
forms us that the revision com- 
mittee were unanimously of the * 
opinion that Tuhaii would be his- 
torically incorrect, not to say un- 
truthful, for it is applicable only 
to the Godhead, and it is obvious 
that even those who most firmly 
believed that He was the Messiah, 
would not have addrest Jesus as 
"God," which would be the exact 
equivalent of Tuhan, When it 
became known, however, that the 
revisers proposed to make the dis- 
ciples address Jesus as Tuan, 
"Sir," a great deal of alarm was 
manifested among a number of the 
missionaries and agents of the Bi- 
ble Society working in this field, 
and a petition was sent home to. 
the British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety, in which the signatories de- 
clared that they would take no part 
in the distribution of a version in 
which Christ was addrest as Tivan. 
Owing to this disagreement the 
work of revision has been at a 
standstill for about two years. Hap- 
pily, a compromise proposed by Dr. 
H. Luering, of the M. E. Mission, 
has commended itself to the revis- 
ers, and it is now believed that the 
end of the protracted controversy 
and unfortunate delay haa been 
reacht. The proposal is that 
"Lord," as a form of address to 
Jesus, shall be translated by the 
Arabic word Rabhi, which is well 
understood by Malays. The word 
Ttuin will be retained in a few in- 
stances as a translation of the pro- 
noun, where a frequent repetition 
of Rabbi would be objectionable. — 
Indian Witness, 



THE 



Missionary Review of the World! 



Vol. XXI. No. 8.— 0« 8erie9 MARCH— Vol. XI. No. 8.— iViw Serie; 



SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OF THE LAST HALF CENTURY.— 

RESCUE MISSIONS. 

BY THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF. 

This name, for lack of any better, has come to stand for the organ- 
ized effort to reach and save those who are most desperately lost — lost 
not to Grod only but to man; who have sunk to the lowest level, and 
got beyond the ordinary touch of our Christian benevolence and bene- 
ficeuce. They do not go to church, and the church does not go to 
them. They are in a pit so deep that the common means of grace do 
not avail; a special " life-line " let down to their level, and fitted to 
grapple them fast — a special message and mission, with peculiar love 
for the lost and passion for souls, seem needful for this sort of work. 
The Church has often been charged with ^difference where, perhaps, 
the real difficulty is inadequacy. We have known, many a pastor and 
many an earnest Christian stand and look on the dying thousands of 
drunkards, harlots, criminals, paupers about them, and simply turn 
away, sick at heart, as helpless observers, standing on a sea-beach, 
behold others hopelessly carried beyond reach of any Jif e-saving appa- 
ratus that is available, compelled to let them perish and drown. 

This half century has witnessed rescue work on a scale of magni- 
tude, both as to the effort and its results, probably beyond any other 
period of history. And there are a few forms of this noble philan- 
thropy so conspicuous that they deserve a special mention, while it 
would be invidious ev6n to hint that others which, for lack of space, 
have only a mention, are in any sense less deserving of sympathy and 
aid. The Salvation Army and American Volunteers,! The Mission 
to the Deep-Sea Fishermen, The Jerry McAuley Mission, The Florence- 
Crittenton Midnight Mission may stand as representative movements. 
The first two are directed toward the poor and outcast classes gener- 
ally; the third, toward the fishermen off the British Isles; the fourth 
is planted amid the drunkards, thieves, and worthless scamps of 
Water Street, New York; and the last is sacredly limited to the 

* This periodical tdopie the Orthography of the following Rale, recommended by the Joint action 
of the American Fhllological AsBOCiation and the Philological Society of England :— Change d or 
ed final to t when ao pronounced, except when the e affects a preceding sound.— Pububhers. 

t We hope locii to give a fnU account of Mrs. Ballington Booth^B work for the prisoners. 



SPIRITUAL ilOVBXKSTS OF THB HALF CENTUHT. 



[M., 



tr8uH«v7aik. 



Btreet-walkerB and lost women who have sacrificed chastity on the 

altars o! passion, poverty, or simple ignorance of the value of 
womanhood aud virtue. 

Of the Salvation Army, ac- 
counts so ample have filled these 
pages that it is unuecesBary to 
add much, for it would be mostly 
repetition. Yet it ought to he 
said that the one personality about 
whom this gigantic scheme re- 
volved, and from whom it took its 
real character, was inoi-e Catherine 
Itooth than even her husband. 
She will over he remembered as 
" the mother of the Salvation 
Army." Her memorials, in two 
great volumes, octavo, of about 
700 pages each, are before the 
public, written in sympathetic ink 
by her son-in-law, Mr. Booth- 
Tncker. They show bow far-reucb- 
ing and doep-reaching her influ- 
ence was; and it would be a great 

service to humanity if someone would give us the substance of these two 

unwieldy books in a cheap, attractive form. This story is more fas- 
cinating than a novel, and it ought to be told so Ibat people, who bavo 

neither the money nor the time for 

such lengthy memoirs, might get 

the inspiration of such alife in their 

own. Mrs. Booth was one of the 

greatest and best, women of her 

century. A daughter who was one 

of the rarest gifts Cod e\er gave to a 

parent; a wife that stood by lier 

husband at risk of everything, and 

stirred him up to as much good as 

Jezebel did Ahah to evil ; and a 

mother who swore a solemn oath 

before high heaven that she never 

would have a godless child! 

Upon her Iioiirt lay like a night- 
mare the awful woe and wickedness 

of the " submerged" populations 

that are sunk out of ordinary reach, 

and almost out of sight, in their own 



I89S.] RESCUE MISSIONS. 163 

vaDtoDnees and vretchednesB. And when little by littlo the pluns 
grew whereby it was proposed to get a hold upon these neglected and 
neglecting millions, she became the cherishing mother of the whole 
movement. She nnrst it from the full breasts of her consolations; 
she bore it in the tireless arms of her faith; she fostered it by her 
prayers; she bathed it in her tears; she wrapt it in the mantle of her 
lore ; she patiently f orebore with its follies and wants ; she aa patien tly 
counseled and cautioned, while 
she passionately pleaded and 
urged. When she died it seemed 
as tho this world - embracing 
scheme bad lost its head and 
heart. "General " Booth himself 
felt that the whole movement was 
in a state of widowhood and 
orphanhood at once. 

Another thing ought to be 
said about the Salvation Army. 
With all its eitravagaQces and 
serious defects — and they arc ser- 
ious — it has been on the whole a 
great success. Two great errors 
in our judgment mar its record 
thng far: it does not sufficiently 
exalt the Word of Ood, and it is 
virtually a church without sacra- 
ments. There is an undue em- 
phasis upon a subjective experi- 
ence and a personal testimonv, 
while the objective truth and the 
inspired Book of Witness fall into 

the background. In no Salvation ^^vxtion *r-y Bt^vxKtt«>. 

Army hall into which we have no. lao-m weat itin sinwt. New York. 

ever been, have we found a Bible 

lifted to prominence, as tho it were the center of all testimony and 
teaching; nor have we ever found liaptism and the Ivord's Supper 
observed in connection with this organization. True, Mr. Booth 
disclaims the cburchly character in tlie organization ; it is not 
a church, but an army. Yet it remains true that he gathers in 
converts, and teaches them to make the army their church — for 
he says they can not serve in the army and at the same time be 
active members in any church — and yet he makes no provision for 
obedience to the only two sjtecijic ordinances ever enjoined by our 
Lord. 

Xevertheless, the army has achieved great things. It has planted 



164 SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OP THE HALP CENTURY, I March 

everywhere its halls, its refuges, its homes, its hundred-fold methods,* 
and they have proved effective beyond anything of the sort we have 
ever known, in actually uplifting, saving, and transforming men and 
women. And, altho the head of this vast organization is one of the 
most autocratic of autocrats, he has handled immense sums of money 
and given a good account of his stewardship. Even his enemies and 
detractors have failed to find any fatal flaw in his business-like, econ- 
omical, honest, and judicious use of money. He seems to us to live 
for the work he has undertaken, and to have laid himself on the altar 
of his service. 

The work of Jerry McAuley, the apostle to the outcasts, has 
recently commanded public attention anew by the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary, observed on November 21, in Carnegie Ilall, New York, of 
which ample notice has been taken by the press. 

In nothing does God's hand more strikingly appear than in the fit- 
ness of workers for their work. Times, places, forms of service, and 
adaptation of means to ends, all show intelligent design and a per- 
sonal control. In the character and career of this foundei; of the 
*' Water Street " and " Cremorne " missions for the reclamation of the 
worst and most dangerous classes, there may be seen a convergence of 
many markt providential lines of preparation. 

Well known as are this man and his work by name, it is very 
doubtful whether one in ten, even of the church-goers in the great 
metropolis, knows much of the actual inception and growth of this 
enterprise, still less of the way in which it is carried on. Yet it is 
certain that no true disciple could doubt, after personal observation, 
that if anywhere in this vortex of crime our Divine Master is closely 
imitated it is in the Jerry McAuley work. 

No. 316 Water Street, New York, is almost exactly underneath the 
western approach to the great suspension bridge which spans the East 
River. Any night of the year a good-sized room may there be found, 
full of men, who, for the most part, are obviously poor, given to drink 
and other vices ; and many faces bear the marks of crime. A few seem 
to have the black brand of Cain. The tramp and pauper, the pick- 
pocket and river thief, the besotted sailor and highway robber, the 
procurer to lust and the blatant blasphemer — every class of the worst 
men and women find their way there, and I have often spoken to from 
two hundred to three hundred of these victims of want, woe, and vice. 
On Thursday nights these hundreds are freely fed with good bread and 
coffee, and then with the Bread of Life. The Gospel is sung with 
rousing effect, brief and simple Gospel talks intersperst, and an after- 

♦ The latest enterprise In America is the Farm Colony establisht in California, and 
intended to provide homes for the p<x)r of our great cities who are willing to work. This 
colony is not "cooperative," but has certain rules and restrictions calculated to contribute 
to the well-being of the community. Thirty-one houses have already been built in the first 
colony. 



1898.] REBcuK MISSIONS. 1G5 

meeting always follows for pmyer ami teetimony, and hand-to-lmnd 
touch with inquirers. 

For a quarter of a century, night after night, in hot and cold 
weather, in wet and dry, with no dependence but faitii in God, with 
no recompense but the wages of soul winners, this work has gone on, 
at times scarce surviving for want of funds and popular sympathy, yet 
always outliving any threatened danger of collapse, because God is 
behind it. It ie not meant as-a slight upon any other true work of God 
among the lowest classes when we write our calm conviction that, 
beyond any other one agency in the great metropolis, the Lord has 
used this Water Street Mission to reach, reclaim, and restore the very 
outcasts, and particularly men. Tho there has been no jealous caro 
to count up converts and tabulate 
tangible results in statistics, during 
the quarter century, this mission and 
the Cremorne Mission in Thirty- 
second Street, which is its later 
outgrowth, have, without doubt, 
caused a million outcasts to hear ihe 
Gospel, and at least fifteen thousand 
men and women have found their 
way to a sober, honest, virtuous life 
by these means. 

Snch a work, going on quietly, 
oa such a scale, demands attention 
and assistance from those who would 
help to save the lost. While we lalh 
and write about the problem of 

reaching the outcasts, this mission is juri ucaiilei. 

doing it, doing it so scriptnrally as 

to defy criticism, and so efficiently as to merit imitation. After fre- 
quent visits to both the Water Street and Cremorne missions, we bear 
witness that no feature of the work has left an unfavorable im- 
pression. Economy and simplicity of management, directness of 
appeal, evangelical tone, a prayerful spirit, dependence on God, 
hearty sympathy for man as man, and a divine passion for souls, seem 
to mark the whole history of the missions which Jerry McAuley 
founded, and which Mr. S. II. Hadley and others carry on in tlic 
same spirit. If any doubt whether any good thing can come out of 
Uazareth, the old remedy is still at hand, "Come and see." 

Ab this mission of Jerry McAuley has now completed its first 
quarter century, it may be well to give a brief resum^ of the rescue work. 

Its beginning was unique. John Allen — " the wickedest man in 
New York" — kept a saloon and dance-house in Water Street, two 
doors from the site of this misaion. In a dare-devil spirit he askt 



166 SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OP THE HALF CENTURY. [March 

some missionaries, as they past along one Sunday afternoon in 1868, 
to come in and hold a prayer-meeting in his saloon. They consented, 
if he would shut up his bar, which he did, and in this strange place 
for a Gospel service, praise and prayer and testimony for a little time 
displaced drunkenness, profanity, and lust. Allen's drunken fun led 
to serious business, for the invitation was soberly repeated, and the 
saloon was packt the next Sunday, and many could not get inside. 
Kew Yorkers will not forget the wild excitement which is forever 
linkt with John Allen's name, from this remarkable invasion of his 
premises by the Gospel of grace. Up to this time the Water Street 
neighborhood was a gateway of hell, nay, one long row of " dives " 
and " dance-halls," where almost every door led down to the devil's 
headquarters. Kit Burns' ratpit was but a block away, where "Jack, 
the rat," bit off rats' heads for the entertainment of sightseers! 

This open door at Allen's saloon led to further attempts to enter this 
highway to perdition. A missionary, Mr. Little by name,while mounting 
the stairway at 17 Cherry Hill, confronted a gigantic amazon who barred 
his way. " Madam," said he, offering a tract, "do you know Jesus ?" 
" Faith, and who is lie ? " was the answer. A few feet away, and 
within a door that stood ajar, lay Jerry McAuley — drunk. He had 
been converted at Sing Sing prison by hearing "Avrful" (Orville) 
Gardner, the prizefighter, give his testimony in the prison chapel. 
Jerry had known him well before the grace of God toucht him, and 
he could not silence that witness to the power of God. It resulted in 
a change of life in himself, and Governor Dix pardoned him and set 
him free. But the ex-convict found even divine pardon was not social 
restoration, and for lack of a helping hand, he fell back into evil 
ways. The mention of that magic name, " Jesus," even in a drunk- 
ard's ear, proved mighty to recover the backslider, as it had saved the 
outcast sinner. Jerry leapt to his feet, and his whole attire and 
appearance helping to render him frightful, he ran after the fleeing 
missionary, asking: "What name was that you mentioned to that 
woman?" The missionary thpught he was confronting another 
belligerent fellow worse than the amazon; but Jerry continued: "I 
used to love that name in prison long ago, but I lost Him. I wish I 
knew where to find Him again ! " 

Mr. Little got him to sign the pledge, but he soon broke it, and 
was again on tlie road to crime when he met the missionary. "Jerry, 
where are you going ? " "I can't starve," was the sullen answer. " I 
will pawn my coat for you, Jerry, before I will see you steal." A glance 
at the coat, which would not have brought a half dollar at a pawn 
shop, gave Jerry McAuley a glimpse into the unselfishness of love, and 
he said, " If you love me that way, I'll die before I steal." Mr. Little 
gave him a promise of God to live by and live on — that has sustained 
many a sinking soul — " Seek first the Kingdom of God and His right- 



lS98,j RESCUE MISSIONS. 167 

eoasness, and all these thJBga sh^ll bo nilde<l unto you." lie said, 
" ni take it," and that very night lie parted from his companion in 
thievery. Even yet, his backsliding was only in part arreateil, until 
be sacrificed his last idol, tobacco, and after that he never fell again. 
Four years later, he began the Water Street work. 

The Lord gave Jerry a grand helper in his faithful wife, who be- 
came at this time a convert to grace. The beginnings of their mission 
work were small and humble, but the work was of God. The methods 
were novel by their very simplicity. There was no rant or cant, or 
icy formality, or fashionable rigidity. It was a hand-to-hand contact 
for soul saving. Any and every 
man and woman who wanted sal- 
vation, or was willing to hear the 
good news, was welcome, but 
cranks, impostors, disturbers of 
the peace found the atmosphere 
uncongenial. Jerry, sometimes, 
had desperate fellows to deal 
with, who were the devil's own 
agents to break up his meetings, 
but in God's name he grappled 
with them, and seemed to have 
the strength of Samson and the 
courage of Joshua. Persecution 
bared its right arm. Coals of firo 
were literally flung on McAnley 
and his wife when they ventured 
into the street. They were ar- 
raigned in court as disturbers of 

the peace they were seeking to the nnsT jerry k.-aitley hishiok. 

make, and but for friendly inter- 
vention would more than once have got — where Paul and Silas did at 
Philippi — into jail. The work went on. Human malice and Satanic 
might in vain united to crush it. The old building was torn down in 
18T6, and the present one took its place. Then, six years later, the 
Cremome McAuley Mission, 104 W. 33(1 street, was btigun, and thoi'o 
he finisht his course, leaving both missions to other hands, by whom 
they are carried on with the same spirit and power. 

The full story these pages could not contain. But those who feel 
an interest must, for themselves, read those two marvelous books^ 
more fascinating facts than the wildest fancies of fiction — which con- 
tain the outline of this very remarkable history of a quarter century 
rescue work.* Better still, let anyone who can, visit the mission, 

• Rtmd "Jerry HcAuley, His Life and Work." Eilltnl hy Re\. R. M. Offont. Piibllnlit 
br The N. Y. Obrerper. Fifth Avenue. Also. " Down In Wmer-Sirwc for Twenty-flve Years," 
by a H. Hmdiej, Supt. Applf to Mr. BadJey.SlB WMer Street, N. Y. 



168 SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OP THE HALF CENTURY. [March 

where a warm welcome will await all who come. There the convict 
is as much at home as the most respectable citizen^ and as sure of a 
handshake, with Gospel love behind it. There he will find food, 
clothing, lodging if he needs them, and better still, hope for a new 
life. He will not be put through a catechism, nor bored with a hom- 
ily, nor put under espionage. He will be trusted — a strange experi- 
ence for one who has always been suspected. He will find a religious 
atmosphere, but not a pious hot-house, where religious life is forced 
upon him. Many a criminal and outcast has found there a home — 
and felt a brother's and sister's hand, an unvarying and indiscriminate 
kindness. Are not this kindness and confidence abused sometimes? 
Certainly, often. But love is not discouraged. It "beareth all things, 
believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Love 
never faileth.^' The poor thief steals, and then steals away — but he 
comes back — there is no other resting place. Perhaps hunger and 
want drive him back, but he meets no reproaches, or upbraidings. He 
may sin seventy times seven times, but the forgiveness that awaits 
him has no limit, because it is patterned after the model shown in the 
Mount. And so the same results follow as have ever followed where 
Calvary is reflected — Christ draws all unto Him. Hard hearts are 
broken, habits of vice and crime are abandoned, wreckt lives — and 
worse, wreckt characters — are not put in dry-dock for caulking and 
painting and remodeling, but forsaken like a sinking old hulk for a 
new life and character in Christ. In two weeks a man or woman is 
sometimes transformed beyond recognition, even in the fax:e, and 
tempters and seducers and procurers become soul winners. . 

Water Street Mission early learned that methods commonly in use 
will not suffice there. The work of saving drunkards and thieves and 
harlots was undertaken, not as a bit of polite philanthropy, nor even 
of Christian duty, but under the divine impulse of passion for souls. 
No kid gloves there to act as non-conductors — but a bare hand with 
holy love to give a sympathetic grasp. Front seats and best seats 
reserved, not for the gold ring and goodly apparel, but for the vile 
raiment and sin-scarred face. The fundamental law of soul saving 
there is that you imist he in close touch with those whom you would 
reach. And the history of these twenty-five years proves that some 
men and women, who were apparently not worth the effort to save, 
who were like the dog and the sow that return to their own vices and 
wallowings, have, by grace, become the most heroic and successful 
evangelists and missionaries and soul savers, because they knew and 
felt what it was to be hopelessly and helplessly lost and know and 
feel what it is to be both saved and kept. 

The superintendent of the Water Street Mission is himself a man 
gloriously saved from the lowest hell of drunkenness. No wonder he 
can sympathize. He glories in a " Sinners' Club House,'' where the 



1898.] R£Bcue MISSIONS. 169 

doors ftre always open and the work never stopB. The devil's cast- 
aways are welcome there. When a man is kicked out of all the dens 
of infamy and iniquity, becanse he ia of no more use, and nothing 
more can be got out of him, be is received with open arms. The mis- 
sion belongs to nochnrcb or denomination; its field is the world, espe- 
cially the worst part of it, and its working force the whole Church of 
Christ, especially the best part of it. Go whenever you can, my reader, 
and see bow tbe cross is still the hope for tbe dying thief and tbe 
seven-demoned Magdalen; and how the Pentecostal lire is the secret 
still of all boly witness and work with God. Would you like to speuk 
to such men and women ? No rhetoric or eloquence is demanded — it 
would be out of place. Go and tell what Jesus bus done for you, and 
let there be a grip in your testimony. 
You will find men and women who 
will come and kneel down by those 
"tear-stained benches," and give 
themselves up to the sinner's Savior 
to be created anew in Christ Jesus. 
Every night in the year yon may 
find some one over whom heaven is 
set ringing with new praises and 
Bungs of joy. 

And yet this mission closes its 
twenty-fifth year over one thousand 
dollars in debt ! Who among the 
devoted children of God, whose eyes 
read these pages, will send us offer- 
ings of love to put this debt out of 

the way ? Who can send a barrel of bamcel b. radlit. 

half-worn clothing to Mr. Hadley 

for the men who, in destitution, are seeking to be clothed in respect- 
able garments, befitting the newly-clotbed soul ? * We shall be only 
too glad to help any consecrated gifts to reach their destination, and 
yield their sweet savor unto God on the altars of this self-denying and 
God-honoring work. 

We add the cash account of 1806-7 as a specimen of tbe holy 
economy with which this work ia conducted; 

McAULEY MISSION IN ACCOUNT WFTH H. FULTON CUTTINa. TREASURER, 
Dtbit. Credit. 



C^™..Expeo^ 


...«4.»Mm 


^E:::::::::: 


.... lenK 


ISiSs^- 











4,SSSBT DtficilOct 1,1897 

lo n. L. Pleroon, M4 Marov Aw., Brooklyn, N. V., wHl 
ir and ulcuovledged Id tiiv Kjcvirw. 



170 A JAPANESE SYMPOSIUM. [March 

A JAPANESE SYMPOSIUM.* 

BY ROBERT E. SPEER, NEW YORK, 
Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Misttions. 

The religious history of Japan during the last thirty years, not to 
speak of her political and commercial development, has been witliout 
exact historical precedent. The right perspective from which to 
write the story of these thirty years has not been reacht, and will 
not be reacht, probably, until we have a belt3r understanding of the 
Japanese psychology and of the philosophy of Japanese history from 
the beginning. Meanwhile every thoughtful view of this eventful 
period advanced by the Japanese themselves is of value and interest. 
In proportion as we understand the period will we understand the 
people, as remarkable as the remarkable times they have created; 
and to understand even in part the Japanese is to broaden vastly 
one's sympathy with our multiform, heaving humanity, lifting and 
falling to-day like a swelling sea all over immutable Asia. 

Desiring a thoughtful Japanese view of the situation, I met in 
Tokyo, at two long interviews, the leading men of the Church of 
Christ, which is now the strongest Christian body in Japan, and askt 
them these questions: What were the causes of the great impulse 
toward Christianity ? What were the causes of the reaction ? What 
is the present condition of the Church ? What is the present spirit 
of the people of Japan ? Practically all of the men knew English, 
and mixt the two languages in their replies. Even when they 
answered wholly in Japanese, English words would occur, not having, 
in some cases, such rich and full Japanese equivalents — words like 
"life,"' "progress,'* "power,*' "success," "cabinet," "count," " Chris- 
tianity," " heresy," " sted fastness/' " individual right," " education," 
"European literature," "wonder," "astonish," "public meeting," 
"patriotic spirit," "revolutionary." They handled the questions 
with keen and ready discernment. 

CAUSES OF THE IMPULSE TOWARD CHRISTIANITY. 

What were the causes of this great impulse lasting roughly from 
1870 to 1890, and so misleading many that they expected the with- 
drawal of foreign missionary effort at the close of the century ? 

Mr. 0. — " 1. The anxiety of the people to get the AVestern civiliza- 
tion for Japan. Thoy had the idea that Christianity and Western 
civilization were twins and must be taken together; so they took them. 
3. The novelty of the Christian teaching. It brought a new doctrine 
of God, of sin, of atonement, which interested the Japanese. 3. The 
methods of Christianity were new and striking. Public meetings 
were held in theaters. One man would address a great multitude and 

* Written in the Korean Archipelago, Aug. 3, 1897. 



1898.] A JAPANESE SYMPOSirM. 171 

sway them. Confucian teachers had been accustomed to speak to a 
few. The idea of great movement and broad proclamation of truth 
caught the public mind in a remarkable manner. 4. The character of 
the missionaries. They were men of learning in the sciences, and 
greatly reverenced by the people as great men. When Dr. Knox went 
to Kochi the people thought he was possest of all knowledge, and con- 
sulted him on every subject, from the manufacture of paper to the 
science of government. The Japanese had met and measured the 
business man. The missionary seemed of a higher class. The 
influence of men like Dr. Verbeck reacht out into political and official 
life. He had influence over men like Okuma and Saigo. Students 
were panting for English, too, and coming to men like Drs. Verbeck 
and Hepburn and Thompson, had English opened to them in a way 
that filled them with awe and reverence. The student class almost 
worshipt the missionaries. 5. Christianity took a powerful hold 
upon the early converts. The change in the lives of Christians was 
so pronounced that men noticed it. Influential laymen contributed 
powerfully by speech and by example, when in great meetings the 
people threw stones and ashes, and even threatened life, and they 
quietly bore steady and unflinching testimony to the Gospel. 6. The 
desire for individualism. The democratic feeling was strong. This 
was Itagaki^s motive. lie was leader of the liberals, and wanted the 
voice of the people to be heard. He felt that Christianity would 
secure this. T. The influence of the mission schools. These have 
done more than the government and all else to introduce Western 
civilization." 

Mr. K. — "Men like Mr. Fukuzawa (the educator, and the most 
powerful unofficial man in Japan) insisted that if Ave were to have 
intercourse with foreign nations on equal terms we must have Chris- 
tianity in Japan. We could not deal with Western nations without 
the ideas of Christianity. We must have English and education also, 
and we could get these most easily through mission-schools." 

Mr. JI. — "This impulse was unhealthy, arising from a political 
view of Christianity, the belief that the acceptance of Christianity 
was necessary to the Europeanizing process. Tlie movement toward 
Westernization was general from the highest down to the lowest. It 
was a repetition of the era of Constantine. Itagaki patronized Chris- 
tianity. Tho he did not accept it himself, tis followers flockt in with 
only political and social aims. Young Japanese especially got the 
idea that Western nations lookt down on them as heathen, and 
without the rights of civilized people, and that the only way to 
counteract this was to become Christians. Prince Iwakura and his 
son, whom Sir Harry Parkes took through England in 1872, came 
home feeling the shame of idolatry deeply. Not yet having dis- 
covered agnosticism or modern scepticism, many of these men saw in 



172 A JAPANESE SYMPOSIUM. [March 

Christianity a rational religion, and turned to it as an escape from the 
shame of idolatry/' 

Dr. Imbrie and Dr. Alexander, who were present, made the final 
suggestion that the impulse began at a time when the parliament had 
not been opened; that that opening and the change of government 
absorbed the activity and life of the people, and the advantage 
which Christianity possest as an interesting phase of thought filling 
the whole stage was lost. 

WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE REACTION? 

Mr. K. — " The reasons for the reaction, like tlie reasons for the 
impulse, were political. Leading men like Inouye and Ito, who had 
praised Christianity, changed their view, and even went so far as osten- 
tatiously to visit Buddhist temples and go through the rites of wor- 
ship. The people began to feel that the movement toward Chris- 
tianity was extreme, that their hasty acceptance of Western ways and 
views was lowering the nation in Western eyes. A conservative feel- 
ing sprang up. A reaction against the West set in. Also the people 
began to think that Christianity was not adapted to Japan ; it might 
do for Western nations. I think the desire of the people to have 
their own religion, and the feeling that Christianity is not suited, are 
real and sincere. It was supposed that the war would advance Chris- 
tianity throughout the East. It operated otherwise. It was reported 
in Japan that Chinese Christians were not loyal, that they abetted the 
Japanese army and wanted it to win. On this ground the army and 
others feel that Christianity is bad for the land in which it is developt. 
It made the Chinese disloyal. It will make the Japanese so. Country 
or Christ ? A man can not have two masters. The Japanese chose 
country. It is true that there were exceptional openings for Bible 
distribution and Christian work during the war, but these were only 
the final throbs of the old impulse, and have vanisht now." 

Mr. 0. — " This reaction is important and of wide influence. One 
reason for it is the nationalistic feeling. The conviction has grown 
up that progress should be evolutionary rather than revolutionary. 
The early movement toward Christianity and Western civilization was 
the latter. Intelligent Japanese have come to feel this, and are 
demanding that old history and traditions should not be torn up and 
thrown away. The Christians themselves are te blame for some of 
the reaction. They have misrepresented Christianity, leaving the 
impression that it is revolutionary in its character, and demands the 
uprooting of all the old traditions. Also the unbelieving common 
people look upon Christians as under the control of foreigners. Intel- 
ligent people even suspect that Christians have become Christians for 
temporal benefit, and so despise them. Again, missionaries have not 
studied sufficiently the character of the evangelists, preachers, and 



1898.] A JAPANESE BTMPOSIUM. 173 

native conTerts^ and have not used them wisely. The missionaries 
have made mistakes in their methods, too. The people have gained 
the idea that Christianity was only a foreign thing, and in their 
reaction against foreign things which can not be made ours have 
swung away from it. Many things strengthen this idea. For 
example, when girls come out of mission schools their manners are 
displeasing to Japanese, and the way they put down their feet is 
barbarous. Once again, the influence of Buddhism has increast, even 
in high places. All through society the relations of the people to 
Buddhism are close. The whole social and family life rest on it.^' 

Mr. H. — " The people who came into the Church through political 
motives soon found out what it was spiritually, and the demands it 
made, and dropt out. But above all else the money love has come in. 
Materialism and commercialism are engulfing the people. The passion 
of business is stronger than the spiritual desire. Also the rationalistic 
wave that swept over the country threw the Church on the defensive, 
and introduced an atmosphere of apologetics that slew the aggressive, 
life-molding movement of the Christians. The Church began to 
. apologize and defend where it had demanded and besought. A good 
deal of this rationalism was due, and is due, to the government 
educational system and the literature sent out from government insti- 
tutions attacking Christianity. The whole influence of the Imperial 
University is thrown against Christianity as a religion unsuited to 
Japan." 

Mr. TJ. — " I do not think that there has been a real reaction 
against Christianity. Only the political and spurious forces operating 
in its favor have subsided. The chaff has blown away. Those who 
accepted Christianity on intellectual grounds, or with moral and 
spiritual faith, have stood firm. I do not think rationalism has had 
much influence. It was here to start with, and did not increase much. 
It arose from the defects of the old religions, and was the temper of 
the Japanese mind before we knew of Spencer and Mill. I think this 
influence has been overestimated. Indeed, Spencer did good here in 
demolishing our old materialistic rationalism, and teaching us social 
equality. He went so far that his Social Statics and Education were 
under the ban of the educational authorities. The real foe of Chris- 
tianity was the old Confucian rationalism, and whatever real reiiction 
there has been has been due to the revival of the old national religious 
ideals. On the whole, Christianity has steadily gained ground all the 
time. The people generally understand Christianity better now, and 
esteem it more highly. The original growth was unnatural. The 
Church is stronger and the present type of Christian is better. Tho 
numbers were larger then, Christianity is stronger now." 

I suggested that it was the general testimony of pastors and 
evangelists that ten years ago the people were more zealous and earnest 



174 A JAPANESE SYMPOSIUM. [March 

workers than now in spreading Christianity. Did tliis not indicate 
a real reaction within the Church ? Mr. U. replied: "That was not 
a real and true zeal. It was due to the attractive novelty of the new 
ideas : one God, the wrong and folly of idolatry, the Christian idea of 
marriage, etc. It was this fascination of novelty, not spiritual percep- 
tion or love of souls, that drew us on. This was my own experience. 
That early zeal was excited, like the zeal of the stump-speaker in the 
campaign. We have a better quality now." 

Mr. H. added: "That early zeal was mechanical and thoughtless, 
The people obeyed and imitated the missionaries. They went out and 
preacht word for word what they had heard. When they found that 
the words exprest more than they possest in their own experience, they 
dropt off, business threw its spell over them, and swallowed up their 
religious zeal." " Yes," continued Mr. W., a godly and universally 
respected pastor, "at first the people accepted obediently and without 
scinitiny the doctrinal teachings of the missionaries, but when German 
ideas came in, and the people found themselves in a conflict where 
they were unable to maintain or vindicate what they had so unhesi- 
tatingly accepted and taught, the wave of rationalistic influence 
swept into the Church." 

"Well," concluded Mr. Y., "there has been a reaction. That 
reaction has been due to the revival of the old religions. And that 
revival has been the product of the nationalistic spirit which has 
revolted against the slavish imitation of the West, and has used the 
old religions as barriers against excessive Western importations." 

" I almost think," said Mr. I., " that Christianity is too good for 
the common people. Thei-e is too wide an interval between its high 
spiritual truths and their minds and livee." Perhaps some x>f the 
reaction was due to this feeling. 

THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE CHURCH. 

What is the present condition of the Church ? as to spiritual life ? 
as to Christian activity ? as to doctrinal view ? 

1. As to spiritual life. Mr. H. — " There has been genuine prog- 
ress. It is true that many are falling away, and that apparent zeal is 
decreasing. Materialism has weakened the hold of spiritual things. 
Many Christians have ceast to work, and their spiritual life has 
dwindled in proportion ; but I believe there has been improvement." 

Mr. K. — " I think so. Real Christians have deteriorated only a 
little. The great change is in those who were weak from the 
beginning." 

Mr. I. — "Wlien Christianity first came there was nothing to 
distract. There is much now." 

Mr. U. — "I think that just now Bible study is reviving. A more 
true and just view of the Bible prevails. At first we took it whole on 



1898.] A JAPANESE SYMPOSIUM. 175 

the faith of others^ without re^ison of onr own or examination. I 
should be sorry to have Christians go back to that view. We are 
coming now to rest our views of the Bible on more reasonable grounds. 
I don't like the allegorizing method of Bible study. I wish we had 
in Japanese helps like the Expositor's Bible series. Our preaching is 
growing more Scriptural. It has been apologetic and defensive, about 
Christianity, the ethics of the Bible. Now it is more positive, and we 
preach the Bible truths direct. We have erred in the past in this 
matter." 

" Do you think/' I askt, " that there is any wide chasm between 
the relation of the Spirit of God to the prophet Isaiah and His relation 
to Shakespeare?" 

" Yes," he answered. "Shakespeare is not religious, and has no 
respect for saint-like characters. Isaiah was quite different. His 
was a God-intoxicated influence. The difference between them is not 
one of degree only. It is a difference of kind." 

"Is there much family prayer and Bible study ?" I inquired. 

Mr. W. answered : " Few families have family prayers — fewer than 
there were. This is a failing. There is less study in little groups. 
This also is a lack. Still the Scripture Union has 12,000 members 
who promise to read the Bible daily, and I think the people keep this 
pledge." 

Mr. H. continued : " There has been improvement in Bible study. 
At the same time many laborers have come into the Church who have 
to go to work early and return late, and so neglect family worship. 
The Sunday-schools were for a time more successful than now. This 
was due to spurious motives." 

Mr. U. added: "Our version of the Bible is poor compared with 
yours. The mere reading of it does not give us delight as the Eng- 
lish Bible does you. Also we can't sing well, and have poor music. 
We can not make a joyful noise or melody in our hearts with Japanese 
music. So a 'Cotter's Saturday Night ' is impossible with us. Chris- 
tianity is developing Christian homes. Christian homes are recognized 
as superior. But we can not have Scotch family prayer life, because 
we have no such family life as the Scotch have. As to spiritual life, 
we have neither the words nor the idea save as Christianity has 
brought them. To speak of * spiritual life' to the people without is 
wholly unintelligible to them," 

"When Unitarianism came," said Mr. W., "faith was shaken by it 
all over Japan, and spiritual life accordingly became shallow; but by 
experience people learnt that there was no power or force in the 
Unitarian viaw, and they have come back to their old faith, desiring 
more spiritual life. In the recent meeting of onr Evangelical Alliance 
there was much talk about coming back to the Holy Si)irit and to 
evangelical teaching. Such talk has hclpt us toward the Spirit." 



176 A JAPANESE BTMPOBiuK. [March 

2. Afi to Christian activity. ''Does the ayerage pastor in the 
Ghnrch of Christ regard his church as his field of work or his force 
for work ?" I askt. 

** My chnrch is the former/' said Mr. H., the pastor of the largest 
church in the country; "but it ought to be the latter, and I ought to 
regard it so." To this each one agreed for himself. 

" I think we give as well as Christians in America," said Mr. XJ. 
"The average income of each man is about ten yen ($5 gold) a 
month. The average income of a family is double this. Last year 
the average gift per member was two yen. My church averaged fifty 
sen (twenty-five cents gold) a month per member. There are twenty 
men in my church who can conduct the prayer-meeting." 

" I have ten who can do so, and who do personal work," rejoined 
Mr. I. " And I have twenty," added Mr. H. 

"Is the idea of lecturing to Christians, or of leading them as a 
company in service, dominant an^ong you as the idea of your 
ministry ? " I askt. All agreed that the former was, but that the latter 
ought to be. 

" Our converts come in through a network of influences," said 
Mr. U.: "family ties, friendship, relations, etc. We ought to work 
along these lines, using the people." 

" It is better," continued Mr. Y., " to have volunteer workers than 
paid Bible women. Unbelievers trust them and their message more." 

"Some of my people," concluded Mr. W., "invite friends to their 
homes during the week and some preacher, or I, will go and talk to 
them. These meetings are good for the growth of my church." 

3. As to doctrinal view. Mr. H. — " The theological discussion has 
about died out. My church is satisfied with Bible talk. People 
honor more now the Bible and the Spirit and Christ." 

Mr. U. — " For a long time the tendency, caught from America, 
was strong here to depreciate theology, or sound doctrinal thinking, 
and to exaggerate the emphasis on life dissociated from opinion. The 
influence of Bushnell and Abbott operated in this direction. Now 
the evangelical tendency is leading to an appreciation of doctrinal 
teaching and of the Bible." 

" Yes," added another, " the people are tired of this, and want 
bread. We have talkt of all things under the sun, and are coming 
back now to the life which is meat and drink." 

WHAT IS THE PRESENT SPIRIT OF THE JAPANESE? 

Here all broke in together. " Industrialism," they said, " is the 
predominant trait of the day. The aristocracy of money is the new 
and highest aristocracy. The trader was once despised. He was 
rankt below the artisan and the farmer. The Samurai taught their 
sons to loath the touch of money as a low and defiling thing. Now 



1898.] -A. JAPANESE SYMPOSIUM. 177 

the merchant is rankt above the official, the great merchant above 
the noble. The spirit of money-worship is our most formidable foe. 
We want money to spend for better food, richer clothes, more pleasure. 
We are becoming a grasping nation. To what is it due ? To the 
introduction of Western civilization, the opening of means of trans- 
portation, the desire for power. Money, wealth — this is the secret of 
national power." To this one or two demurred, declaring that it was 
only for material comforts that money was desired, which is true as 
regards the individual, but not the national movement. 

*' And national pride,'' they continued ; " a false sense of honor 
as individuals and as a nation. This has been greatly enlarged by 
the war with China, but its real source was in Confucianism, and it 
was fostered under the feudal system for centuries. And national 
pride issuing in loyalty to the emperor and the country, has swallowed 
up democracy. There is a great deal of popular right and liberty 
talkt, but democracy is dead. Indeed, at the best it was mainly only 
a weapon u»ed for attacks upon the government by the opposition. 
The weapon does not work well now. National pride also has issued 
in a revival of Buddhism and Shintoism. Christianity has stirred 
the old religions to new life by turning into them the spirit of 
patriotic defense and national loyalty. Also when the first intoxica- 
tion of Western learning had past off, the people saw that learning 
was not enough, and nationalism turned them to the old religions. 
Besides, Christianity taught Buddhism how to work, with preaching, 
schools, summer conferences, Bible women, and all. Ikiddhism has 
adopted the whole machinery of missions. Commercialism and secu- 
larism on one hand, nationalism and patriotism on the other. These 
are the springs of Japan's present life." 

"What do you think of us?" they suddenly askt. "You can 
judge us better. We want some one from without to judge us justly 
and severely. Tell us your opinion." 

" Well," said I, " I think — " but what I tliink is another chapter. 
This chapter was to deal with what some Japanese — intelligent, 
honest, and clear minded, and differing somewhat among themselves — 
think of themselves. Besides, they may have changed. Japan has 
her face toward those Western nations over which she sees the sun 
rise. Those who would see her future with her must look toward a 
brightening and not a fading light. And who can see certainly facing 
the sun ? And yet may she not wheel back toward the dimming 
light again? God forfend! But who knows, and who, meanwhile, 
cares to describe as fixt a swift-swinging pendulum ? " What would 
yon like to have a friend of Japan say in America," askt I, "when 
the charge is made that Japan is changeable ? " 

"You can say nothing," they replied; "the charge is true. Our 
hope lies in it." 



178 A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. [March 

A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. 

THE STOKY OF THE GEORGE YARD MISSION. 
BY "PEARL FISHER." 

The " Nestor of Home Missions," as Mr. George Holland is com- 
monly regarded, is almost as well known in the United States as in 
England. Hosts of American visitors find their way to this famous 
evangelical center to interview the grand old veteran, and to study 
for tliemselves the remarkable cluster of Christian and philanthropic 
agencies which have grown up behind him. 

The locality in which Mr. Holland labors is one of the poorest and 
most dense in London. It is not now, however, the Whitechapel of 
olden times, nor even of forty-three years ago, when, in response to 
the marvelous leadings of the Lord, these institutions were first begun 
in humbleness and obscurity. From time immemorial, Whitechapel 
has been the dumping-place of the crime of the country round about, 
a place of refuge for the worst desperadoes, criminals, and the viciously 
inclined. Even forty years ago when the work was first started, the 
district was infested by multitudes of the most depraved and dangerous 
classes. Almost every house was a den of thieves and harlots, while 
most of the public houses were common resorts of gangs of sharpers 
and criminals of all kinds. Part of the present mission buildings 
actually stand on the spot occupied for nearly two centuries by a 
tavern called the " Black Horse," one of the most notorious of such 
dens. It is said to have been labyrinthed by secret exits and cunning 
contrivances to facilitate the escape of fugitives from the law. For 
many decades these baffled the ingenuity of the detectives, but at 
length strong measures were adopted; the license of the tavern was 
canceled, and this nest of crime was finally swept away. 

" Thus," as has been said, " the headquarters of the George Yard 
Missions are pitcht on an extinct volcano; the main block being 
built on the site of an ancient distillery, and the shelter on the ground 
formerly occupied by the infamous * Black Horse,' — that rendezvous 
of highwaymen, robbers, and murderers." Traces of these evil days 
lingered long on the premises. A large drain-pipe gave much trouble 
by repeated stoppages. It was found to be choked with empty purses, 
which had evidently been snatcht from passers-by, rifled of their con- 
tents, and thrown on the roof. In the early days of the mission the 
women of the courts around would suddenly all blossom out in new 
print dresses, "all of a pattern," as the result of a raid upon some dry 
goods store. The second day on which Mr. Holland first visited the 
scene of his future labors, a policeman, with kindly intent, tapt him 
on the shoulder, and said, " Do you know where you are going. Sir?" 
••'Yes, I do," was the reply. "Very well, all that 1 can say is that 



1898.] A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. I'J'S 

many gentlemen have gone down there, who have never appeared 
again, and I thought I must warn you." 

Happily this state of things has now past away. Poor as the 
district is, visitors of to-day may venture into it with safety. Crim- 
inals are far from extinct, but law and order have the upper hand. At 
one time the cry of " Stop thief," might resound fifty times a day in 
High Street, now it is of rare occurrence. It might not, however, be 
advisable, even yet, for a visitor to flaunt a gold chain or sparkling 
jewel in the hungry eyes of the hanger-on of Whitechapel or Mile End 
Waste. But the change from former days is marvelous, a change 
which has undoubtedly been largely brought about by the beneficent 
operations of the George Yard Ragged School Mission, and similar 
institutions. During the great dock strike which shook London to its 
center, the strikers — gaunt, grim and desperate — were marching en 
masM past the mission premises, when a socialistic leader, who stood 
watching, turned to Mr. Holland, and said, "Do you know what keeps 
these men from sacking London?" "What do you mean?" was the 
reply. " Only this, it is the influence of such missions of mercy as 
yours." All thoughtful, observant men know that this witness is true. 

It may be interesting and instructive to recall the origin of this 
noble and useful work. God still selects and trains men of His own 
choosing for His service in special spheres. It was so in this case. 
Into this region of crime and shame and misery there came, forty- 
three ypars ago, a young man wholly without thought of any special 
labor among the poor. His purpose was to " read " with the incumbent 
of an adjoining church, and so prepare himself for ordination to the 
ministry of the Church of England. But God had other plans for 
George Holland. Introduced into Whitechapel, seemingly by chance, 
he raw things of which he had never dreamed as possible in London. 
His heart was deeply moved at the sight of youthful depravity, 
neglect, and suffering which he saw on every side. The burden prest 
upon his soul, and without thought of any future vocation, he was 
led — toucht in Rome degree by that compassion which welled forth 
from the heart of our Lord when he wept over rebellious Jerusalem — 
to gather around him a few ragged boys that he might instruct them 
intellectually and morally. Unpromising material they undeniably 
were. Board schools and Sunday-schools were alike unknown to 
them. Discipline they scouted ; lessons they abhorred. Suspicion 
and distrust were deeply rooted by daily contact with lawless and 
cruel men. With such boys force was of no avail to improve their 
condition. If anything was to be done for them, it must be by the 
constraint of love. To mission-workers of to-day this is a truism, but 
the young pioneer of forty years ago had to learn it by experience. 
Toilsome and tedious was the task, but love and patience prevailed. 
Bude, rough, and reckless as his first boys seemed, heartbreaking and 



180 A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. [Match 

hopeless as their condition appeared to be, the youthful but earnest 
worker was enabled by God's help to persevere until he gained their 
affection and confidence. So completely did he win them that they 
walkt to North London twice a day to escort him to and from 
Whitechapel. Nor did this clamorous body-guard escape public 
notice. The dwellers in that quiet neighborhood in North London 
were at first alarmed at the invasion of these fifty Whitechapel 
urchins, but soon found that they had no evil intent. These early 
and unorganized efforts were far from fruitless. God gave His young 
servant much encouragement, so that to-day in many parts of the 
world there may be found godly and prosperous men, who owe their 
well-being to these early endeavors in Whitechapel. 

Mr. Holland soon found that his whole time must be given to this 
work, and he settled down to labor permanently among the outcast 
and neglected, the ragged and wretched boys and girls of East Lon- 
don. The highways, courts, and alleys of Whitechapel were scoured, 
bringing together the most motley and grotesque assemblies it is pos- 
sible to imagine. Crowds of ill -fed, ill-clad children were collected, 
of whom scarcely one in five boasted shoes and stockings. This " raw 
material'' had a kind of magnetic attraction for George Holland, 
to mold and shape it for God, to gain and polish these rough dia- 
monds for his Master became the aim of his life. He made many and 
great personal sacrifices in order to devote himself to the rescue of 
these neglected children, and to point them to that Savior of whom 
they knew as little as the " untutored Hottentot." But from that 
time his days have been devoted with singular assiduity and simplic- 
ity of purpose to the service whereunto he so manifestly was called. 

Work of this kind must grow — it is the law of life. A little dismal 
room was secured in George Yard for the first class of rough boys; 
but the children thronged in, and ere long provision had to be made 
for them. This necessitated a new departure. More workers were 
needed, for one man could not do it all. More funds were required to 
furnish suitable accommodations and appliances. Both of these needs 
were left with God, and both workers and funds were provided as they 
were required. Mr. Holland says: 

** Nothing has been more remarkable in the whole history of 
the mission than the way in which every lack has been met — 
— often it has seemed nothing less than miraculous. Funds have 
come, w^e know not how; workers have been raised up, and we can only 
look on them as sent of God. We have been wonderfully favored with 
devoted workers, belonging to all ranks of society. Peeresses have been 
amongst our most energetic teachers. Men of high rank have taught in 
the classes, side by side with humble costers and work girls. Some who 
in later years have done noble service for God, first caught the enthusiasm 
in our East End Mission rooms. We can never forget the service rendered 
by the Misses Beauchamp and their devoted brother, now an honored 



1898.] A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. 181 

missionary in China. Nor is this singular in our experience. We have 
had help from those moving in Royal circles, while ladies of exalted 
rank have regularly conducted Bible classes, traveling in some cases 
from distant country seats on purpose to meet their class, and returning 
home again in the evening." 

Mr. Holland tells the following incident showing God's care for 
those who trust Him : 

One very cold February morning, when the snow lay thick on the 
pavement, about 350 hungry and half-clad children stood outside the 
George Yard Mission school. The newspapers that morning had pub- 
lisht the sad news about the distress that existed in East London, and 
stated that some had perisht from want and exposure, and that many 
more were starving. 

I left home earlier than usual, so that the children should be admitted 
into the lodge room, and be able to warm themselves by the fire. The 
door was opened and the children were admitted, but most of them were 
crying from hunger and cold. I was without money. To whom could I 
turn but to the Liord. We knelt in prayer, and told God about our dis- 
tress. We waited, but no food came. 12 o'clock, 1 o'clock came, and 
still no food. At 2 o'clock a poor g^rl (carrying a baby in her arms, its 
little head drooping) said: "Please, may I go and ask my heavenly 
Father for food?" She retired, and on returning said: "I think He 
has heard me." But 3 o'clock came, and still no food. At 4 a loud 
knocking was heard at the door. Outside was a large wagon in charge 
of a gentleman, who askt : 

•' Do you want any food ? " 

"Yes." 

It took four men to lift down the large can of good hot soup from 
the wagon, and carry it inside the mission room. The gentleman left 
without telling his name or how he came to bring the soup, or where he 
came from, and bade me ask no questions. He would send for the can. 
••You will find that it is coarsely made," he said; ''we had no time to 
cut up the vegetables; you will find whole onions, carrots, heads of 
celery, plenty of meat." 

The children were sent home for basins, and returned with divers 
kinds of utensils; flower-pots, with the hole stopt by a cork, broken cups, 
jars, saucepans, tin cans — anything. While we were in the midst of 
serving out this welcome meal, the gentleman returned, and said, •• You 
can not do without bread." He handed me a card, on which wa4s written 
a large order on a bakery near at hand. When askt how he knew that 
we were in need of food, he replied: 

•• At 9 o'clock this morning I was reading about the distress in the 
papers. We had some broken food in the house, meat and vegetables 
were purchast, roughly prepared, and made into soup. After having put 
it into the can I started foi* Whitechapel and called at the baker's shop, 
where I purchast the bread, and askt if they knew of any one who 
would like to have the soup. They sent me on to you." 

The '•' Children's Earl/' the great and good Lord Shaftesbury, iden- 
tified himself in a special manner with George Yard, spending hours 
there in a most simple and homely way, making himself perfectly free 
and happy with the poor children, and speaking constantly of Mr, 



182 A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. [March 

Holland as a personal friend. "I had rather," he said, " be George 
than ninty-nine hundredths of the great dead and living." The Earl's 
diary has many such references to George Yard Mission, and "that 
inestimable man, George Holland." Many tokens of his regard may 
be seen at the mission, where also are loyally cherisht two precious 
volumes sent by her Majesty, Queen Victoria, and inscribed with her 
own hand. There are other gifts inscribed from H. R. H. the 
Duchess of Teck, and from her daughter. Princess May, now the 
Duchess of York. These facts are referred to, simply to show the 
way in which God has acknowledged and supported this work. To 
omit them would be to miss one characteristic feature of the institu- 
tion, in which rich and poor have very happily been brought together 
in a way helpful to both. It may also be recorded that in this East 
End Mission to the poor and outcast, some of the rich and noble have 
been converted to God. 

The work which began with the children soon included their 
elders. In early days these were hard to reach. For a long time they 
refused even to come into the mission rooms. But Mr. Holland would 
not be discouraged. He hired a little room in a blind alley, and there 
began to hold meetings for them. All the light they had was from 
two candles stuck in the necks of bottles. These meetings went on very 
well, until one evening the floor caved in with the unaccustomed 
weight. The landlord, a Jew, then built a small hall, into which were 
gathered many of the most wretched and degraded. 

Meanwhile the work at the central mission was growing as the 
children flockt in and workers were raised up by God. Day-schools 
were started for the illiterate children, and are yet maintained with 
great efficiency. Only a short time ago, in paying a visit to these 
schools, I found every seat occupied by children of the most neglected 
and destitute class, who, while learning the rudiments of arithmetic 
and letters, were also being educated in Christian love, cleanliness, 
and obedience. The same type of children throng the Sunday-schools, 
morning, afternoon, and evening, each Lord's day. More than sixty 
thousand children have past through these schools, and the number 
of the redeemed who have been gathered there, no man can name. 
Innumerable testimonials might be given of those who have past in to 
see the King, and of others who are still serving Him as pastors, mis- 
sionaries, evangelists, teachers, and Christian men of business. 

Dwelling among his loved children, daily observant of their needs 
and temptations, Mr. Holland added a host of useful agencies, each 
with its definite aim. These include industrial and sewing classes 
for boys who have never learnt to use their hands; sewing classes 
for girls and women ; boys' clubs, to keep them from the evils of the 
streets; Bible classes for old and young; games aTid recreation classes 
for the little ones; free meals and other well-devised plans for feeding 



1898.] A LIGHT IN DARKEST LONDON. 183 

the hungry and clothing the naked. It is the boast at George Yard 
that no really destitute child is ever sent away hungry. Moreover, 
homeless and friendless waifs frequently turn up, and these are shel- 
tered, taught, and cared for, until friends are found, or thoy are ready 
to earn their own living. * There is also a creche (or day nursery), 
and never does the veteran superintendent seem more happy than 
when among his babies, who throng the airy nursery, as merry with 
their toys and nurses as the day is long. 

The work among the young people — particularly in behalf of 
young working-girls — has assumed large dimensions, and has been the 
means of saving hundreds from treading the path of sin and shame. 
Classes, clubs, and reading-rooms are provided, and the crown was put 
on this branch of the work not long ago by the opening of the beauti- 
ful Kinnaird Hoom as an evening resort for working-girls. 

Tlie evangelistic services at the mission are deeply interesting by 
reason of the poverty of those who attend. In few places in London 
can such an audience be found. Five or six hundred of the poorest 
of tlie poor may be seen gathered here any Sunday evening. They 
listen quietly to the Gospel, plainly and faithfully spoken, and the 
services have been much owned of God. But in addition to this, the 
Gospel is also carried to those who will not come to hear; workers go 
even into the common lodging houses, the last miserable resort of the 
fallen, the sinful, the self -destroyed. Great difficulty was found at 
first in entering these places, but now a welcome is given to the 
workers who are brave enough to face such unutterable abominations 
of a common kitchen that they may have an opportunity to tell of the 
love of Christ to those weak and wandering sheep. Open-air preacli- 
ing is now regularly carried on without interruption or difficulty; but 
in the pioneer days the open-air preachers— often Mr. Holland by 
himself — had to endure much fierce opposition, and to stand fire in 
the shape of old boots and bottles, decayed vegetables, and many 
viler missiles. The people now listen respectfully and willingly. 

The master-vice of Whitechapel being intemperance, the mission 
has all along put Gospel temperance well to the front, and for many 
years a special woman missionary has been at work, going from house 
to liouse among inebriate women. Many, formerly slaves to strong 
drink, have, by patient endeavor and tireless watchfulness, been freed 
from slavery to this accurst and soul-destroying habit. A weekly 
meeting is held for the reclaimed drunkards, and their testimojiies 
and fervent prayers for others still enslaved, are singularly inspiring, 
tho often decidedly unconventional. There are also bands of hope 
and total abstinence societies vigorously and effectively at work. 

Far away from dingy Whitechapel, but connected with this work, 
a beautiful colony has been establisht by the g(nero8ity of Lady Ash- 
burton on her estate at Addiscombe. This colony includes the " Mary 



184 THE CENTRAL AMERICAN MISSION FIELD. [Marcll 

Baring Nest/' for ailing children ; the " Louisa Lady Ashburton Rest," 
for worn out and convalescent parents; and the "George Holland Dove- 
cot Home/' for mothers and infants. To these has lately been added 
an iron room for evangelistic and other services. All these were erected 
and are maintained by her ladyship on behalf of Mr. Holland's poor. 
Moreover, II. R. H. the late Duchess of Teck regularly received, two 
by two, poor women, for three weeks at a time, at her cottage near the 
AVliite Lodge, in Coombe Wood, her usual residence. Another branch 
is the Training Home for Motherless Girls, now situated at Addis- 
combe, but originally opened by Miss Marsh and her sister, Mrs. 
Chalmers, at Beckenham. Large numbers of friendless and endan- 
gered girls have past through this home, and are now in service or in 
homes of their own. Still anotlier beautiful holiday home for poor 
children from George Yard was erected by Mr. H. Barclay at Great 
Bookham, in memory of a dear friend, and in place of an expensive 
monument. But, indeed, the story of such love gifts is well nigh 
endless. At the mission center itself block after block has been 
added, as need arose, by stewards of God, who have been content to 
remain unknown. To attempt to chronicle all the tokens of a 
Father's loving hand, which have signalized the history of George 
Yard, would be a hopeless undertaking. From first to last it has 
been evident to all beholders that working in the line of the Divine 
l)urpose, the blessing of the Lord has rested upon it. Trials of faith, 
failures, and disappointments have not been lacking, but out of them 
all God gave deliverance. Like that other veteran of faith, George 
Miiller, George Holland lias proved afresh in tlie eyes of men that he 
who trusteth in Jehovah shall not bo put to shame. 



THE CENTRAL AMERICAN MISSION FIELD. 

BY KEV. 0. I. SCOFIELD, EAST NORTHFIELD, MASS., 
Secretery of the Central American Mission. 

Central America is a mission field with which even the Christians 
of America are little acquainted, altlio it is so near, so needy, and so 
white to the harvest. 

1. Look first at The Field. — The beautiful and fertile region, 
extending from the southern border of Mexico to the Isthmus of 
Panama, is divided politically into the five republics of Honduras, 
Guatemala, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Altho they differ 
in extent of territory and in population, these republics are very 
similar in climate, products, religion, customs, and language. In all 
these respects the whole region may, for the sake of brevity, be con- 
sidered in this article jis one. The climate varies, according to alti- 



1898.] ^HB CENTRAL AMBRICAN MidSlON £*I£LD. l85 

tnde^ from extreme heat along the low-lying coasts to a delightful 
mildness upon the high table-land which, rising here and there into 
mountains (mostly of volcanic origin), extends throughout the greater 
part of the interior. Ajb might be supposed, the coasts are malarial 
and unhealthy, while the central plateaux are salubrious, and, tho 
somewhat enenrating because of the absence of frost, are free from 
epidemic fevers. Fortunately, by far the greater part of the popula- 
tion is gathered upon the highlands. Here the capitals of the repub- 
lics are situated, and here the industries of the country are carried 
on. Few, if any, mission fields offer lesa climatic resistance to evan- 
gelization than the five republics of Central America. 

The means of transport are for the most part very primitive. Of 
the capitals, only those of Costa Rica and Guatemala are reacht by 
rail. Merchandise is transported by ox-Kjarts, pack-trains, and, to a 
limited extent, by boats on the rivers. This condition is evidently 
upon the eve of a great change. The enormous resources of the region, 
in fertile lands, rich mines, quarries, and forests, and the contiguity of 
this undevelopt wealth to the United States, will insure the penetra- 
tion of the country by railroads at no distant date. Doubtless the 
construction of the Nicaragua Canal will enormously stimulate the 
construction of railways. It should be needless to point out that the 
very imminence of such development, with its sure influx of irreligious 
wealth-seekers, is a most imperative call to the immediate evangeliza- 
tion of the country. The missionary should for once go before the 
trader. 

The areas and populations of these republics are, as nearly as can be 
ascertained (for census returns are most imperfect), as follows; 

A rea . Pojmtn Hon . 

Guatemala 63,400 square miles 1,500,000 

Nicaragrua 49,200 " " 420,000 

Honduras 43,000 " ** 431,000 

Salvador 7,225 " '* 800,000 

Costa Rica 23,000 ** " 280,000 



Totals 185,825 3,431,000 

This population is made up of a few whites, mestizos (mixt white 
and Indian), some West Indian negroes, and the aboriginal Indians, 
who form at least one half of the entire population. 

When the Central AmeriQan Mission entered this field, but little 
authentic information regarding the aborigines was attainable. 
From the first the Central American Mission felt a peculiar responsi- 
bility toward this portion of the population, but it soon became 
evident that plans for their evangelization could not be intelligently 
formed without more accurate and detailed information than was 
available. Living for the most part in the forests and mountains, far 
from the towns, and often accessible only by obscure footpaths, it was 
seen that the desired knowledge concerning these tribes could be 



186 X"^ CKNTRAI. AMERICAN Mtn»tON FIELD. [Mafcll 

acquired only through laborious, costly, and dangerous exploratione. 
At this juncture Robert Arthington, of Leeds, England, came forward 
with a proposal to bear the entire expense of the needed explorations. 
The late Rev, H, C, Dillon, of blessed memory, who, exhausted by 
exposure and unceasing toil, now sleeps at El Paraiso, Honduras, was 
detailed for this formidable task, which his life was spare<l to com- 
plete* As a result of the Arthington explorations, the mission is 
in possession of accurate and detailed information regarding these 
Indians, their approximate numbers, tribal or other orgauizations, 
the degree in which (if at all) they have been degiaded from their 



simple, primitive relijiions idpHS by contact with the profligate super- 
stition which in Spanish America passes for Roman Catholicism, their 
habits, locality, and many other particulars necessary to the planting 
of missions among them. 

The explorations devolopt a most interesting and wholly uiitoucht 
mission field, and enough has already been done among these 
aborigines to demonstrate their eagerness for the Gospel. Some of 
the tribes are extremely dogradetl, and, except in respect of cmelty, 
which is not a chiinictoriBtic of any ot them, it may be said that 
Africa itself holds no more absolute heathen than these at onr very 
threshold. 

• The rpdiilts of his toil anil if tlie Christian libemPltjr of Mr. Arthlnston. were In part 
publlHht in Thk Rivibw fur Maruli, 19K, In the -■ ■ '■'-' "'■'■- '" " ' "~~— ' 



THE HAIX HALL OF WATER STREET 



THE WATEB STREET MISSION (EXTERIOR). 



l«9{t,] THE CENTRAL AMERICAN MISSION FIBLH. 187 

As regards the other two classes — whites and mestizos — it may be 
said that the whites of education and intelligence have, in largo 
measure, practically ceost to have any faith in Romanism. The 
shameless profligacy of so many of the priests, and the childish super- 
stitions taught by them to the people, disgust and alienate the 
educated classes. Their peculiar peril is that, knowing no better 
form of Christianity, they lapse into open atheism, or, at best, 
agnosticism. These, too, will hear the simple Gospel. The agents of 
the American and of the British and Foreign Bible societies find a 
ready sale among them for the Word of God. 

Tlie DiestizoB, especially those of the villages, are commonly 
fanatical followers of the priests. From them comes the persecutions 
—never as yet bloody or severe 
— which converts must encounter. 
And yet among these conversions 
arc of constant occurrence. 

2. Tbe Central Ameri(\vn 
MiasiON was formed Nov. 14, 
1890, in Dallas, Texas, by four 
Christian men: Luther Rees {wlio 
lias since entered the ministry), 
Ernest M. Powell, William A. 
Nason, and the writer offering 
themselves in prayer to promote 
the evangelization of Central 
Antienca. Some two years pro- 

yiously the writer had become noiiAH wdmih aRtiiDiKa cork. 

convinced that our Lord's words 

in Acts i : 8 constituted not only a command to evangelize the world, 
but also a very definite plan of campaign, namelj', to cover the inliab- 
ite<l earth by ever enlarging circles from centers, of which Jerusalem 
was indicated as the firat. It was felt that the confusion and evident 
lack of plan in contemporaneous missionary effort were largely due 
to palpable departure from the method thus laid down by our Savior. 
And, further, that while this confusion was probably now irremedi- 
able, the central idea, not to overleap unevangelized territory, might 
be made to govern new enterprises. At tliis time a paragraph in 
William Eleroy Curtis' "Capitals of Spanish America," called atten- 
tion totheunevangeIi!!e<) condition of Costa Rica, and an investigation 
of the whole Central American field revealed the surprising fact 
that, excluding British Honduras, and the work of the Moravians, 
limited to the Mosquito Indians of Nicaragua, the only systematic 
effort to carry the Gospel to that vjtst region was the small mission 
of the Presbyterian Church (North) in Guatemala City, and the work, 
at Port Lituon, Costa Rica, of that devoted servant of God, Ber, 



188 THfi CENTRAL AMERtCAN MISBION fiBLD. [March 

J. H. Sobey, under the auspices of the Jamaica Baptist Missionary 
Society. It may be well to say here, that Mr. Sobey's self-denying 
work continues under great blessing, and deserves and should receive 
the liberal support of Christians in the United States. The pros- 
perity of Jamaica has been greatly checkt of late years, and it would 
seem a manifest call to the great Baptist Church in the United 
States to come forward now to the help of that work. 

Central America, then, was seen to be the nearest unevaiigelized 
country to any Cliristian in the United States. Thirteen boards and 
societies were at work in Mexico, and the next circle swept through 
Central America. It was greatly desired not to multiply missionary 
agencies, but conference with some of the larger denominational 
boards made it evident that with the burdens already pressing upon 
them, they could give us no' definite hope of an adequate Gospel inva- 
sion of this land so near and so needy. It seemed, therefore, that under 
God there was a manifest call to do all that might be done outside tlie 
usual channels. A council was formed composed in the first instance 
of Luther Rees, Ernest M. Powell, William A. Nason, and the writer, 
:(then all of Dallas, Texas), to which was subsequently added Judge D. 
H. Scott, of Paris, Texas, now treasurer of the mission. In the earnest 
desire in no way to invade the constituencies of the boards it was 
resolved never to take collections nor make public appeals for money. 
Further, the essential basis of the mission fixt its character as unde- 
nominational, evangelical, and evangelistic. The purpose is rather 
to carry the Gospel to every creature in Centnil America than to plant 
Christian institutions, or even churches. It is felt that these will 
surely follow the introduction of the Gospel. The entire time of the 
missionaries, and all of the funds contributed, are devoted to evan- 
gelization. The expense of administration is insignificant. No office- 
rent or clerk-hire is paid, the work being gladly done by the members 
of the council. 

The organ of the mission is the Central Americaii Bulletifi, pub- 
lisht quarterly from the office of the mission in Paris, Texas. 

Work was begun in February, 1891, in San Jose, the capital of 
the republic of Costa Rica. The Rev. and Mrs. W. W. McCounell, of 
St. Paul, Minnesota, were the pioneer missionaries, and were accom- 
panied to the field by Ernest M. Powell, Esq., of Dallas, Texas, as a 
deputation from the council. From the very first day the manifest 
blessing of God has rested upon the labors of the missionaries, and it* 
has been abundantly demonstrated that as no mission field in the 
world is more needy, so also, none is more promising than Central 
America. 

Twenty-four missionaries, of seven denominations, have been sent 
out, of whom three have fallen asleep. Five are now under appoint- 
ment, whom it is hoped soon to send to the front. At least fifty 



8-1 



THE CENTRAL AHBRICAN UIS810N FIELD. 



additional miBfllonaries could at once" be posted in commanding 
strategic centers in the five republics, from which Gurrounding villag<:s 
could be eTangelized. 

'ITie religion of the country is, speaking generally, the most 
debased form of Bomanism to be found anywhere on the earth. Pages 
could be filled with inetauces of its degrading superstition and idol- 
atry. Doubtless, even among these are to be found true Christians, but 
they are so in spite, rather than because, of the influences about them. 

Vast numbers, however, of the Indians are measurably untainted 
by this superstition, and are open to direct Gospel influences. The 
people of Central America are a noble and interesting race, amiable, 
veil mannered, honest, and hospitable. All religions are tolerated and 
protected, as in Mesico. The language everywhere spoken is Spi 



Since ground was broken in beantiful Costa Rica, our missionaries 
have been estahlisht in all of the republics, except Nicaragua, and this 
republic has been visited. 

In closing I venture to ask the earnest prayers of the readers of 
the Review for the council, the missionaries, and the treasjiry of 
tliis mission. It will be a joy to send further particulars to any who 
are interested to inquire. 



"Where with us is the spirit of Paul, who when he spoke of those 
that were enemies of the Cross of Christ blotted the page on which 
he wrote with hia tears ? We know tho heathen are perishing, and 
jet we go about our ordinary avocations as though there were no such 
thing as perishing people, and as tliough wo could not do infinitely 
more than we are doing to try to save them." 

Isabella. Bird Bishop. 



190 GOSPEL TRIUMPHS IN MEXICO. [March 



GOSPEL TRIUMPHS IN MEXICO. 

BY REV. WILLIAM WALLACE, SALTILLO, MEXICO. 
Mtesionary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. 

In the days when English pirates sailed the Spanish main, the town 
of Acapiilco was one of the great ports of the world, and the galleons 
freighted with spices and silk from China and the Philippines con- 
tributed largely to the glory of Acapulco's annual fair. As the scene 
of persecution and martyrdom it will also have a tragic interest in the 
history of evangelical missions. The little chapel of San Diego is 
now a mere rubbish heap, against which the waves of the harbor dash 
with dirge-like sound. It is but partially protected by the remains of 
the old adobe walls, which are still spattered with the blood of the 
Siiints. 

When, in August, 1895, I wended my way, under the blazing sun 
of the tropics, to the site of this ruined chapel, and as I stopt to 
gaze, the veteran form of Don Procopio Diaz came up before my 
ifleiital vision, and I seemed to hear his tremulous voice recount again 
the story of the Church and of that fearful night : 

" It was some 20 years ago, in 1875, that I and my friends got hold of 
some copies of the Bible, and became convinced that the Gospel was the 
power of God unto salvation. We began to hold meetings in my house 
in the name of the Lord .Jesus. I had previously held the ofiQce of chief 
of police, and during the wars of reform had risen to the rank of colonel 
in the Liberal army. At this time, however, I was in business, and had 
set up a small printing press to defend the ideas of the Liberal party. 
Feeling the necessity of further instruction, we determined to apply to 
Mexico City, where we understood some American missions had already 
been establisht. Being appointed commissioner, I at once saddled my 
horse, and started out on a nine days* journey over the rocky crests of 
the Sierra Madre, and along the trail of watercourses, until I reacht the 
capital of the republic. After seeing several of the missions, I succeeded 
in getting Rev. Mr. Hutchinson, then in charge of the Presbyterian work, 
to accompany me to Acapiilco. 

•*0n reaching the coast we were greeted with enthusiastic 'abrazos' 
(embraces) by the brethren, and immediately began to hold nightly 
services in the little chapel by the sea, which we had secured for the 
purpose. 

"Our enemies, however, did not long remain idle. Those distant 
coasts had not yet been brought within the circle of the firm application of 
the laws of reform. Our governor, Don Diego Alvarez, belonged to a reac- 
tionary family, whose motto had ever been, * Bajo la deacmifianza vive 
In segttridad ' (Safety lives under the tree of distrust). The parish priest, 
being assured, in an unofficial way, that any killing of Protestants would 
be winkt at by the local authorities, laid his plans accordingly. Rehired 
a band of Indians from the adjoining sierra, whose life of cattle lifting 
and incidental murders fitted them for the task, to surprise the disciples 



1898.] G08PKL TRIUMPHS IN MEXICO. 191 

while engaged in worship, 'the Indians were filled up with rtieacxd 
(Mexican whisky), armed with the terrible double-edged niacliete, and 
dispatcht to their work. Watching the opportune moment when the 
little company were engaged in prayer, the murderers leapt into the 
chapel, and began to strike right and left. Many escaped, including Mr. 
Hutchinson, who was detained that night at his house by sickness, but 
many others were killed, and still others were frightfully wounded." 

An eye-witness of the scene, then collector of port-customs, said 
to the writer: " I wjis meeting with my brother Masons at our regular 
lodge meeting that night. When word was brought us of the mas- 
sacre, we immediately adjourned, and marcht in a solid body down 
the street toward tlie chapel to see what aid we could render. On 
arriving we saw the blood trickling in a stream over the door-sill 
into the street, and on entering began to care for the wounded, as the 
assassins had already fled." 

The object of the massacre, which had been to terrorize and break 
up the new movement rather than to destroy the lives of all the mem- 
bers, accomplisht its immediate purpose. The surviving members, 
being unable to obtain any guarantee from the State government, 
emigrated, some going up the coast, and others moving to Chilpan- 
cingo, now capital of Guerrero. 

Here again the blood of the martyrs proved to be the seed of the 
Church. Don Procopio and his brother began to work actively among 
the people of Chilpancingo. Altlio they were falsely imprisoned for 
some alleged crimes, they began such an active work of evangeliza- 
tion among the prisoners, that the authorities considered it wiser to 
set them free again. A strong church was organized, which still 
meets in a house of worship fronting the central market. Two of 
the elders were eve-witnesses of the martvrdom of their brethren. 
Chilpancingo soon became a center of light for all regions round 
about, and thus again proved the conquering power of the Gospel. 



Arcadio Morales, the Moody of Mexico, stands to-day as a prince 
among the native ministers of tlie various denominations. His life 
history is a serial story, illustrating the power of the Gospel to con- 
vert the heart, develop the intellect, and build up character. Mr. 
Morales, like many others, was converted by the reading of the Bible^ 
and by convincing himself tliat Roman Christianity has widely 
departed from its teachings. He at once gave himself to preaching, 
and two years ago celebrated the silver anniversary of his entrance into 
the ministry. Almost the whole of this period has been spent in 
Mexico City, where he has done a work very similar to that of Kobert 
W. McAll in Paris. Altho he has never had a college or seminary 
education, he has become a great preacher, and lias mastered the main 
doctrines of revelation. Very independent in his ideas, and not 



192 GOSPEL TRIUMPHS IN MEXICO. [MaTcH 

always in accord with the missionaries, but coming yearly into more 
cordial cooperation with tliem, he has developt a local work which 
promises in the near future to be practically self-supporting. 

Like every true pastor, he dearly loves the children, and it has 
been his custom, besides superintending the Central Sabbath- school, 
to give weekly Bible talks in the mission day-schools establisht amoiig 
the poor of the city. This work among the children has developt in 
him a clearness and simplicity in the interpretation of the Bible and 
a large fund of illustrations, which are not usually found among 
Latin-American people. These characteristics have contributed 
largely to his wonderful success as an evangelist. 

lie early appreciated the value of a trained eldership, and his 
labors in this direction have been so successful that he carries on 
several chapel missions in different wards of the city, under the volun- 
tary superintendence of these elders. They are as devoted to their 
chieftain as the marshals of Napoleon were to their general. 

It is, however, during the past four years that he has attained 
fame among all the churches as a revivalist. As director of the 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Tlalpam, a suburb of Mexico 
City, I was led to believe that the boys would be greatly helpt by a 
sermon from Mr. Morales on " The call to the ministry.^' He accepted 
tlie invitation, and the Holy Spirit accompanied his preaching with 
such power that a revival began among the students then and there, 
and they remained in prayer and confession till 10 o'clock the follow- 
ing morning. This was the beginning of Mr. Morales' revival work. 
The students have never forgotten the new view they received of the 
stewardship with which they had been intrusted. The larger part of 
them are still engaged in self-denying and increasingly useful service 
in the ministry. 

Mr. Morales afterward accepted an invitation to hold services 
among the students of the Metliodist College for Men and Women at 
Puebla, and as a result some fifty profest to have entered the kingdom. 
Ever since that time Mr. Morales has been in the habit of holding 
special revival services in different parts of the republic, among 
different denominations, and at various kinds of religious gatherings. 
In November of 1897 he was invited to cross the border to Laredo, 
Texas, to conduct meetings among the 10,000 Mexicans who are 
citizens of our own country. The evangelistic work is in addition to 
his pastoral duties, and in spite of a chronic infirmity which forbids 
much physical exertion or exposure to the heat of tlie sun. May he 
long be spared to Mexico and to the Church militant! 



Ines Mo-re-no, the plowman evangelist, is simply a countryman. 
His life has alwavs been tliat of the ranches, and he covets no other. 
His garb since he became an evangelist is just what it was when he 



1898.] OOePBL TRIUMPHS IN MEXICO. 393 

raised crops of com, or brought his burros laden with wood to the 
markets of Zacatecas. Uis hua-ra-ches (leather sandals worth 25 cents) 
have never been exchanged for shoes; his leather pantaloons, slit 
down the sides, are much more suitable than cashmere for traveling 
over the cactus-covered plains; and his peakt sombrero ofpe-ta-te (slit 
rush) protects his head much better than would a more civilized- 
looking hat. 

He was converted sometime in the seventies, when Messrs. Phillips 
and Thomson began their work in the mining city of Zacatecas. The 
priests, in order to frigkten their ignorant p^ishioners from hearing 
the Gospel, had graphically portrayed the American missionaries as 
incarnations of the evil one himself. Ines, in common with his. 
neighbors, had been told that as soon as the Protestant preachers 
opened their mouths to utter their heresies, sulphurous flames 
issued out of their months, horns appeared on their foreheads, and 
cloven hoofs took the place of feet. These stories served simply to 
arouse the curiosity of our friends, and they determined to see for 
themselves the disreputable stance. Leaving their burros in a meson 
(caravansary) they slipt over to the hall where services were being 
held. They were astounded to hear the sound of beautiful hymns 
and the preaching of the love of Christ by men of like passions with 
themselves. 

The ranchmen understood at once that their priest had lied, and 
they felt that the Gospel which these strangers preacht was what 
these priests had denied to them. 

Ines Moreno at once secured a Bible, and set to work to study it witli 
the help of the slight knowledge of reading which he had acquired 
as a boy. As I knew him, he had long been a devoted Bible student, 
an earnest worker among his neighborp, and an earnest Christian. 
During these latter years he has spent most of his time evangelizing 
the villages in a large circuit in the neighborhood of his old home; 
sometimes on foot, sometimes on horseback. One year he reported 
more conversions than any other member of Presbytery. I shall 
long remember the spiritual talks which we had together on winter 
evenings in the mission-house, or when out on a trip to some of tlie 
ranches. His knowledge of the great doctrines of salvation and his 
deep spiritual experience seemed to lead one to a sense of being in 
heavenly places in Christ J^sus. 

These examples are but a few specimen pages from the unwritten 
history of the triumph of the Gospel in the hearts of our Mexican 
neighbors across the Bio Grande. 



194 MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [Maroh 

IL— MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. 

COMITY IN MISSIONS.* 

BY THE BISHOP OP NEWCASTLE, ENGLAND. 

What does " comity " in Missions mean? It obviously is a misnomer 
to those who believe that there is no common ground between the Church 
of England and other Christian bodies, for it implies a relationship at 
least of courtesy and friendliness. But it h&s a doctrinal basis, which I 
shall state under two heads. (1., When in the presence of heathenism 
two missionaries belonging to different ('hristian bodies can agree in 
heartily and thankfully saying, "We love Him because He flrst loved 
us," there is an agreement of faith which no outward differences, how- 
ever important, can frustrate. In other words the holding, in its natural 
sense, of the great Christian doctrine of the Trinity, involving the doc- 
trines of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, very God and very 
Man, constitutes a bond of union so strong that, in the presence of 
heathenism, differences, even of doctrine, are small in comparison. 
(2.) Baptism in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 
by whomsoever administered, implies incorporation into the one Church 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, so that no question whether any particular body 
of Christians does or does not constitute a valid branch of the Church 
can so unchurch the baptized Christian as to represent him as outside 
the Church of Christ. Admission by baptism into one society, however 
divided that society may be, and the holding the one faith in the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, seem to me the doctrinal basts of missionary 
"comity." From this basis of doctrine I proceed to explain and illus- 
trate three forms which such comity may take. 

AUTHORITATIVE STANDARDS OF FAITH. 

A community of faith must be based on some common authority, and 
those who differ as to the interpretation of the authority may yet com- 
bine in their reverence for it. Their reverence for the standards will 
naturally lead them to see if, as a pure matter of scholarship, they can 
not agree in the translation of the sacred writings into the languages of 
the people among whom they work, and union in translation when the 
work is done in profound reverence for the original, will constitute a bond 
of union that the heathen can not fail to recognize. The Hindus and 
Mohammedans have numerous sects, but they agree in the reverence for 
the Vedas and the Koran respectively. The divisions of Christendom do 
not perplex them as much as might be imagim^d in England, but what 
would perplex them would be a division of Christians as to the authorita- 
tive standards and the circulation of translations of the Christian sacred 
writings different in mat^^rial points. From this babel we have been 
mercifully delivered, mainly by the efforts of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, which has thus helpt on missionary comity, and removed 
a stumbling block that would have imperiled the advance of Christianity. 

TERRITORIAL DIVISION OF WORK. 

Subject t-o certain modifications the principle followed by missionary 
societies, with the flagrant exception of the agencies of the Church of 
Rome, of abstaining from building on the foundations laid by others, and 

*Condenst from a paper read at the recent Church (of England) Congress, in Nottiiifc* 
harn, England, and printed in the Church Missionary Intelligencer, November, 1897. 



1898.] COMITY IN MISSIONS. 195 

from evangelizing districts covered with other Christian missions, is a 
true and right application of missionary comity. The heathen world 
is still so vast that, whatever the future may bring, it seems suicidal and 
wrong for Christian missionaries to be competing in the same district 
and endeavoring to win recruits from each other's ranks. It must, how- 
ever, be admitted that the principle requires to be rationally understood. 
If a society claims to occupy a large area which it does not really cover, 
it is perhaps a straining of the principle to claim that no other agency 
shall be introduced; furthermore, all modern experience goes to show the 
unspeakable importance of strong centers. A mission which claims a 
smaller area, but works it thoroughly and with strong centers, is likely 
to have a g^Ater effect on the country than a weaker mission spread 
over a larger area; so that the principle must not be understood as any 
excuse or justification for weak missions. But the chief modifications of 
the principle are: (1) the following up of converts when they move to 
another district, (2) the exemption of capitals from the operation of the 
general principle, and (3) the taking over of missions under extraordinary 
circumstances. 

(1.) Just as we follow up our own people in the Continent of Europe, 
and provide spiritual ministrations for them without attempting to 
proselytize those who belong to other Christian bodies, so we must pre- 
serve full liberty to follow up those who have left Church of England 
missions if they move into districts where they are deprived of ministra- 
tions which they have learned to value. But such following of converts 
would not justify any attempt to weaken any existing mission, or to 
occupy ground which such mission was bana fide covering. Tliere is all 
the difference in the world between caring for your own sheep and steal- 
ing other people's. 

(2.) As a rule the capitals of countries or provinces are large and pop- 
ulous cities, and there is room for a variety of agencies without friction. 
In the capitals with which I am acquainted the various missions occupy 
different quarters of the city and do not attempt to interfere with each 
other's work, and therefore the general principle is really being main- 
tained, for tho the missions are working in the same city, they are not 
really occupying the same area. If a missionary agency be legitimate in 
any country, we must not complain if it seeks to be represented at the 
capital, with which every part of the country has a necessary connec- 
tion. Christian courtesy and good feeling will prevent this joint repre- 
sentation at the capital from injuring by rivalries and divisions the 
advance of Christianity. 

(3.) The remaining modification involves immense responsibility, and 
will be, I hope, of rare occurrence. But I can not forbear illustrating it 
from two cases with which I was made familiar during my short resi- 
dence in India more than twenty years ago. Bishop Milman, then Bishop 
of Calcutta, received into the Church of England, after long and anxious 
inquiry, a considerable body of missionaries and converts in Chota 
Nagpur, in Western Bengal, previously connected with the German 
Evangelical Lutheran Mission establisht by Pastor Gossner, and a smaller 
body of Karens in what was then the extreme border of British Burma, 
who had previously been connected with the American Baptists. In both 
cases I believe the reception to have been absolutely justifiable and even 
necessary. Pastor Gossner himself askt the Church of England to take 
over his mission. The strong and unalterable determination of some of 



196 HI88IONART DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [March 

the oldest and most experienced missionaries, supported by a large body 
of the converts, to join the Church of England, waa represented to the 
bishop, who was advised to consent to their request by the entire English 
community in the district, and by the Grerman committee which had been 
formed in Calcutta to help the mission. After long and patient deliber- 
ation and delay, the bishop yielded to the request made to him, and the 
outcome has been one of the most interesting missions of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, now an independent 
diocese with a bishop of its own. The result has abundantly justified 
the action taken. It has led to a greater missionary activity in the 
whole district, and the friction which was almost inevitable at first has 
given way to kindly feeling and many an act of brotherly recognition. 
The other case was somewhat different. The wife of an experienced 
American Baptist missionary exercised an extraordinary influence over 
the Karens in her husband's district, and was determined to bring them 
over to the Church of England. It was only when many of these Karens 
were lapsing into heathenism, because their request for a union with the 
Church of England was not granted, that at last the bishop took over 
the mission. 

In reference to the Church of Rome I can only quote the language of 
the Bishop of Lahore, who said in 1894 : 



«t 



I affirm, with a wide experience of North India and Burma, that I 
have never met with a direct and organized attempt .to gather in the 
heathen on the part of that church save where the seed had been first 
sown by others and they had begun to enter into the fruit of their own 
labors. Instances of such intervention on the part of the Church of 
Rome may be found among the Karens in Burma, amon^ the Chols at 
Chota Nagpur, in the Nadiya missions of the Church Missionary Society 
in Bengal, and in the missions of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel to the south of Calcutta. No rtiodvs vivenai is possible as 
between herself and other communions. We must confine ourselves to 
a protest against what seems to us a marauding policy, taking care, I 
should add, to establish our own people in those true Catholic principles 
which are the best safeguard when the assaults and intrigues of Rome 
have to be met." 

This is a melancholy statement, made by a singularly qualified 
observer, but two wrongs do not make one right, and no marauding 
policy should tempt us to forget our own duty to evangelize the heathen 
and to make reprisals. 

THE SPHERE OP DISCIPLINE. 

The right time for the administration of baptism has exercised the 
minds of many missionaries, but thei*e are scarcely two opinions among 
the general body of Indian missionaries as to the recklessness with which, 
in certain cases, this sacrament was administered. I need hardly point 
out the great advantage to the whole Christian body which would result 
from some nearer agreement upon this important matter. 

Then, again, the greatest caution should be, and usually is, exercised 
in receiving converts from one mission to another. It may be found that 
a man was censured or punisht for some moral offense, and the moral 
sense of the whole Christian community would be outraged if another 
mission were to condone the offense and receive the offender with open 
arms. Missionary comity certainly involves the respecting discipline 
exercised by other missions, and upholding it if it be morally just. The 
questions which arise, perhaps more especially in cases involving mar- 



1898.] CfilLD MAllItIA6£ AND WIDOWHOOD IK INDIA. Id? 

riage and breaches of the seventh commandment, are frequently so diffi- 
cult and perplexing that serious difiPerences between Christian bodies in 
dealing with them would retard the advance of the Kingdom of Christ. 

After alU the main thing to care for is the doctrinal basis. When 
men agree in love for a common Lord, and can thank Him for admission 
to His Kingdom on earth, and trust Him for the time to come, it is cer- 
tain that this conununity of faith will Und expression in ways which 
scarcely need to be classified as tho els6 it would cease to exist. If they 
do not love "one Lord,*' no unity of ecclesiastical organization will ever 
really bring them together. If they do love "one Lord," no differences 
of organization can really keep them permanently apart. The man who 
feels strongly the truth of his own convictions is just the man who can 
afford to be tolerant in dealing with others, and the English Churchman 
who realizes that about four-fifths of the results of foreign missions out- 
side those of the Church of Rome are due to other Christian bodies than 
his own, will gladly recognize the fruits of the Spirit in the labors of 
others throughout the worlds and without abating one iota of what he 
holds and teaches as true, will see the wisdom of the resolution past by 
the bishops at the recent Lambeth Conference : 

"That in the foreign mission-field of the church's work, where sig- 
nal spiritual blessings have attended the labor of Christian missionaries 
not connected with the Anglican communion, a special obii^^ation has 
arisen to avoid, as far as possible without compromise of principle, what- 
ever tends to prevent the due growth and manifestation of that ' unity of 
the Spirit,' which should ever mark the Church of C-hrist." 



CHILD MARRIAGE AND WIDOWHOOD IN INDIA.* 

BY REV. JAMBS 8. DENNIR, D.D. 

Child marriage is in defiance of a law of nature at once beneficent 
and supreme. Its evils are multiform and deplorable. It is physically 
injurious, morally deleterious, mentally weakening, destructive of family 
dignity, productive of enfeebled offspring, increases the probability of 
early widowhood, provokes the curse of poverty, and tends to rapid over- 
population. The testimony of native Indians of education and inde- 
|)endent judgment (especially medical men), is clear and emphatic as to 
its sad and dangerous tendencies. The population of India is largely the 
children of children, and as marriage is contracted with little or no 
regard to the ability of the husband to support the family, this is one 
secret of the terrible and grinding poverty of the country. National 
vigor in many sections of the great peninsula has suffered a notable 
deoiino, owing to the constant stream of infant life born of immaturity, 
and called to struggle with unsanitary conditions and blighting disease. 

The census of 1801 reports 17,928,640 girls in India between the ages of 
five and nine. Of this number, 2,201,404 were already married and 64,040 
were widows. The report further shows that there were 12, 168, .502 girls 
between the ages of ten and fourteen, and of this number 6,016,759 were 
married and 174,532 were widows. In 1802, out of 071,500 married women, 
11,157 had been married at or before the age of four years, and 180,007 
between the ages of five and nine, showing one out of every five of the 

♦ From " Christian Miasioiw and Social Prop-esa." Publisht by Flemlnfi: H. RevellCo., 
New York, by whose courtesy we alfio reproduce the accompanying UJustratioutt. 



198 MISSIONARY DIoEsT DEPARTMENT. ' [March 

wives was married under the age of nine. There were in the provinces 
at that time 23,000 child widows t>elow the age of fourteen. The total of 
married children in all India under Ave years of age ia as follows: Boys, 
103,000; girls, 285,000. The total of widowed children under five years of 
age is: Boys, 7,000. and girls, 14,000.' 

The diticustiioti of the Indian sacred books, as to the marriageable 
age of girls, are not flt for quotation. They are part of the prurient 
vulgarity of Hinduism in its treiitinent of women. The reason usually 
assigned for infant marriage is that it is essential to the peace of a man's 
soul after death that he should have children who can duly perform his 
funeral rites, and that early marriages increase the probability of 
offspring, and on this account are 
to be commended. It ia also argued 
that the custom tends to morality, 
and that it is justified in India for 
physical reasons. The ai^umeots 
that early marriages are required 
in the int«re8ts of morality, and 
are justified hy the early devekip- 
ment of Indian girls, are not sus- 
tained by facts. On the contrary, 
the custom is a dangerous stimulus 
to immorality, and quickens, to an 
unnatural precocity, the relation of 
the sexes. It is, moreover, denied 
by competent authority that cli- 
matic conditions in India are to 
the extent claimed responsible for 
early maturity. The pernicious 
customs of the country, as regards 
marriage, have unlialanci'd nature, 
and prematurely forced the physical 
and mental growth of Indian chil- 
dren of both sexes. 

The physical sufferings Induced 
by e:irly marriage funu a shocking 
cBiLD HiRBiAni iH iKDu. indlctmeut against a cru«>l custom. 

In a recent memorial, signed by 
fifty-flve lady doctors, petitioning the Indian Government on the subject 
of child marriage, and forwardeti by Mrs. Dr. Mansell, of Lucknow, to the 
governor-general, a strong appeal, l>ased on medical experience, was pre- 
sentt-d, urging that fourteen years be the minimum age for the consum- 
matiimof marringe. The appeal is sustained by most pitiful facta, drawn 
from medical experience, as to the phynical cruelties attending the prev- 
alent eustiim of infant marriage. According to what is known ng tlie 
" Native Morriagc Act " of 1872. forced marriages are prohibited under 
the age of eighteen for men and fourteen for women, while the written 
wmsent of piii-ents or guardians is required when either party is under 
twpnty-(me. This, at first sight, seems to be valuable legislation, but as 

BonipsrJIfwrte.'- " " "- ' .-... u.. ^ ., 

whichltltadUsi 

ber ft hiutifuiil. 



1898.] CHILD MARRIAOE AND WIDOWHOOD IN INDIA, 199 

the law remains a dead letter unleee its prot«ftion is Bought, it practically 
has little effect aa a remedy for existing evils. According U> the penal 
code of India, the minimum age for the consummation of marriBge, so 
far as Hindus are concerned, was, until qiiit« recently, t^n years. It has 
now been raised to twelve by an act which became law on March 19, 
1891. The significance of this is that it is regarded ae a crime to con- 
sununat« the marriage earlier than twelve years of age. but owing to the 
supreme difBculty of prosecution, and the many embHrrasBments attend- 
ing it> the infraction of the law is rarely brought to book. As the limit- 
ation of t«n years is often disregarded, so in all likelihood that of twelve 
years will be observed even to a less extent,* There is at the present 
time much agitation for new Indian legislation upon this burning sub- 
ject. Another point upon which reform legislation is needed is to secure 



the non-rec<^iiition, on the part of the British, of the binding validity of 
infant marriage. It should be regarded in the light of a betrothal until 
bona fide marriage relations are establisht. 

Child widowhood is a natural result of child marriage, and the evil 
in greatly enhanced by the uncompromising prohibition of remarriage 
in India. According to the social and religious standards of India, 
woman is regarded as still l>ound to do reverence even to a dead husband, 
and his doniinion is considered as lasting during her life, even tho he has 
ceaitt to live. This idea was carried to such an exti'eme that, until 
recently, the widow was bound to self-destruction, in order that she 

•Thi^ PameesharsBecuredCorthemflolves, by Hppclal 1pfc>»lHtl<>n [n their InMrPnt, the aice 
of faun«en. UBln> hnTe the BrahmoK (meinberx of refrirm srjcii-IiHH. like the BrBtiinn-Soinnj, 
ao 1 nthera) at Ibelr own reouegt. Tbe Kulin BmhmaiiK, liriwever. iK«m to break all riilra 

It brings the iwcliil miiieriea noil aorrowu of wijowhood 



200 HI88IONARY mGBST DEPABTMSNT. [March 

might continue to be his wife and engage in his service in the life 
beyond.* 

The prohibition of remarriage was lifted by what is known in British 
Indian legislation as the *' Widow Marriage Act," past by Lord Canning 
in 1856. The force of this act is that it simply removes the legal obsta- 
cles to remarriage on the part of the widow, but at the same time it 
requires her, in case of remarriage, to forfeit all property which she has 
inherited from her husband. This law has been modified by a special 
enactment in the case of native Christians and the theistic reform sects 
of India, but it is still in force so far as the entire Hindu population is 
concerned. It is in reality, however, a dead letter, as the Hindus regard 
it with abhorrence, and have not mitigated in the least their strenuous 
opposition to the remarriage of the widow. Thirty years after its enact- 
ment only about sixty remarriages are reported in all India. It was a 
generation or more in advance of native opinion, which, however, at the 
present time is beginning to agitate for larger liberty in the matter. As 
the case stands now, the loss of property on the part of the widow is not 
the only penalty attending her remarriage ; both she and her husband 
are ruled out of caste, and must suffer social ostracism in its most intense 
and virulent form. 

The condition of the Hindu widow is, almost without exception, a 
lamentable one. The chief features which make her fate a hard one, 
especially if she is widowed in childhood, are that she is immediately 
obliged to shave her head, is forcibly deprived of her jewels and ordinary 
clothing, and made to wear for the rest of her life a distinctive garb, 
which is a badge of humiliation. She is allowed to eat only once in 
twenty-four hours, and every two weeks is required to observe a strict 
fast, omitting even the one meal. It has been decreed, however, by the 
highest religious court of Hinduism, that if, acting on medical advice, 
the widow on these fast days should drink a little water the offense 
should be condoned. Her person is forever held in contempt, and even 
her touch may be considered pollution. Her widowhood is regarded as 
an affliction brought upon her in punishment for heinous sin in a previ- 
ous state of existence. If it comes upon her in childhood she must grow 
to years of maturity with the painful consciousness of her isolation and 
unhappy ostracism shadowing the early years of her life. She is forever 
an object of suspicion, and is lookt upon as capable of all evil. She is 
the victim of special temptations, and is often driven to a life of shame 
through sheer self-loathing and despair. t 

According to the census of 1881, there were in India at that time 
20,038,626 widows. The census of 1891 reports 22,667,429, but as this 
report was given with reference only to 262,300,000 out of a total popula- 
tion of 287,223,431, if the same proportion holds, the total number in all 
India would not be less than 25,000,000. Nearly every fifth woman in 
India is a widow. This large percentage may be traced directly to the 
custom of early marriages, and the stringent prohibition of remarriage. 



* The agitation for the abolition of this custom, the Sati or Suttee^ was begun by Wm. 
Carey in 1801. 

t It should not be understood that all widows are invariably treated with the same degree 
of severity and contempt throughout all India. The treatment shown them varies in different 
castes, and even in different families. It may, of course, be mitigated by the personal kind* 
nesa and consideration of their immediate circle, and it may be, on the ottier hand, intenrified 
by fanaticism. In the Punjab, and especially in Bengal, the worst features of a widow's sad 
lot are prevalent. In other parts of Inaia she may be treated with far less personal contumely, 
but the main features of isolation, suspicion, distinctive dress, cruel restrictions, and prohibi- 
tion of marriage prevail everywhere. 



1898.] THB dBCRBT OP MIddlONARY ENTHUSIASM. 201 

THE SECRET OP MISSIONARY ENTHUSIASM. • 

If there is a decadence in missionary interest in the Church of Christ, 
the cause for it is not to be found in the reasons alleged against missions. 
All the arguments ever brought in our time against foreign missions were 
brought against them in Paul's time, and with much more ground then 
than now; but they had not the least effect of dampening PauFs mission- 
ary ardor or checking his missionary activities. It is easy to reproduce 
those stock arg^uments which history lias answered. They ran something 
like this: 

The Greeks and Romans have their own religion, quite good enough 
for such as they; the religion of Hebraism is only for the Hebrews. The 
churches founded in pagan lands remain pagan churches with but a 
Christian name. Paul himself has to confess that incest and drunken- 
ness are practist in the Corinthian church; to exhort the Ephesians not 
to steal; to warn the Colossians against " uncleanness, inordinate affec- 
tion, concupiscence, and coveteousness," and to urge them not to lie to 
one another. As to the Galatians, they fell from grace as soon as he left 
them. The native missionaries and helpers are a sad lot; and even their 
higher officials have need to be counseled against polygamy, intemper- 
ance, and acts of violence. If this is the sort of Christians foreign 
missions make, the converts might as well have remained pagans. The 
missionaries themselves are not of much character. Paul, chief of them 
all, is without authority; he is no apostle; is a heretic; and travels about 
the country taking up collections, for what he can make out of his 
profession. Moreover, Christianity has not yet converted Palestine. 
Christianity is a very minor sect even in its home. It will be time enough 
to talk about converting Rome when we have converted Jerusalem. 
Religion, like charity, begins at home. Finally, there are neither men 
nor money for any such chimerical ambition. The churches are poor; 
can not afford to build meeting-houses for themselves or pay salaries to 
their own preachers. It is crazy, under such circumstances, to start out 
to convert the pagan world to Christ. 

Such arguments produced no effect on Paul. The ground of his mis- 
sionary purpose did not lie in reason, and from his purpose he could not 
be turned aside by reasons. He had a vision of Christ as a risen Lord 
and a world Messiah; he had a hope for the world because of that vision; 
and a love for his fellow-men that made him debtor both to the Greeks and 
to the barbarians. Wherever there is this enthusiasm for Christ, there 
will be a missionary enthusiasm; wherever that enthusiasm is lacking, 
missionary service will be perfunctory, contributions will be small, and 
excuses plentiful. 

The answer to all cynical and worldly-wise arguments against foreign 
missions is the answer of a divinely nourisht enthusiasm. It is some- 
thing like this: 

We have seen the Christ, and do see Him. He is no remote, shadowy, 
historical figure. He is a living presence. His visible, historical life 
g^ves definiteness to this invisible, mystical one; his invisible, mystical 
life gives reality and permanence to this visible and historical one. 
He is our captain and leader and example in all self -sacrificing labors for 
others. Wherever He dares lead we dare follow. You have no such 
leader? Then perhaps it were too much to ask you to follow with us who 

^ Condenst from Tke Outlook. 



202 MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARfMSKT. [Marcll 

follow Him? Our hope does not rest on history ; Paul had no history, 
and he had the hope. But that hope is confirmed hy history. We are 
ourselves the children of foreign missions. Foreign missionaries from 
Rome brought Christianity to England, and England sent it across the 
sea in Huguenot and Pilgrim to America. What it has done for us we 
believe it can do for others. But our belief in what it can do does not 
rest alone on what it has done for us. Our trust is not in it, but in Him. 
Christianity is Christ; it is the power of a new life, the life of God in the 
soul of man, defined in the Christ, made available in the Christ. To one 
believing in this power nothing seems impossible. 

This vision of the Christ has wrought a revolution in our love and 
in our hopes. It has broken down all division walls. There are no 
strangers nor foreigners ; we are all fellow-citizens in God's household. 
The negro has divine possibilities no less than the white man, the Hindu 
no less than the Caucasian. 

The Christian enthusiast and cynical critic do not and probably can 
not understand one another. It is certain that the worldly-wise cynic 
will not be convinced by worldly-wise arguments: — and he c^n understand 
no other. If the Church is to be a Foreign Missionary Church, it is not 
so much the reason which needs to be convinced as the life to be revived. 
If we would have a Pauline missionary spirit in the churches, they must 
have a Pauline vision, a Pauline hope, and a Pauline love. The church, 
the minister, or the Christian that has no foreign missionary interest 
lacks either the vision of Christ, the hoi>e for humanity in Christ, or the 
love of all humanity as those for whom Christ died. 



HOW MISSIONARY MONEY IS SPENT. 

Complaints have come from some quarters, which for the most part 
have l)een prompted by ignorance, because of the alleged waste of money 
given to missions through expensive administration. One elder in a 
prominent church went so far as to say that giving to missions reminded 
him of the farmer who tried to save labor by stretching wooden troughs 
from taps in maple trees to receptacles for the sap some distance away, 
but who found that it took so much sap to moisten the troughs that little 
reacht the tanks. **So," said the elder, "it takes so much money to 
carry on the administration that very little reaches the heathen." He 
was silenced, however, when the facts as to the ti*ue proportions of ex- 
penditure were made known to him. These facts may be easily dis- 
covered from the annual reports issued by each of the mission boards. 

The Missionary Herald, organ of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, makes the following interesting statement 
as to the proportionate distribution of money contributed for work under 
their direction: 

In any organization, properly conducted, it is easy t-o tell where the 
money goes so that contributors can judge as to the wisdom of the 
expenditure's and the economy of administration. Were people to 
examine annual i^eports such absurd statements r.s the one sometimes 
made, that it takes a dollar to send a dollar to the heathen, would be 
silenced forever. Dense ignorance rather than malice, charity must lead 
us to hope, prompts to such a wild utterance as this. The exact truth is 
that ninety-two and a half per cent, of all the receipts of the Board go 



1898.1 ^OW MI8810NARV MONEY 18 SPENT. 203 

directly to missions abroad, while the remaining seven and one-half per 
cent, are needed to cover all cost of collecting and tram mitting funds, 
including agencies, correspondence, publications of all sorts, and all 
salaries in every department. 

We believe that few business enterprises in our own land, whether 
conducted by individuals or corporations, can make a better showing as 
to the cost of administration than this, and when it is remembered that 
the business stretches over not only the greater portion of the United 
States, but that it is conducted in twenty distant missions in as many 
different sections of the wide world, thus involving, of course, extra 
cost, the percentage will be seen to be remarkably low. The total 
expenditure for the year 1896-07 was $688,414.20, each one hundred dol- 
lars being distributed in the following proportion: 

For the three missions in Africa: West Central ($1.82), East 

Central ($1.20), and Zulu ($3.71) $6.73 

For the Turkish missions: European Turkey ($5.20), Western 
Turkey ($16.10), Central Turkey ($3.32), and Eastern 

Turkey ($6.90) 31.52 

For two Indian and Ceylon missions: Marathi ($7.01), Madura 

($7.73), Ceylon ($1.47) 17. 11 

For the four China missions: Foochow ($3.66), l^'outh China 

(.86), North China ($8.20), and Shansi ($1.34) 14.06 

For the Japan Mission 10.40 

For the Sandwich Islands ^8 

For Micronesia and the Morning Star 5.63 

For the three missions in Papal lands: Mexico ($2.26), Spain 

($2.26), and Austria ($1.61) 6.13 

Amount used directly for the missions $92.46 

For agencies in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, with 
expenses of missionaries and others in visiting churches, 
associations, etc 2.23 

For publications of all kinds, periodicals, reports, 8ket<;hes, 

maps, tracts, etc 1.44 

For salaries of officers and -clerks in the secretarial and 
treasury departments, postage, rent, and all other items 
coming under expenses of aaministration 3.87 

Amount used for home expenditures 7.54 

$100.00 

In examining the Insurance Department reports of more than a score 
of the principal life insurance companies of the United States for 1896, 
it apjiears that only two of them can report that the ratio of ** management 
expenses " to income is less than 12 per cent. In most cases the exjwnses 
have l>een from 16" to 20 per cent., some of them even higher. The lowest 
of them all is 10.55 per cent., and this fact is commented upon as indicat- 
ing great care and economy in management. No intelligent person who 
considers what is required for the scattering of information, the collec- 
tion of funds, and for the correspondence involved in the sending out 
and maintaining 543 missionaries in foreign lands, can deem the ex|)endi- 
ture of 7.54 per cent, of income for ** administration " as other than very 
moderate. It is surely an occasion for rejoicing that so large a portion 
as 92.46 per cent, can go directly to the support of the missionaries and 
the work in the field. It should be borne in mind, moreover, that should 
the receipts of the Board increase to a million dollars annually, as they 
ought to, the cost of administration would be increast but slightly, and 
the percentage of expenditure in that department would be materially 
reduced. 



204 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[March 



III.— INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



EDITED AND CONDUCTED BY REV. J. T. ORACEY, D.D. 



The Sixth Oonferenoe of Offioen of the 
Foreign Miflfdon Boarda 

It would require far more space 
than is at pur disposal to make a 
proper summary of the items of 
special interest to administrators 
of foreign missionary societies, and 
of those of interest to the average 
missionary worker, which were to 
be found in the Sixth Annual Meet- 
ing of the Missionary Officers in 
New York, January 11-13. 

The proceedings of the Confer- 
ence presumably will be publisht, 
as were those of the five preceding 
conferences, but they can not be 
printed in any such numbers as to 
admit of general circulation, tho 
some of the papers perhaps will 
find wide reading. Most of these 
papers were in the form of reports 
from committees, which had been 
appointed at the previous sessions, 
to gather data and formulate sug- 
gestions on methods and policies. 
Some of these reports evidenced a 
great deal of tedious and pains- 
taking work. That of Dr. S. W. 
Duncan, Secretary of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union, on 
**U7iifor7n Statistical Blanks,'' fur- 
nishes one illustration. If there 
is any sin, as in the case of David, 
in the compiling of statistics, the 
different processes of reporting by 
the diiferent missionary organiza- 
tions of the world would seem to 
furnish obstacles enough to indi- 
cate a providential disability for 
that sort of offense. A more verit- 
able Babel, to change the figure, 
could scarcely be invented, were the 
primary object to prevent these 
societies fropi understanding each 
other's vernacular. Whether any 
general classification, beyond the 
most elementary features, is possi- 
ble in reporting returns in tabulated 



form,, is very doubtful. But this 
Officers' Conference has, for two or 
three years, been at great pains to 
try to get a form the text of which 
would mean the same in the several 
mission fields, and which would pre- 
vent duplication in the several col- 
umns of each specific field. They 
have wrought out a formula which 
at least the American societies have 
consented to try to work to, and 
will still further endeavor to make 
the basis of a classification of 
missionary work in all the world, 
at the Ecumenical Conference of 
nineteen hundred. Even with the 
adoption of this form of blank, there 
will be large discrepancy between 
this and the several ecclesiastical 
forms of blanks, which it would 
seem would be almost impossible 
to overcome. Take, for instance, 
the definition of what is to be in- 
cluded in '^Adherents,'* as compris- 
ing all "communicants, baptized 
children, inquirers under instruc- 
tion, OP received on probation, and 
regular church attendance.*' The 
requisition that all salaries, contri- 
butions, and society grants should 
be stated in native currency, will 
require that for a total classifica- 
tion we must translate rupees and 
taels and lires, etc., into a common 
factor, and in silver countries, like 
Mexico and Argentina, would great- 
ly augment the apparent contribu- 
tions. The suggestion to divide the 
salary of a preacher also engaged 
in teaching, in a g^ven ratio, while 
it is well intended, points to com- 
plications difficult to surmount. 
These, however, are found in ap- 
pended notes, intended to define 
how to fill the blanks. The Scotch 
peasant woman told Scott that she 
understood Pilgrim's Prog^ss all 
but his notes. The blanks them- 
selves seem remarkably lucid and 



1898.] 



INTBRNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



205 



as practicable as any that could 
perhaps be prospectively wrought 
out, and if generally adopted, will 
have an educational effect in the 
classification of labor and results. 

The report of Dr. W. R. Lambuth, 
D.D., Secretary of the Southern 
Methodist Episcopal Missionary So- 
ciety, on "Self Suppartf^* contained 
not only a good deal of informa- 
tion, but of suggestion, the term 
self-support being chiefly applied 
to the support of pastors. The 
writer pointed out that it was far 
more easy to get native contribu- 
tions for occasional objects, such 
as the department of buildings, 
than to secure the support of pas- 
tors, which requires the steady 
strain of protracted and systematic 
contributions. Twenty-four boards 
in Japan have resolved that no new 
church should be recognized unless 
there was provision for the support 
of its pastor, and have adopted much 
the same line as that operated suc- 
cessfully for so many years by Dr. 
Nevius in Shantung for the secur- 
ing of self-support from the start. 
Dr. D. S. Spencer, of the Methodist 
mission in Japan, was quoted as 
calling attention to the fact that 
most of the Japanese Christians 
were from the Samurai class, and 
that there had been a great rise in 
the cost of living, making it in- 
creasingly difficult to press self- 
support. He thought also that 
there had been a lack of coopera- 
tion between the home and foreign 
authorities to secure the best re- 
sults. His own mission, however, 
was encouraged by the advance of 
total native contributions from 
$1,378 in 1884 to $17,000 in 1806. 

Rev. C. H. Daniels, D.D., of the 
American Board, reporting on Stu- 
dent Volunteers and candidates for 
missionary service, stated that the 
Student Volunteer movement had 
increast its contributions for the 
support of missionaries from five 
thousand to forty thousand dollars. 



In the discussion which followed 
the reading of this paper, Mr. John 
R. Mctt was called on to explain 
the motto of the movement, *'The 
Evangelization of the World in this 
Generation." He stated that they 
anticipated giving attention to this 
motto at their coming convention 
in Cleveland, but that meanwhile 
he would say it did not mean the 
conversion of the world, nor its 
Christianization, nor its civiliza- 
tion, nor the minimizing of any 
educational, medical, or any other 
missionary agencies, nor was it in- 
tended to formulate a prophecy as 
to the period in which the evangeli- 
zation of the world might take 
place. It was to kindle enthusiasm 
in carrying the knowledge of Christ 
as an only Savior to every person 
in heathen countries very speedily, 
and to impress upon the churches 
that this was possible to them. 

The only other report necessary 
to mention was that on the Ecti- 
menical Missionary Conference^ 
presented by Rev. Judson Smith, 
D.D., Secretary of the American 
Board, an abstract of which will be 
found elsewhere. 

In connection with the report of 
the "Committee of General Refer- 
ence,** there was an interesting dis- 
cussion of the subject of Mission- 
ary Coniity and cooperation. At- 
tention was called to the fact that 
there are in Asia to-day probably 
not less than 2,000,000 villages, of 
which only about one- tenth are 
now occupied by Christian mission- 
aries. This leaves 1,800,000 towns 
and villages yet to be entered — for 
the most part virgin soil in which 
to sow the Gospel seed. It was sug- 
gested that missionary boards at 
least agree to unite in their work 
of higher education, medical work, 
and in other ways seek to economize 
expenditure of money and effort. 

Four able and admirable papers 
were read. H. K. Carroll, LL.D., 
of the Methodist Episcopal Board, 



206 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[March 



discust " The Relation of Editors of 
Religious Journals to Foreign Mis- 
sions." Rev. John Gillespie, D.D., 
Secretary of the Presbyterian 
Board, discust "The Pastor and 
Foreign Missions." Rev. H. T. 
McEwen, D.D., pastor of the Four- 
teenth Street Presbyterian Church, 
New York City, read a paper on 
" The Development and Direction of 
Young People's Societies in Rela- 
tion to Foreign Missions," and Rev. 
AV. T. Smith, D.D., Secretary of the 
Methodist Board, presented one on 
•*The Element of Enthusiasm in 
Foreign Missions." 

An interesting series of addresses 
on observations in the foreign field 
were given at the closing session 
by Dr. Leonard, Secretary of the 
Methodist Episcopal Missionary 
Board, Mr. Rol>ert E. Speer, Secre- 
tary of the Presbyterian Board, 
and Dr. Bell of the United Brethren. 
Mr. Speer spoke with especial force 
upon the problems to be met and 
dealt with upon the foreign field. 
Education should be thorough, it 
should be Christian, and it should 
be wholly adapted to the pupils 
and the work they are fitted to do. 
Self-support is a problem not yet 
solved and needing patient and per- 
sistent treatment. We are ever in 
danger of our basing our hopes of 
success too much on suitable ma- 
chinery and too little on the power 
and life which make it effective, of 
depending too much on men and 
money, and too little on God and 
the Holy Spirit. Mr. Speer exprest 
the opinion that there was need of 
more attention to evangelistic work 
proper, that there was a tendency 
to erect too many institutions, that 
there was room for greater econ- 
omy in the distribution of the mis- 
sionary force and for more comity 
in hospitals, education, uniform 
scales of salaries for native helpers 
and division of territorv. In con- 
elusion he observ€»d that not nuich 
could be hoped from the literati of 



China, and that there was a grand 
opportunity for preaching the 
Gospel in Korea. 

Committees were appointed to 
report at the session next year on 
the following subjects :* The Ecu- 
menical Council (Dr. Judson Smith, 
Chairman); Self-support (Dr. W. R. 
Lambuth) ; Comity (Dr. S. W. 
Duncan); The Relation of Govern- 
ments to Missions (Dr. A. B. 
Leonard); The Treasury (Dr. Am- 
mennan); and Special Object Giv- 
ing (Dr. A. J. Brown). 

The Wanian^a Boards of Foreign 
Missions in the United States and 
Canada were holding their second 
annual conference in the Madi- 
son Avenue Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and, by invitation, met with 
the Officers' Conference in a joint 
session one afternoon for the con- 
sideration of organization, adminis- 
tration, and work of the woman's 
foreign missionary societies. Speci- 
ally prepared papers were read, for 
the Methodist Episcopal Woman's 
Board, by Mrs. J. T. Gracey; Pres- 
byterian, by Mrs. A. S. Schauffler; 
Congregational, Miss E. Harriet 
Stan wood; Baptist, Miss Sarah C. 
Durfee. The great variety in the 
organization of the several societies, 
exhibited by these papers, did not 
seem to affect either the zeal, the 
spirituality, or the success of the 
women's societies, but the result 
of their labor in raising money was 
the despair of the regular boards. 
Two things were by common con- 
sent acknowledged factors in their 
phenomenal success : the patient 
and systematic collection of small 
contributions, and their thorough 
and regular dissemination of mis- 
sionary intelligence. In these re- 
spects it is conceded they are far in 
advance of the pastors and of the 
regular operations of the. boards 
and the churches. 

The Woman's Conference con- 



• We expect to publish papers on these 
themes during this year. 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



20' 



vened for its first session in section- 
al meetings, the treasurers holding 
a session apart, the secretaries also; 
those who engaged in young peo- 
ple's work, again, those in charge 
of missionary literature by them- 
selves, each preparing questions in 
their respective departments to be 
considered at the following sessions 
of the Conference. Mrs.H. G. Saf- 
f ord, of the Baptist Board, read a 
suggestive paper on /'How to Se- 
cure and Train Foreign Missionary 
Workers." Mrs. G. A. Whiston, of 
the Methodist Church of Nova Sco- 
tia, presented a paper on "How 
Can We Aid Missionaries to Greater 
Efficiency in their Work?" Mrs. 
Joseph Cook discust in her paper 
"Do Protestant Missions Encour- 
age Good Citizenship ? " Miss Ab- 
bie B. Childs, of the Congregational 
Board, presented a report of the 
World's Missionary Committee, 
which waa created by the London 
MiBsionary Conference of 1888, to 
continue till the next Ecumenical 
Conference. True to the purposes 
of the Conference, each of the 
papers was followed by discussion, 
in addition to which a Question 
Hour was held at each of two ses- 
sions. 



World's Misdonaiy Oonferonoe in 1900. 

It is already becoming widely 
known that it is proposed to hold 
an "Ecumenical Missionary Con- 
ference " in the City of New York 
April 20-30, 1900, similar to those 
held in Liverpool in 1860, and in 
Mildmay, London, in 1878, and in 
London in 1888. 

Prom the paper presented by Rev. 
Judson Smith, D.D., Secretary of 
the American Board, as the report 
uf the standing committee of the 
Missionary Officers' International 
Conference, on this subject, we pre- 
sent the following extract : 

"The proposed Conference is in- 
tended to sum up the progress of 



foreign missionary work during this 
century, and to set in clear order 
the present state of this work in 
the varied fields of missionary work 
occupied by the churches of Prot- 
estant Christendom. Every evan- 
gelical Protestant foreign mission- 
ary organization in the world, so far 
as known, is invited to be represent- 
ed in the Conference, and to share in 
its deliberations. The substantial 
unity of Protestant Christendom 
will thus be exprest and confirmed 
in a most stnking way. 

" The Conference is to be devoted 
primarily to a review of the work 
of Protestant missions throughout 
the world for the century just clos- 
ing, with a summing up of results, 
a study of methods and principles 
approved by long experience on 
many fields, and a comprehensive 
outlook upon the future. What, 
within this century, have Christian 
missions in the foreign field at- 
tempted ? Where have they been 
planted? How have they been pros- 
ecuted? What have they accom- 
plisht ? How can they be made 
more eifective? What remains yet 
to be done? Home missions, im- 
portant as all must regard them, 
do not come into consideration in 
this gathering. The subject of 
Foreign Missions is large enough, 
varied enough, includes questions 
specifically appropriate to it, suf- 
ficient in number aud importance 
to demand the exclusive attention 
of the body of men and women who 
are to gather in 1900, and the ef- 
fectiveness of the occasion is de- 
pendent on confining time and dis- 
cussion to this one vast field of 
Christian service. It is not a meet- 
ing designed especially for laborers 
from the foreign field, where each 
is to recite his story, or tell his ex- 
perience, or point his lesson. Mis- 
sionaries are to be invited; they 
will be askt to discuss themes ap- 
propriate to the great objects of 
the Conference; their weighty tes- 



208 



INTERNATIONAL DBPARTMBNT. 



[March 



timony will be given on many 
points; but they will form only a 
part of the body. Neither is it a 
mass-meeting on foreign mission- 
ary themes, where each man g^ves 
direction to what is said and done, 
according to his personal wish or 
power of utterance, and where a 
free platform is ofifered to any one 
who desires to be heard. The for- 
eign missionary societies of Protes- 
tant Christendom, by their ap- 
pointed delegates, are the consti- 
tuent elements of the Conference; 
and the comprehensive study of the 
great agencies by which the une- 
vangelized world is to be made the 
kingdom of God is its one great 
theme. 

** It would seem like a grave omis- 
sion were this century, so markt by 
the development of the foreign mis- 
sionary enterprise, to close without 
an occasion of this sort^ in which 
those most actively engaged in this 
work may come together to survey 
the whole field, communicate their 
varied experience, and sum up re- 
sults and set themselves in close 
array and deex>er harmony of spirit 
and aim for the great work remain- 
ing ere the world be won to our 
Lord. Probably in no equal period 
of time has such markt Q/dvance 
been made in the evangelization of 
the world as we have witnest 
since the close of the great Confer- 
ence in London of 1888, whether we 
consider the number of communi- 
cants added to mission churches, or 
the circulation of the Scriptures in 
the vernacular, or the development 
of Christian schools, or the growth 
of self-support in native communi- 
ties, or the quality and extent of 
the influence exerted by the Gospel 
in mission lands. The rate of prog- 
ress denoted by statistics is most 
striking; the indications of this 
progress in facts of many kinds not 
capable of expression in statistical 
tables are even more markt and in- 
spiring. For the sake ol the truth. 



for the encouragement of all Chris* 
tian people, and in order to a right 
impression in the world at large, 
the evidence of this happy growth 
and animating outlook, this assur- 
ance of the unfailing strength and 
certain victory of the Gospel, should 
be carefully gathered, set in clear 
order, and put on permanent 
record. Nothing in Christian apol- 
ogetics could well have greater 
power. ^ 

*' Three grand groups of subjects 
must naturally occupy the larger 
part of the sessions of the Confer- 
ence. The first will include the dis- 
cussion of all questions bearing 
upon the principles and methods of 
foreign missionary operations, such 
as the development of native 
churches, training of native con- 
verts for Christian work, mission 
schools, medical work, the training 
of missionaries at home, missionary 
comity, and the attitude of mis- 
sionaries toward particular prob- 
lems on the foreign field. The 
second group of subjects will deal 
with the present state of mission- 
ary work under the different 
Boards in all the varied fields of 
the world, with a review of prog- 
ress made, embarrassments ex- 
perienced, and special opportuni- 
ties now presented. The third 
group will touch the wider aspects 
of the missionary enterprise, and 
will afford opportunity for meet- 
ings of a more general character, 
designed mainly to increase intelli- 
gence in regard to missionary af- 
fairs, and to awake a popular inter- 
est in them. 

*' Responses have already begun 
to arrive in large numbers from 
America and from Great Britain, 
all of them welcoming the an- 
nouncement of the Conference and 
expressing the purpose of being 
duly represented and of readiness 
to aid in any way possible to make 
the occasion one of the greatest 
interest and value.** 



INTBKNATIONAL DEPABTMENT, 



209 



The Lnthenn Muaion in Liberia— 

Ber. David A. Da^, D. D. 

J, T, o. 

Dr. CuBt quotes the remark of a 
bishop that "a great part of the 
time of the iriae is wasted in trying 
to control or remedy the effects of 
theurtwiedomof thegocMJ." When 
one turns to the refx>rd of the 
"holy army of martyrs " in West 
Africa, he can scarcely avoid ask- 
ing how far "the unwisdom" of 
zealously good people is responsible 



short interval, four others were 
sent to fill the places of those who 
had perisht, and in a few years tlie 
whole of them were also stricken 
down by dea th- 
in 1705 the Baptists sent two n)is- 
eionaries to Sierra Leone, hut the 
ill health of one w&e a prominent 
cause of the abandonment of the 
mission before anything was done. 
In 1797 the Scotch, Glasgow, and 
London Missionary societies es- 
sayed to do Christian work on the 
BuUom Bhore, in the Rio Pongas 



for what sometimes seems a massa- 
cre of good men and women. 

The Moravian brethren, first on 
the West Coast of Africa, as they 
have so often been first elsewhere, 
in 1736 sent out two missionaries^ to 
labor on the Gold Coast, one of 
whom died presently after his ar- 
rival. Two years later, five others, 
true to the military spirit which 
would flil the broken ranks with 
increast force, went to the same 
field under the same auspices. 
Three of them died soon after 
reaching the country, Aft«r but a 



and the Snsa country, but liy reason 
of the murder of one and the failure 
of the health of the rest, the entire 
enterprise was given up, adding 
another to the disheartening fail- 
ures to redeem Africa. 

In 1827 the Basle Missionary So- 
ciety, fired with astonishing zeal, 
had the daring and the devotion to 
endeavoronce nioi-e to found amis- 
sion station at Christianhei'g, where 
thirty years before the Alomvians 
had failed, and with like fortune; 
for nearly all, if not all, of the first 
company fell victims to the climate. 



210 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



[March 



and two out of three sent four 
years later shared the same fate. 
Between 1827 and 1»42 this Basle 
Society sent to the west coast of 
Africa seventeen ministers, teii of 
whom died within one year, two 
others in three years, and three re- 
turned to their native country con- 
firmed invalids. 

The operations of the Missionary 
Society of the Church of England 
in West Africa date back to 1804. 
Two German missions then com- 
menced a mission a hundred miles 
from Sierra Leone, on the banks of 
the Rio Pongas. For eleven years 
this church prest its work in that 
quarter; hut of Jifteeyi inisfdon^irieH 
who entered the field at different 
times, seven found an early grave 
within it. 

In the first twelve years of the 
missionary operations of this church 
in Sierra Leone, thirty missionaries 
were removed by death. In 1852 
the colonies of Gambia, Sierra Le- 
one, and the Gold Coast were erect- 
ed into an Episcopal See of the 
Church of England, and in less titan 
six years three bishops died at their 
posts, endeavoring to press the in- 
terests of the Redeemer's cause in 
this "White Man's Graveyard." 

The Wesleyan Missionary So- 
ciety as early as 1876 had in their 
burial grounds at Sierra Leone the 
graves of more than forty mission- 
aries and their wives ! 

In the early efforts to found the 
Christian church near Cape Mount, 
on the extreme northern boundary 
of the Republic of Liberia, several 
missionaries found an early grave 
in the land of their adoption. Near 
the southern terminus of the Li- 
berian coast, at Cape Palmas, is 
the headquarters of the missions 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States, which had, 
twenty ye-ars a^o, given eighty 
lives t/O the redemption of this land. 

Who shall wonder then, in the 
face of this record, standing in the 



midst of these very associations, 
lingering about these graves as the 
writer has done, that he should feel 
the luxury of the assurance that 
there is yet profound conviction of 
Christian truth, and a noble spirit 
of consecration in the bosom of the 
church? There is "faith on the 
earth." 

The general synod of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church in the 
United States has a record which 
might be celebrated in some spirited 
poem like "The Charge of the 
Light Brigade at Balaklava." Of 
eighteen missionaries sent out dur- 
ing the past thirty-six years, six 
died within two years after reach- 
ing the field, while eight returned 
within three years with greatly 
shattered health. The authorities 
say that instead of this intimidat- 
ing others from going, "there has 
been a steady increase of those who 
stand ready to go into the African 
service from the Lutheran Church 
of America." That we may see a 
little more definitely what a mis- 
sion to this "White Man's Grave- 
yard," the other name for the West 
Coast of Africa, means, we present 
the following list of those who have 
served and fallen in this mission: 

R«v. M. Officer, arrived in April, 
1860; returned April, 1861. Rev. 
H. Heigard, arrived in April, 1860; 
returned August, 1864. Miss Kil- 
patrick, subsequently Mrs. Hei- 
gard, joined the mission August, 
1860; returned October, 1863. Rev. 
J. Kistler, arrived in August, 1863; 
returned, 1867. Mrs. Kistler, arrived 
in July, 1864; died in 1866. Rev. J. 
M. Rice, arrived in July, 18^; re- 
turned in 1865. Rev. S. P. Camell, 
arrived in March, 1860; died in May, 
1870. Rev. J. G. Breuniger, arrived 
in July, 1873; returned in 1874. Mrs. 
Breuniger, arrived in July, 1873; died 
in 1875. Rev. B. B. Collins, arrived 
in November, 1875; returned April, 
1876; Mrs. Collins, arrived in No- 
vember, 1875; died on return voyage 



«■] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



311 



in April, 1876. Mr. Herman Voee, 
ftiTived in July, 1877; returned in 
1878. Bev. E. M. Hubler, arrived in 
January, 1888; died 0<:tolH-r, 1888. 
Mrs. Uubler, arrived June, 1888; re- 
turned December, 1880. Mrs. Goll, 
arrive^ in January, 1803; died Feb- 
ruary, 1893. 

And yet tbe Lutherans declare 
that " the location of the miBsion is 
as good asany that can be obtained 
along the West Coast." One won- 
ders in the face of a roll of disabled 
and dead like that, how anything 
can have been accompliubt. The 
explanation is in the exceptional 
missionary. Of the first two of the 
Moravian brethren we have said 
one died soon after arrival, but the 
other lived to lalHirfor thirty years. 
Bishop Payne of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church also lived and 
laboivd here for more than thirty 
years, and many others have served 
for a term equal to the average of 
home laborers. In this Lutheran 
Mission in Liberia we And the Rev. 
G. P. Goll, who has labored there 
since 1888. Dr. David A. Day, who 
died in December last at sea, almost 
in sight of the home -land, en- 
tered the mission in 1874, and had 
thus a record of twenty-three years 
of most exceptional service. His 
wife, Emma V, Day, hia faithful 
companion, who enl«red the mis- 



sion with him, died in 1895, having 
given twenty-one years of wise and 
rare service to thismission. Itcan 
readily be seen, therefore, what 
emphaeis must be put on the work 



of Dr. and Mrs. Day in making this 
Muhlenberg Mission what it has 
hpen and is, one of the moat auc- 
cessfiil missions in all Africa. 
No one who is familiar with tbe 



conditions of native life on the 
Went Coast of Africa can fail to 
appreciate the demand for properly 
conducted industrial missions, and 
it would be difDcult ti> find a more 
illustrious example of such an en- 
terprise than that which is afforded 
by the Lutheran Mission located at 
Muhlenberg, on the St. Paul river, 
thirty miles inland from Monrovia, 
the capital of the Republic of Libe- 
I ia, which was eatablisht under the 
wise supervision of Rev. Morris 
Officer in 1880. The locality then 
was dense forest. Runds had to be 
cut, ground had to he cleared, and 
buildings erected. The nucleus of 
the work was forty boys and girls 
taken from a captive slave-Hhip, 
formed into a school. Banana and 
coffee-trees were planted, the latter 
becoming the great industry of Ibe 
and a source of revenue for 
The net result, 
after large expenditures for the 
current support of the work under 



213 



INTERNATIONA I. DEPABTMENT, 



Dr. Day's si:perint*ndence, was, in 
JH85, in buildings, chapel, and wiirk- 
shopa, ^,600; in machinery, to<i]B, 
oxen, and carts, $1,945; in miseiun 
farm and ImprovetnentH, $1,000; in 
fifty thousand coffee trees at a dol- 
lar and a quarter a piece. $02,500; 
making a grand total of $73,015, a 
large proportion of which must be 
credited to the profits which ac- 
crued from the industry of the mis- 
sion. In the year 1A06 the mission 
raised between four thousand and 
five thousand dollars' worth, of cof- 
fee, which was exported to Amer- 
ica, having besides raised all the 
crops necessary for food for the 
mission, which has been for some 
yeara entirely self- sustaining. 

The tra«t of land occupied hy the 
mission was originally grants hy 
the Republic of Liberia. It com- 
prises something like a thousand 
acres lying on either side of the St. 
Paul river, about two-thirds of 
which is already occupied by the 



[March 



I, the remainder being con- 
sidered "reserve land," which is 
given to the mission-boys in t^n 
acre lots when they attain the age 
of twenty-one years. They are 
trained to plant coffee-trees upon 
these tracts, which are assigned 
to them some years in advance 
of their majority, in order that 
they may get a start before leav- 
ing the mission. Some of the reg- 
ular employees of the mission are 
people from surrounding tribes. 
who are brought in contact with 
Christian civilization and hear the 
Gospel during their stay here. 
Thus the influence of the mission 
extends widely in many directions, 
and non-Christian natives in the 
outlying districtsare led to imitate 
the methods of the mission. The 
eminent services of Mrs. Day are 
memorialized in "The Emma V, 
Day Memorial Industrial School 
for Girls," and a hospital building 
also has been added. 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



213 



Young People's Missioiiarj Oongress. 

BY REV. JAMES DOUGLAS. M.A. 

An exceedingly interesting and 
inspiriting series of meetings has 
recently bc^en held in various parts 
of London, under the auspices 
of **the Young Christian's Mission- 
ary Union." The Congress began 
on Saturday, Nov. 13, with a mis- 
sionary meeting in Devonshire 
Square church, Stoke Newington 
Koad, N., when representatives of 
the Baptist Missionary and (^hina 
Inland societies were present and 
gave addresses. It was continued 
on Monday with a great meeting 
for prayer in Christ Church, West- 
minster, the Rev. F. B. Meyer, pre- 
siding, and Eugene Stock, Esq., 
and E. H. Glenny, Esq., speakers. 

A conversazione followed on the 
Tuesday, which was held in the 
City Temple, and the proceedings 
culminated in a great missionary 
demonstration on the Wednesday 
evening in the Metropolitan Taber- 
nacle. 

Rev. F. B. Meyer, President of 
the Y. C. M. U., presided at the 
meeting on Tuesaay night. A 
paper was read by Miss Weatherley 
on "The Young People of the 
(■hurches in Relation to Foreign 
Missions.'* The call is clear; we 
all stand in one of three attitudes: 
(1) to go, (2) to let go, (3) to help to 

go- 
Some say the way is not open, 

yet they seem sure of having heard 
our call . But G od never leads forth 
a soul to leave it in a maze. The 
time of waiting is needed for train- 
ing. As for all other callings in 
life, there is a time of special train- 
ing, BO there must be for missionary 
work. During the waiting time 
we need to study the Word of God, 
to study nature and human charac- 
ter, and to (<ain habits of punc- 
tuality by prompt performance of 
duty. 

Let Go. — Some may have a heart 
full of love to the heathen, and yet 
the call comes in a different way. 
They may be called to let some 
dear one go. Dare we say **«/fi,y " 
when the voice of Christ says 
"go?" 

help Go, — Some are not called to 
go, nor even to let go; but are they 



not to hear the call, help go 1 To 
them is left the privilege of prayer, 
the privilege of raising funds. Let 
our help be systematic — work for 
some special mission or station. 
Let our help be from the highest 
motives; not because we are askt, 
but because of our love to Christ, 
and love must be giving. 

Mr. Wigney, the secretary, then 
read a paper on ** The Aims of the 
Y. C. M. U." It aims at a three- 
fold mission: missionary consecra- 
tion, missionary organization, mis- 
sionary coalition. (1) Its chief pur- 
pose is not to collect money, not to 
produce the habit of prayer, not to 
train and send out missionaries, 
but to foster in the young people 
of the Church the character of 
missionary consecration, which he 
translated as that yielding to our 
Lord's purposes which expands the 
heart's sympathy until it takes in 
the whole world. This expands 
prayer and expands the purse. 

(2.) Hosts of ('hristians could and 
would help the cause of missions, 
but their energies are unmoved for 
lack of missionary organization. 

(3.) Its aim is to lift the mission- 
ary question to the place it should 
occupy. This calls for combined 
effort, and the system of affiliation 
with the Young Christian's Mission- 
ary Union accomplishes this. The 
end in view is that every (Christian 
should realize that he has a share 
in the evangelization of the world. 

An address was then given by 
the Rev. Silas Mead, principal of 
Harley College, Bow, on ** The 
Compassion of Christ." 

Our limitations as to space pre- 
vent a detailed description of the 
mass meeting held in the Metro- 
politan Tabernacle, on Wednesday 
evening, Nov. 17, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. Meyer. At this happy 
and enthusiastic gathering, Mr. 
Thomas Spurgeon, vice-president 
of the Y. C. M. U., gave an ad- 
dress of welcome, and enlarged on 
the >vords, "As God would have it." 

The Rev. H. II. Pullen, of the 
Spezia Mission, Italv, in the course 
of his effective address, pointed 
out that out of every fifteen i)eople 
in Italy, thirteen are still in dark- 
ness, while out of every fifteen, 
nine had never heard the name of 
Jesus like as we, in this happy 
corner of the world, have; and said 
that those living in a Christian 
land can not possibly enter into all 
that this means. 



2L4 



FIELD OP MONTHLY flURVKY. 



[March 



IV. -FIELD OF MONTHLY SURVEY. 

Mezioo,* Oentral America,t Wert Indies^t Gitj Mifldan&i 



BY DELAVAN L. PIER80N. 



(18&1) there dawned a new era for 
Mexico in religion ss well as in 
politics. Churches, monasteries, 
and other ecclesiastical property 
were confiscated by the state and 
devoted to purposes of public edu- 
cation. Thirty-five years ago there 
was only one Protestant minister 
in Mexico; to-day there are four- 
teen missionary organizations at 
work, and they have gathered in 
600 congregations a native church 
membership of over 16,000. There 
are in all more than 7,000 pupils 
under instruction. 

It was fifteen years after the first 
seeds of the Gospel had been sown 
in Mexico through the Bibles car- 
ried in by the United States troops 
(1847), before any endeavor was 
made to gather the harvest. Then 
Rev. James Hickey began to preach 
in Monterey, and two years later 
(1864) organized a Baptist church 
of five members, with Thomas 
Westrup, one of the converts, as 
pastor. 

Miss Melinda Hankin (a Presby- 
terian) will ever be honored as a 
missionary pioneer in Mexico. In 
1854, she had opened a school on 
the Mexican border in Brownsville, 
Texas. Ten yeara later she crost 
the border, and after personally 
raising $15,000 to push on the work, 
opened a school in Monterey. 

"TheChurjh of Jesus" was or- 
ganized in 1871 through the instru- 
mentality of Rev. Henry A. Riley 
and Manuel Aquas, a converted 
priest, and has since come under 
the control of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. Their work 
now comprises 22 congregations, 
containing from one thousand to 
twelve hundred communicants. 
They have ten parochial schools. 



in Mexioa* 

Mexico is a republic of twenty- 
seven states, a federal district, 
and two territories. It has a total 
area of seven hundred and sixty- 
seven thousand square miles, and a 
population of about twelve and a 
half millions. Of these one-fifth 
are white, two-fifths Indian, and 
two-fifths of mixt blood. The 
Spanish language is generally 
spoken, and Roman Catholicism is 
the prevailing religion. Aztec 
paganism was nominally annihil- 
ated at the invasion of Cortez, and 
Mexico was externally converted 
to Catholicism at the point of the 
Spanish sword and by the terrors 
of the Inquisition. After three hun- 
dred years of domination Rome's 
representatives held two-thirds of 
the real estate of the country, her 
monasteries and churches had im- 
poverisht the people, and a pitiful 
state of intolerance, ignorance, and 
degradation everywhere prevailed. 

At the downfall of Maximilian 



♦See also pp. 291 (April), 334 (May, 1897), 
76 (January, 1808), 190 (present ifwue). 

New Books: *' The Awakening of a Nation,'* 
C. F. Lummis. 

Recsnt Articles: ** Mexico as It Is,"' 
Frank Leslie's (Jan.)- 

t See also p. 184 (present issue). 

t See also pp. 871 (November, 1897). 

Recent Articles : '* Street Life in Jere- 
mie," Chautauquan (September, 1897); '* Is 
Cuba Capable of Self-Govemment ? " Fm'um 
(Sept.); "Aborigines of the West Indies,'* 
AppletoiVs Popular Science Monthly (Jan., 
1898). 

i See also pp. S84 (January) 161, 178, (present 
issue). 

New Books: "New York Charities Direc- 
tory," " Bibliography of College, Social, and 
University .Settlements," J. P. Gavit. 

Recent Articles: "Children of the Other 
Half," Aren't (June, 1897); "The Cry of the 
Poor,'* Arena (September, 1897). 



1898.] 



FIELD OP MONTHLY SURVEY. 



215 



with about -400 pupils; a divinity 
school, having eight students ; the 
Dean Gray Memorial school for 
boys, preparatory to the divinity 
school, and the Mrs. Hooker Me- 
morial School and Orphanage, hav- 
ing 41 indoor and 20 outdoor pupils. 

The American Baptist Home 
Mission Society had, in 1880, five 
churches and eight congregations. 
The Southern Baptist Board did 
not begin work until 1880, but it 
has since then made markt prog- 
ress, and has now 15 missionaries 
and 17 native workers on the field 
in 29 churches, with 1,116 members. 
At Madero the institute educates 
and trains 71 poor, but deserving, 
intelligent CJhristian gpirls, and at 
SaltiUo deserving boys receive the 
same training, and the Sunday- 
schools gather 383 children. 

In 1872 the Presbyterian Board 
began its labors in Mexico by ac- 
cepting the work of Miss Rankin. 
It now has stations in twelve of the 
twenty -three states. A character- 
istic feature of the Presbyterian 
work is the large number and 
ability of its native ministry. 
There is a prosperous theological 
seminary in Tlalpan, twelve miles 
from the capital; two girls' semin- 
aries* one in Mexico City, another 
at Satillo. The 42 churches num- 
ber 3,101 communicants and 1,006 
pupils in the Sabbath-schools. The 
working force consists of 11 or- 
dained missionaries, 12 women mis- 
sionaries, 28 ordained natives, and 
76 native helpers. 

The American Board began to 
work in Western Mexico, at Guada- 
lajara, in 1872, and afterwards 
went also into Northern Mexico, 
at Chihuahua. The total number 
of missionaries and assistant mis- 
sionaries of the American Board 
is 17, and the native helpers and 
teachers numbered 17. The 7 sta- 
tions have connected with them 20 
out-stations; the 16 churches have 
784 communicants. 



The Methodist Episcopal Church 
entered Mexico in 1873, when Bishop 
Haren purchast a portion of the In- 
quisition property at Puebla, which 
now serves as a theological semin- 
ary. The gorgeous theater was 
transformed into a church audience 
room, and there are besides class- 
rooms, vestries, a book store, print- 
ing establishment, two parsonages, 
an orphanage, and a missionary 
residence. This church now has 34 
places of worship, and counts 2,105 
members, 7 married missionaries, 
and 14 ordained native preachers. 
The mission of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, started by 
Bishop Keener in 1873 and carried 
on by a converted Mexican, Alijo 
Hernandez, occupies 17 states, and 
has 3,005 communicants, 00 Sunday- 
schools, 80 preachers, and a theo- 
logical seminary at San Luis 
Potosi. 

The American Bible Society dis- 
seminated the Scriptures from the 
earliest days of religious emancipa- 
tion. In 1802, that memorable 
year of famine, 23,614 Bibles and 
portions were distributed among 
the starving people. To the thou- 
sands of towns and villages and 
ranches on the western slope this 
society sends Bibles by way of 
Panama, or through the Sierras, 
• * on muleback. " 

Other societies at work in Mexico 
are those of the American Friends, 
Presbyterians South, Reformed As- 
sociate, Cumberland Presbyterians, 
and Seventh Day Adventists. 



War and Pamine in Onbai 

The "Pearl of the Antilles" is 
daily and hourly being trodden 
under foot. Its value and beauty 
are becoming nought but a memory. 
The sun-kist skies are blackened by 
the clouds of war. The fertile fields 
are devastated, and no longer cul- 
tivated. The people, used to an 
easy life of idleness, are dead or dy- 



216 



FIELD OF MOXTHLT fil'KVKY, 



[March 



inff amid the horrors of prolonged 
warfare* and grc^wing famiiw^ 

Spain is, doubtless, not account- 
able for aU the ^<:x>es which have 
lMH*n ex]>t*rienctHi by Oiba, but she 
has pnu'cMi \itterly inci>nipetent to 
rule the island in such a way as to 
contribute to it^ peace and pros- 
jH»rit y, Sjv^nish ct>lonies are appar- 
ent ly only K>okt uptin a^ a ^nnirce 
of n» venue, and this not 'with the 
fnrsijj:ht<Miness which would lead 
to the crt>ation of civilisation and 
induMry, but with the d«>*in»fi>r an 
incou\e by oppr«»s>ive tH-iyation and 
t V ra nn v , F* ^T t h ixx^ h undrtMi vt^rs 
S|wun nt»ifUvt4Hl l^il>a, but ht*r at- 
t<«nt UM\ of late ha^* K^^n even more 
to the disadNant^H^^x^ of the inland. 

The bi^t4%rv *>f the iRTir is t<xi 
fannliar to ntxni r»^|vtition, Mil- 
littUN «^f d*^llar> haw t^^^n si-^ent and 
tbou>and> of lixes ha\e Kv^n K^t. 
l*ri>nn>*»> of jv^<'itit'aTion havr K>t*n 
luiulo, and aut^nioniy ha> K>''n at- 
tcinpt<M!, but tbeei>4iis not yet in 
hi^'ht, Uoth 1^1 Ivi and S^v^in h«>arti]y 
>\iNh the \K-ar ov\>r. but tht^ foni>t*r 
n*fus«*s anvth:r*c b^it fryHHit^iv 
and the latter is Kr,t on n^ain- 
ta iuiu«; t ho nat it ^nji": hoi->v*r, M ean- 
while muhiT\id«*> \^f non-ot^ir.)\«t- 
aui> ]v*rtu ^.^vsTe in the i^v.^t r^.r.o< 
aiul ."iiv i^tinV.;:.*: !r\MU >TjiTXi»t^'n, 
Tht» j>ts»yOt h,s\«- Kh'V. \;iiNbjt t^* t:^« 
tho >K»il j«nd c.s:>h r ihe cri'^x tbtv 
«t\» pra^Tiv-.sV.y at the r.^«T\> of 
AniT-ru,'* — "iiitir noArf^t ihT^>:>An 

ni.'jUn: TL;*: iJ^^AI.' |V. <:?).•', i> h^x-e 

d;tHi i«f h.;: crr -r: i"v.^lJi. avui :hj4T 

A'K».:t L::»v •K Tht KrO i^tss 



: .— ^ a r^. -: .- v. -. ""tt. ji":«.t 
-• iy 'w* *^ Tr^Tk:."- t-' soiv 



*' 

A 



TrafoUfi in Ocntnl AmericiL 

The Spanish American republics 
seem to be in a perpetual state of 
fexment. There is apparently no 
end to the revolutions and assas- 
sinations. The spirit of rebellion 
sometimes lies dormant, but is 
never dead. Unrest is a dominant 
characteristic of these governments 
and peoples, and Christ alone can 
bring them peace. Only when His 
sovereignty is acknowledged and 
His t<»achings are followed, will 
peace and prosperity take the place 
of strife and stagnation. 

The revolution in Nicaragua is no 
surprises, tho it may be aimless and 
fruitless. The government is 
stn>ng, tho, perhaps, unscrupulous. 
It hai certainly brought no blessing 
to the Moskito reservation, where 
OUT Moravian friends have labored 
5»i^ long and so eaiuestly. 

In liuatemala President Barrios 
has just been assassinated (Feb. 9), 
a^ida small and unsuooessful rev- 
ohnion has followed. Here the 
l^-sbvtcrian l^hurch (NtMrthi has 
a few missionaries. Tliey have 
n^'«nilnal reliirit>u* liberty, but find 
ihe pafraniacd Romanism of the 
o^v.-ntry in sad need of r«¥i«iera- 
tjon. 



Socifil 

Tht^?^ are now ix^t less than one 
h,::>.ir»Hi and tw«-ntyool)«je, suvial, 
*:)a v.r-.xt-rsity ^-tlleroents in the 
\ AT-;.v,j> ^ :: )t^ of An^rica and Bng- 
Iaiv.v ^•>nTTr> two in Japan and one 
ir. R*r. tuiv. All these have been 
t->:jit. -hi in the las* eight yew*, 
>...>.-t- T. yT.M<'«HA:iwasfirj4 opened 
^n ihe * KAi4 K.T>d of London. 
Vr.vr^v^a has '?f» aud Kn^and 44 <m 
thtrse sjTt.ir.vTts; New York 

lK^-•'.^-n iC T.fc aims. 
:^T ,-:.. V •!>-< Ar>.i rr"~:Ts diffrt* widely, 
In..: .'. V . ' T V^ssi ,»*. -h has oi-mtrib«ted 
>». v.^ : :. vj: Tv T«-Ard ?*. Ovine theqnes- 
::.:: .: b. >* '.^ Tvob,:h the inasses, 
t-:hrr rv .:> ta ". /.rrt; *>r by its ssoc- 
.^r*-**^ \\ ^ ATv r-Ti^V ooovinced 
:>./.: "lYrf ->r-sl 'j^-ttW'rnenT is one 
>* . ->. ;> t .v/-».r.*cT,:AJy aa»d dis- 
•:-.:-.^ : .\ ; 'v . ♦ ^v * »»« Time refor- 
^ .>:-. V ". .>«•: tv^-.r. m::h rftgenera- 
: :- TS; >-.. T.iJoi, r:u<« dominate 



-,AAr> l;v Hosron A and 



1898.J 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



217 



v.— EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



A surprising trial has been held 
by a Southern Presbytery (Louis- 
ville) over the case of a Dr. Hous- 
ton, a missionary to China, who 
expected to return, but who has 
been tried and condemned on the 
following specifications: 

First, " He teaches that the Lord's 
Supper is a hotisehold as well as a 
Church ordinance, and niav he ad- 
ministered by the head of the fam- 
ily.** Second, «* He holds that a pri- 
vate member may be appointed by 
the ruling body of the Church to ad- 
minister the communion" [The 
third specification is essentially the 
same as No. 2.] Fourth, ** He holds 
that there is no valid distinctian 
heticeen the teaching and the riding 
elder, except what is implied in their 
conimis»i(ms." Fifth, "He holds 
aa to entire sanctification, that 
it is possible to the believer in this 
life.'*^ 

As to these matters we feel 
strong sympathy with the censured 
missionary, and incline to think 
that on the first four specifications 
he has the Scriptures back of him, 
inferentially, if not directly and 
explicitly. The Interior justly re- 
marks : 

"We are inclined to think Mr. 
Houston right on the abstract 
questions, and if the confession is 
against his positions, that the con- 
fession is wrong. The head of the 
family in the ancient Church held 
a priestly function in his family, 
and it was not abrogated. As a 
matter of order and custom, it 
would not be proper, we would say, 
for him to bring in an innovation, 
but the abstract doctrine the Scrip- 
tures, we are inclined to think, 
would justify him. They are en- 
tirely silent on the subject of the 
second specification. Abstractly 
we would say that Mr. Houston is 
right, with the same reserve aa to 
the usual order. In the fourth 
specification Mr. Houston is right 
again. As to the last specification, 
there the facts, as well as the doc- 
trines, are against Mr. Houston. 
On all these specifications Mr. 
Houston was found guilty, and 
duly punisht for his ** offenses " by 
solemn censure. He desired to 



appeal to Scripture, but that was 
not allowed. He was held to the 
Presbytery's interpretations of the 
confession." 

Even as to "entire sanctifica- 
tion," it depends upon what is 
meant. A man may use terms with 
his own understanding and inter- 
pretation of them, which, as he uses 
and understands them, are not 
objectionable. At any rate, a mis- 
sionary would, in our opinion, do 
infinitely more harm in a foreign 
field, teaching that the Bible is not 
a book of plenary inspiration, or 
that there is a second probation, or 
any other of the mischievous 
tenets of a modern, broad theology, 
than any or all the doctrines Dr. 
Houston is charged with. 

For ourselves, we have held for 
years that the Lord's Supper is 
primarily, like the passover it suc- 
ceeds, a household ordinance, and 
belongs as such to the Church as 
the larger household of God. And 
we all know that in the Acts of 
the Apostles there is no fixt line 
between clergy and laity, which 
exist in the interests of order, 
expediency, and sound doctrine, 
not of Scriptural and apostolic 
order. Philip baptized, tho but a 
deacon, and one case breaks the 
sacred line. And, as to the Lord's 
Supper, it seems to have been ob- 
served wherever and whenever be- 
lievers met. As to the teaching 
and ruling elder, the one office is 
that of presbyter, the functions of 
teaching and ruling being con- 
nected with one office, or officer, 
according to capacity and sphere; 
so that if a ruling elder possest the 
teaching gift, he seems to have ex- 
ercised it without ceremony or 
further authority. And w^e have 
always believed that the Presbyte- 
rian polity can be logically main- 
tained only by admitting the mie- 
ness of the eldership, whatever the 



218 



frcTi-jLiAi. r«? 



[March 



U:a/rh:r^ el-ii*-r. L-a* :j.c •c*^ ♦< *j:i Virf 

of G«j*l is nLftde of Efi-.c*? *t?«!e« 

thr»/»igfh tjiirjkn rrfciiiL .c Bcs 

itr*^,*/.ti inralf-iat^ an o^rf 
ai':*^p'^hi^ and lifrT* •c»-*i iLi?i*i» 
aA to th^ ^■x^^*■:ia*^ t^ hi* sacivd 
raw.rijr to p»r*=-5V:b tfc»ir «j»j^^*-L in tfc^e 



Arr-orrf .'ni5^ to a I*rtt*^r in tbe Z#>m- 
^///rt ?*htnfUtr'K it is pn^j^j^si^ti to 
<t*p,pr»-« ttV/ /A^ fi^nn^rii^Jt in the 
Ar.;<:>^n fr/T/im union, on xh^ 
tptfi^iftiti thiat t^^ df^ans have practi- 
ze* 1.7 n/*tninsif to do. and their sti- 
f#*^X-«, Arn^rtintin^ to i31.(Mt or 
a^#/ut ffl^K^J^ifK \tfT annum, for only 
t %"rit y-rnTke—'An avfraj^e of about 
tff'fJ00t ^fu.h — should he deTotfd to 
fhf', fiftrUf'Tfrnf'Ttt of f^i^-ht additional 
hi^f^rfprir^ at a,^t(} a y#^r c^oK, 
th4 ^/alanf-e hf*in^ dividf^ amon^ 
th/v Jienior f'^noriM. f^ho rould per- 
form fh/f triflintf dutif^ of the sup- 

Ajfrojtfm (4 thfue changes in the 
\uig\\f'j%.n rT^urrrh and of the im- 
\fft\'i»'Ut*; of th#? Anglirran party 
Hirh fu4ftU'rf% r\l\\s%\\nrf\. Bishop 
'VuiVt't, of f'ganda, in a recent 
t\tittift', *'%prt-Mt hirnwlf with re- 
fti'*ilititi( ftHttkuf'HH on Anglicanism 

*♦ It KiijMm,** \u; HayM, "churches 
firriofiprttf iUtz natives after the most 
H\t\mt\t't\ \u\t,\\cjii\ pattern, . . . 
whirh ill India or Africa is an ab- 
Hiifdjly.*' H|M;aking of the native 
nilnJHl ry, he complains of "our 
foHHiliz<*d ideas as to the qualifica- 
floiiM neri'MHary for admission to 
the ordiT of deacons," and savs 
that ** If native cJiurches are to be 
developt on healthy lines, and 
within a reusonablc space of time, 
there must be a larger and freer 
use of the ministry of laymen." 
On the question of support he in- 
veighs against the reckless use of 







^i^9is. Ey'«>ey. and mainly on 
cr.*:..ZMd lina. the mi«ODaiy is 
r T^cjirdin^ the Church's 
1 ^:cL ■'•^ the sscrednesB of the 
rrtr*'-'.i«k-':«f seif-«npport," He 
z. ^:o:C:2s3>>nthat "weshoold 
aeTer rest satisBed until we 
rr^ up into life the vigor- 
.«u<« c f a healthT STstem of 



Ai»:cber interesting and signifi- 
cant f Aft afc^^ii the Anglican Church 
we D^T add in this connection. 
Itl'tipen in Great Britain, I learned 
cjch abc-at the ^^Si/cirfas Satidte 
trucU " — S*x-iety of the Holy Cross 
— kn..wn now a^ the '*S, S. C." The 
CAurrA iHUuigrncer^ organ of the 
C. M. S.. has publisht an *' Analysis 
of Proceedings." giving some light 
on the objects and methods of the 
ntfw Romanizing tendency. About 
3Lt> of the Anglican clergy are en- 
loU^: 

" l^vther Lacey,'' vicar of Mad- 
insrley, i'ambridge, read a paper, 
in the decent obscurity of Latin, 
on the ^' Sacrifice of the Mass." 
" Priests*** he said, " offer the life 
of 1 hrist according to this institu- 
tiim as a sacrifice of worship, pro- 
pitiation, and thanksgiving, by 
way of commemoration." At the 
September Synod Brother Sander- 
son, vicar of' Alderholt, Salisbury, 
defended "reservation" and "ex- 
position" of the Sacrament — ^that 
is, the keeping back of a portion of 
the consecrated bread for subse- 
quent adoration. He said: "We 
are agreed as to the desirability and 
legality of reserving; we already 
carry the Holy Sacrament about; 
lift it up, expose it^ worship it; 
and use it for blessing the people 
when giving communion. Wny 
not at other times? What more 
stimulating to the devotion of those 
people of leisure who can remain 
in prayer after the mass is .done, 
than for the priest to unlock the 
tabernacle door, draw aside its 
veils, expose the ciborium within, 
kneel on the step below the altar, 
and lead his people in adoring acts 
of love and reparation ? This is 
that simple function known as the 
exposition of the blessed Sacra- 
ment, a function which many know 
from experimental knowledge is 
powerful in making people rejEilize 



1898.] 



KDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



219 



the reality of oiir Saviour*s ador- 
able presence." The matter was 
discust whether the past sins of 
a person absolved on confession 
ought to be recalled. "Brother 
Swallow '^ thought if they did so, 
they should •* only defeat their ob- 
ject and give rise to a sense of irri- 
tation on their part." 



Dr. Gordon and the Kongo Mission. 

In the fall of 18^ tne Livingstone 
Inland Mission, founded seven years 
previously by Dr. and Mrs. H. Grat- 
tan Guinness, was tranferred to 
the American Baptist Missionary 
Union, without conditions. Its 
stations had been planted, 25 mis- 
sionaries were on the field, accli- 
mated and acquainted with the 
language into which translations 
of a large part of the Bible had 
lieen made. Moreover, schools were 
in running order, a steamer em- 
ployed for itinerating puri)ose8, all 
expenses met, and the discourage- 
ments and physical perils incident 
t«> the operating of such a mission 
had practically past away. 

But valuable as it was, the gift 
waa not at first fully appreciated 
by its recipients, and pressure was 
brought to bear looking to the re- 
turn of the missionaries and the 
abandonment of the field. "It 
was at this juncture," says his 
biographer, "that Dr. Gordon set 
himself to stem the tide." He ap- 
pealed to his brethren by voice and 
by pen, finally taking the field and 
traveling from city to city east of 
the Mississippi, pleading' for it« 
continuance. The appeal was so 
successful that it seemed as tho 
the mission was placed beyond even 
the suggestion of abandonment. 

Judge, therefore, of the surprise 
and sorrow with which the friends 
of the mission heard the policy of 
abandoning this work again mooted 
in a sermon before the Baptist 
Missionary Union at its last annual 
meeting. The speaker advocated 
the strengthening of *' strategic" 



points in the foreign field at the 
expense of others regarded less 
important, among which he classed 
the stations on the Kongo. A 
very discoiu'aging picture was 
drawn of the devastating climate, 
the slight progress made, lack of 
virility among the natives, etc. 

Testimony has since been ob- 
tained from the missionaries now 
upon the field which directly dis- 
prove these statements. They 
affirm, in regard to the unhealth- 
fulness of the climate, that during 
the last 12 years only 6 out of 45 
of the missionaries have died; that 
11 of the 14 male missionaries have 
served over 10 years, and 7 over 15 
years. The average period of ser- 
vice of those uniting in the protest 
has been 13 years I The natives 
are not less virile than those of 
other tropical countries, being 
physically quite as well developt 
and mentally much more amenable 
to civilization than others named. 
As to the permanency of the work, 
only one church has become disinte- 
grated, and this on account of the 
compulsory return of the mis- 
sionary before it had been prop- 
erly establisht. A census taken 
at two stations, Banza Manteka 
and Kifwa, had shown an increast 
population of 7 and 3^2 P^r cent, 
respectively. ** Indeed, the larger 
number of children in the villages 
of Banza Manteka is the surprise 
and envy of the heathen." 

All this goes to prove the wisdom 
of Dr. Gordon and those who acted 
with him in retaining the Kongo 
Mission. — J. M. G. 



The Church Missionary Society 
reaches its second jubilee, or hun- 
dredth year, during the present 
twelvemonth. April 12 will inau- 
gurate the last year of the century, 
and the day will fall on Tuesday of 
Easter week. As the Church MIh- 
»ionary InfeUigencer remarks, the 
Jewish jubilee began on the Day of 



220 



EDITORIAL DEPAimfENT. 



[March 



Atonement — a fast day, when the 
two kids commemorated the ex- 
piatory offering and the relea^^ 
from the hurden of sin. And so 
once more, following the seven 
weeks of Lent, the trumpet of the 
jubilee will blow, and the concourse 
of the people -will assemble to con- 
sider how the good tidings may be 
spread into aU the world. 

With a beautiful spirit the Church 
Missionary Society proposes to 
avoid any centenary observance/or 
Us oirn sake, or the glorification of 
the great society whose hundred 
years are fast completing. They 
recognize this society, tho it be the 
leader and almost the mother of 
all the rest, as but one of manv, 
and they desire to make emphatic 
not the history of the fc^eble instru- 
ment, but the interests of the great 
cause of which it is but one pillar. 
" Ad%'ance first, commemoration 
afterwards," has been the motto 
of the society and the "Three years' 
enterprise," T. Y. E., which was 
inaugiu*ated purposely to secure an 
advance in every department of 
administration, even before the 
centennial year should dawn. 

The general program for the cele- 
bration is in harmony with the 
highly spiritual attitude and at- 
mosphere always so manifest in 
this society's history. The details 
are not yet settled, but friends of 
missions everywhere will gladly 
keep in touch with the general pur- 
pose and purport of the commem- 
oration. 

On April 12, 1808, when the second 
jubilee year and the last year of 
the three years' enterprise begins, 
there will be 

1. A special prayer service for the 
committee and friends of the 
society, and it is prop*)sed that 
simultaneously in ail parts of the 
world a similar praver service be 
held. • 

2. On or about All Saints' Day. 
Novenib<»r 1, there is to be a series 
of gatherings in the middle of the 



jubilee year to conunemorate the 
second jubilee, exactly fifty years 
after the celebration of the first 
jubilee in 1818. Most fittingly the 
Bishop of Exeter, — whose father 
conspicuously shared in that pre- 
vious jubilee meeting, writing 
three of the seven hymns then used, 
— is expected to preside. 

3. The twelfth anniversary of the 
" Gleaners' Union " will fall at the 
same time and be combined with 
this. 

4. In April, 1809« when the hun- 
dred years are completed, the maix 

CEXTKNARY COMMKMORATION will 

occur. It will occupy at least oiie 
entire ireek\ beginning and ending 
on the Sabbath, reaching from 
April 9th to 16th, which are the first 
and second Sundays after Easter. 

The main meetings will, of course, 
be in London, but it is hoped and 
expected that, as in the Queen's 
grreat jubilee of 1807, the celebration 
will be simultaneously observed in 
all parts of the Empire and the 
world, the mission-field included, 
for those who can not attend the 
great gatherings at the capital. 

The special appeals for the cen- 
tenary memorial fund are not yet de- 
termined upon, but great expansion 
in the line of the work will un- 
doubtedly be the outcome. During 
less than twentv months of the 
three years' enterprise the special 
T. Y. E. gifts have reacht over 
£26,000, including some which the 
donors propose to repeat annually, 
and they represent not a spasmodic 
increase to be followed by, an ebb 
fide, as in most cases of special 
gifts, but a permanently higher 
fiood-mark. 

One of the most encouraging 
signs of growth is the increase of 
the number of ^fnissionaries sup- 
ported, as to their maintenance 
charges, by special gifts. When 
the appeal was made in connection 
with the three years' enterprise, 
that individuals should undertake 
to support individual missionaries 
on the field, already there were 125 
thus maintained. Now there are 
:^(i^, and probably before this issue 
reaches our readers, the number 



1898.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



221 



will have gone beyond the 300. 
Many of these additional gifts have 
come into the treasury withovit 
any reference to the centenary fund 
or the three years* enterprise. 

All the friends of missions and of 
the Indians will be glad to hear 
that Secretary Bliss has returned 
to the Senate with his unqualified 
disapproval the bill to settle on 
segregated lands of about twenty- 
one miles in area the Metlakahatla 
Indians, now occupying Annette 
Island, Alaska, and opening the re- 
mainder to settlement. The Secre- 
tary says that he is convinced that 
the Indians should be permitted to 
remain in undisputed possession of 
their reservation, and that no part 
should be opened to the public. 

William Duncan, the able and 
honored missionary, to whose labor 
among the Indians their present 
prosperous, material and spiritual, 
condition is due, sets forth at 
length why the bill should not be- 
come a law. He refers to the pro- 
gress the Indians now occupying 
the Island have made, and ex- 
presses the belief that should the 
biU be enacted into law all these 
gains would be lost to the people. 
What the natives crave of the gov- 
ernment in their present condition, 
is protection and isolation from 
vicious whites. Should the meas- 
ure pass, he says, it will not only 
injure the Indians morally, but will 
seriously impoverish them materi- 
ally. A recent examination, he 
says, show^s that, so far as present 
indications go, the report which 
has been publisht that the island is 
rich in mineral deposits, and which 
has been advanced as one of the 
reasons why it should be opened to 
settlement, is grossly exaggerated. 

In an early issue of the Review we 
hope to have an illustrated account 
of the present condition of Metla- 
kohtla, which is in many respects 
a model settlement. It would be a 



burning shame for Congress to do 
anything to disturb the peace and 
prosperity which there reigns. 



With deepest sorrow we learn of 
the renewed fighting in Uganda, 
and of the killing of that grand 
missionary, Mr. Pilkington, who 
was not only one of the leading 
Englishmen in Uganda, but one of 
the foremost missionaries of the 
world. He had joined Major Mac- 
donald after the meeting of the 
Soudanese to act as interpreter. 
When the editor-in-chief was in 
England in 1886, this noble man 
was electrifying audiences with his 
fascinating and heroic story of the 
mission work among the Baganda. 
Few men have ever held British 
audiences more enthralled by nar- 
ratives of missionary service and 
suffering, labor and triumphs. He 
was in demand everywhere. His 
death makes a void that reminds 
us of the vacancy that followed 
Mackay's decease. He had volun- 
teered, at the suggestion of Mr. 
Wilson, the Acting Commissioner 
of Uganda, and with the permission 
of Archdeacon Walker, to accom- 
pany the Baganda as an interpre- 
ter, and with a view to giving the 
moral support of the missionaries 
to the Baganda in resisting the 
Soudanese in the crossing of the 
Nile. His companion w^as Dr. A. 
R. Cook, of the mission, who went 
for medical duty. The two men 
were able to open up communica- 
tion with Major Macdonald, and, 
after a thrilling experience, reacht 
his camp, on the banks of the Nile, 
opposite Juba's station, then in the 
hands of the I'ebels. The camp was 
pitcht near the spot where Bishop 
Hannington was seized. Truly the 
days of missionary martyrs are not 
past. 



A recent letter from Marsovan, 
Asiatic Turkey, brings encouraging 
news in regard to the receptive at- 



222 



EDITOBIAI. DEPABTMENT. 



[March 



titude of many members of the 

Gregorian Church to Christian 

truth, as revealed in the Word of 

God rather than in the chaff which 

has thus far been their spiritual 

food. Our correspondent writes: 

•* Last evening there was a Chris- 
tian celebration at the college for the 
orphans. Some Armenian priests 
were present, and seemed much 
pleasea with what they saw. One 
of them was a young man who had 
studied in the' (Protestant) chapel 
school as a child. He gave the 
children a very g^ood talk. We are 
told that the people will no longer 
be content with their ignorant old 
priests. They demand that they 
oe Bible students, and so a group 
of young men are studying the 

Bible now with Baron A , the 

former teacher of the chapel 
school, preparatory to becoming 

priests. As Baron A is now a 

theological student, you see that 
this makes a theological seminary 
within a theological seminary." 

With such preaching and teach- 
ing and living as the people of 
Marsovan have heard and seen so 
long from the missionaries, it is 
but natural that the old Gregorian 
C^hurch should be waking up to the 
benefits of the pure Gospel. 

The Bible Normal College, of 
Springfield, Mass., offers a ten 
weeks' course, which may be of es- 
])ecial interest to missionaries at 
home on furlough. This course has 
a distinct missionary bearing, an 
important feature being the study 
of child-nature and methods of in- 
struction. Much may be gained 
from an intelligent study of how to 
teach the illiterate, whether old or 
young. 

The following letter will be of 
special interest to those of our read- 
ers who have sent through us 
money to Pandita Hamabai's work. 
She is now eri roxde to America 
having sailed from India on Jan- 
uary 15th. 

** I have received the chock for 
£7, 6«., for Pandita Ramabai's 
work, and have sent it to her, ask- 



ing her to acknowledge it to the 
kind donor. Miss *L«. M. R.,' 
Brockport, N. Y. You have no 
doubt read in the Bombay Gvar- 
dian, of the wonderful work of 
grace that is going on among the 
widows under Ramabai's charge, 
and which has resulted in the bap- 
tism of 221 famine widows, four 
other widows under her care, a 
famine boy, and the Hindu man 
w^ho has be^n Ramabai's clerk for 
several years. On the 12th instant 
she will begin a ten davs* cami>- 
meeting at her farm at Kludgaver, 
near Poona, which I expect will re- 
sult in other conversions. What 
she is doing, or rather what God is 
doing by her, is a g^reat object-les- 
son to Indian Christians and to 
some missionaries. 

'* My dear wife and I are thankful 
that we have been pr€»erved to 
labor on in the Lord's service amid 
dangers and difficulties. It is now 
over ten years since we came to In- 
dia, and many who were here then, 
many younger than ourselves, have 
fallen at their posts or have had to 
leave the country through illness. 
But we are feeling more than ever 
the strain of our work, and pray for 
some rest and another efficient 
helper, at least. Thanksgiving 
well becomes us for all that God 
has done, aye, and for all that the 
eye of faith beholds that He is go- 
ing to do. 

Yours in His service, 

Alfred S. Dyer." 



We thankfully acknowledge the 
following contributions, received 
and forwarded as designated: 

No. loe.— For Pandita Ramabai $4.00 

No. 108.— " " " 50.ai 

No. 104.— *' " »' 1.00 

No. 104.— ^^ A rjiienian orphans 1.00 



The World's Best Literature.* 

It is a colossal undertaking, and 
one involving an immense outlay of 
time and money, to collect and 
publish the choicest of the literary 
productions of ancient and modem 
wTiters. To be successfully accom- 
plisht, it requires keen appreciation 
and judicious selection. Probably 

• A Library of the World's Best Litera- 
ture. Ancient and Modern. Charles Dud- 
ley Warner. Kditor- in-Chief. Thirty volumes. 
8vo. 612 pa)?(w per volume. Puhlistit by R. 
S. Peale and J. A. Hill, New York. 



1898.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



223 



no man could have been found bet- 
ter fitted for this great work than 
Charles Dudley Warner, who, for 
more than a quarter of a century, 
has been an authority on literary 
criticism. He is the author of over 
twenty books, including essays, 
travels, biog^phies, and fiction. 
In this latest and most important 
of his literary labors, Mr. Warner 
has been ably assisted by Hamilton 
W. Mabie and other well-known 
literary critics and specialists in 
the various departments of letters. 

More than fifty men have con- 
tributed to make this library what 
it aims to be — a masterpiece of 
masterpieces. In these thirty oc- 
tavo volumes are gathered much of 
the cream of the literary thought 
and expression of sixty centuries. 
The history, biography, oratory, 
poetry, fiction, and philosophy of 
all peoples and languages bring 
of their choice contributions to this 
treasure-house of literature. These 
volumes open up vast stores of 
hitherto inaccessible wealth. Beau- 
ties that have heretofore been 
veiled in the obscurity of unknown 
tongues are here brought to light. 
Riches that have before been un- 
obtainable on private book-shelves, 
hidden within vast tomes, or amid 
the mazes of public libraries, have 
been gathered together and put 
within reach of the general public. 

Tho not a history of literature, 
this library oflfers most excellent 
opportunity for such study. It is 
equally valuable also as a work of 
reference and for general reading. 
The variety of departments repre- 
sented, subjects treated, and au- 
thors quoted present the possi- 
bility of suiting many diverse needs 
and tastes. Vesper hymns and 
humorous poems, battle scenes and 
love-letters of men of genius, satire, 
and passages of Holy Scripture 
each have a place. Altho so com- 
prehensive, the editor has aimed to 
admit nothing which is not pure 



and uplifting. Purity is one essen- 
tial in the best literature. 

Portraits of prominent authors 
and excellent interpretive essays 
by sympathetic writers help to i-e- 
veal the mental characteristics, and 
to disclose beauty and strength of 
style which might otherwise es- 
cape the notice of the casual 
reader. The work thus possesses 
features of a history, a school, an 
encyclopedia, and a library. It is 
intended to create and to gratify 
lovers of good literature. 

The arrangement is alphabeti- 
cal, according to authors, periods, 
and well-known subjects. The 
legend of the Holy Grail is pre- 
sented by five separate authors, 
and sixty-three pages are devoted 
to Hindu literature. Not the least 
useful feature is the synopsis of 
famous books. The index adds 
largely to the helpfulness of the 
library, and would be more valu- 
able did it enable one to trace 
the history of literature chrono- 
logically and by nationalities or 
races, as well as by authors and 
subjects. D. L. P. 



We think Mrs. Bishop's latest 
book, ** Korea and Her Neighbors," 
the best of all the works of her 
gifted pen. In fact, for compre- 
hensiveness, satisfactoriness, and 
power in description and delinea- 
tion, and for judicious selections 
of what is best worth describing 
and delineating it would be hard to 
surpass. Without being primarily 
a book on misions, it gives a fine 
conception of one of the most inter- 
esting, yet least known countries 
and nations among whom the Gos- 
pel has been introduced in modern 
days; and quite aside from ' all 
its missionary bearings, as a con- 
tribution to ethnology, archaeology, 
manners, and customs, and all else 
that pertains to this Hermit Na- 
tion, it is simply invaluable. I^et 
any one who would test this state- 



224 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



[March 



ment, read, for instance, the de- 
scription of the Kur-Dong — chapter 
III. — that strange, barbaric pro- 
cession, the last of its sort, in 
which the king, a myth for most of 
the year, appears annually in state, 
to impress on his subjects the splen- 
dor and majestic magnificence of 
their sovereign. 

The adventures of this refined 
and cultured woman — her ex- 
posures, heroic endurances, and 
patient submission to the inevit- 
able, in studying the habits and 
characteristics of Mongolian races 
— t*ead more like romance than 
it»nlity. 

Thore is but one blemish in this 
vohuius which we can not but at- 
ti'lbuto to the probable intrust- 
tiiont of the pnH)f reading to some 
oiin ««Imo than to the accomplisht 
luithort tho Houtonces are long, 
nfton InvolviHl, and lack careful 
mill dUrriintiuUing punctuation. 
Tho tntnunii tt)Hnuui(<« and some- 
tinioH In (ho only uuirk used until 
tho porind roii)plo(oi« tho sentence. 
HoiiiolliuoK, UN it MHMUN to US, a seu- 
tonoo Nhould hnvo l>oon divideil in- 
to two or ovon thi^n^s and. in other 
oaNON, Nt^iuiooloUN, tH^UkUs, daslios, 
oti\, would hrtvouuidotho nu^uung 
and ntunoo((on luuoh inort^ plain. 
Hut (ho NU|H'rb original illustni- 
tiouH, fiHUu Mi>*% Ul^hopV own pht>- 
tographis fully oou^hm^s^Uo forsxich 
a (ritliug do foot, 

A now and iuoi\» iHunploto indox 
impinnoh (ho 8i*ooud <Hii(iou, 

Tho la tost ooutnbution to I ho 
••UulT Missionary KinMuixv^hip" is 
by Hoy, J. Mai^ihall Uuig, U.l>,, of 
Itanmy ohun^h. tUasjj>»w, U is 
out it UhI. •* Kx)vtnsiou of I ho < Chris- 
tian Life." it is a noblo \ohuuo, 
Itii stylo is chaste, its thou^v^ht fr^^sh 
and stimuLiriiic: and, wluu isxorv 
notic-ea' >. it is along tho linos of 
an <aW-/.**^. iV>:,<?f r/iAw.h-v. Ur, 
Lane shxws hiuis^^lf jvrftvily 
familiAT wiih the "new thtH>loirv, * 



and even the trend of scientific 
skepticism and neology. But at 
his hand it gets no encouragement, 
and with markt tact he quotes 
from skeptical writers the very con- 
cessions which strengthen rather 
than weaken faith; as, for exam- 
ple, when he quotes Renan*s saying 
that the Book of the Acts is the 
most faultless book ever written, 
etc. It is to be devoutly hoped 
that Dr. Lang*s book will be re- 
printed in this country. It is now 
.publisht by Wm. Blackwood, and 
can be obtained for 91 •^^ Further 
notice of it may appear hereafter. 
Suffice now to say it is worthy of 
its author and his theme. 



Books BeoeiTecL 

Korea awd Hkr Nriohbors. Mrs. Isabella 
Bird Bishop. Illustrated. Hvo, 480 pp. 
$2.00. Fleming H. Revell Co., New York. 

ChRISTIAKITY A.HD THB PROGRESS OF MaK. 

Prof. W. Douglass Mackenzie. 8vo, fSO 
pp. $1.25. The same. 

Tbb Ezpansiok op thk Christian Lifk. The 
Duff Lectures for 1897. J. Marshall LacUi 
D.D. 8vo, 246 pp. 58. Wm. Blackwood 
& Sons, Edinburgh & London. 

Missionaries in the Wftness Box. 12mo, 168 

H>. Illustrate. U. M. The Church 
issionary Society, London. 

THRoroH My Spectacles. Rev. Martin J. 
Hall, M..\. Kvo, 101 pp. Illustrated. Is. 
6d. The same. 

BraLE Gleaninqs in Foreign Fields. Rev. 
E. W. Burroughs. 16mo, 63 pp. U, The 
same. 

The Great Big World. A missionary walk 
in the Zoo (juvenile). Aques M. Batty. 
8vo, 48 pp. Illustrated. Is. 6d. The same. 

Alaska. Its neglected |)ast, its brilliant 
future. Bushrod Washington James, M.D. 
l:2mo. 450 pp. Illustrated. $1.50. Sun- 
shine Publishing Co., Philadelphia. 

On the Threshold of Central Africa. A 
retx>rd of twentv years pioneering among 
the Bannsi of the Upper Zambesi. Fran- 
cvMs Coillard. Translated by Cathrine 
Maokintivsh. 8vo, 662 pp. Illustrated. 
UH Hodder & Stoughton, London. 

Primeval Revelation. Qenesia L-viii. J. 
(> luUiylan Jones. 8vo, 366 pp. 5«. The 
sanie. * 

The Invarxate Savior. W. R. Nichol, LL D. 
<\ ,v ^^ pp. 5«. T. and T. Clark, Edin- 
bunrh. 

Missix^nart Heroes of Africa. Sarah Geral- 
a;jK» St.vk, 8vo, 2fM pp. Illustrated. 2a. 
UK The London Missionary Society. 

lloNKFRiNo IS Tibet. Annie Ross Taylor. 
S\ ,\ TT pp niust rated. 1j. 6d, Morgan 
*^ Sk>m, lAvndon. 

Thit H.-!m> is China. Rev. W. Campbell, 
K K li S 8VO, KH pp. Kelly & Walsh, 

^V^h: V »»»; JoiK fa memoir of Wm. J. Neeth- 
>.' c. t^f S>>uth Africa). l6mo, 96 pp. 
l^.v hsit^L Lvi>in, France. 



1898.J 



EXTRACTS AND TRANSLATIONS. 



225 



VI.— GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



EDITED BY REV. D. L. LEONARD, D.D. 



Extracts and Translations From Foreign 
Periodicals. 

BY REV. C. C. STARBUCK, ANDOVER, 

MASS. 

Madagascar. 

It has been repeatedly declared 
that the persecutions by the French 
in Madagascar are not directed 
against the Protestants, but against 
the English. Were this true, it 
would be a scandalous breach of 
treaty obligations, of international 
right, and of common equity. The 
English missionaries, one and all, 
have loyally accepted the new gov- 
ernment, and have brought their 
people to accept it too. Yet they 
have been vituperated and slander- 
ed, and their unoffending and help- 
less people have been scattered, 
beaten, imprisoned, and shot down 
without form of law, simply be- 
cause they had accepted the Gospel 
from those who first brought it to 
them. 

Now, what has prompted all this? 
Doubtless Gallieni and his myrmi- 
dons hate the missionaries still 
more intensely as Englishmen than 
as Protestants, and the London So- 
ciety chiefly as the main English 
society. Yet everywhere the Jesu- 
its have been turned loose, with 
the same watchword: "All Prot- 
estants are Englishmen, and are 
to be shot." "All Catholics are 
Frenchmen, and are to be saved 
and promoted." Norwegian or Eng- 
lish is all one in their view, altho 
undoubtedly the main rage of the 
Jesuits and of their military con- 
federates is at present directed 
against the London Society. That 
overthrown, they think they can 
easily deal with the lesser societies. 
Doubtless their animosity is a 
shade less violent against the Nor- 



wegians, but it is only a shade. As 
we have said already, the Norwe- 
gians are Ulysses in the cave of 
Polyphemus, destined to be de- 
voured, but to be devoured last. 

Hitherto, however, the persons 
of the French Protestant mission- 
aries have been respected. This 
boundary, however, has at last 
been overleapt. 

The matter began with the na- 
tives. "11. Aug^ist, 1897. A col- 
onist, named Geraudel, a lime- 
burner, has, it appears, allowed 
himself to beat one of our teachers, 
to break in the doors of our school, 
to forbid the children to go any- 
where except to the school founded 
by him, and finally to tear down 
the placard which I had had placed 
over the door of the school, and to 
nail it, in token of defiance, over 
his own place of retirement. Learn- 
ing of this, I instituted inquiry. 
M. Ducommun, accompanied by M. 
Gallant, went to the spot, and noted 
down every indication of what had 
taken place. Everything corrobor- 
ates the first reports of the natives. 
Supplied with proofs, I lodged a 
complaint with the prosecuting at- 
torney, speaking of it myself to the 
General. Fifteen days have past, 
and nothing done." 

This Geraudel, it seems, had set 
up his own school in the Protest- 
ant temple itself, from which he 
had expelled the French Protestant 
school. 

M. Delord says: "As I chance to 
be on a missionary round, the set- 
tler Geraudel, without any provo- 
cation on my part, having already 
repeatedly beaten several of our 
teachers, for which complaint had 
long been lodged against him, came 
running upon me, and struck me so 
violently that his huge cudgel was 
broken." For this the assailant 



226 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



[March 



wan condetnnod to a fine of 50 
frariCH and cohIh of 50 francs. The 
inodicai att4»Htation of severe in- 
jury, the ahHohit<*ly unprovokt vio- 
h«nc*»s followed up by a violent ex- 
pulsion from the village, with cries 
of, ••Fahavalo, Knglish spy!" and 
filthy e))iUiets added, resulted, not- 
withst4indinK the energetic repre- 
mnitations of the public prosecu- 
te ir, in a Hent4»noe which M. De- 
long very t*<*aNonably calls **a 
nioc'kt»ry.** (K»raudel so regarded 
It, for he left the court with ex- 
pn^nHlons of triumphant otmtempt 
iigiiinnt the Protestant |mstors. 

That the Kivneh should shoot 
PiMtestant converts of Knglish 
intsstonarU^ as reU'ls without trial 
Is the nuvtt natural thing in the 
wt vr Id » Tliey would dt>u ht less ha ve 
stiot the inis*«ionant*8, t*MK hut for 
the f^s^r of Kuglaud* Tlu»y now 
stu^Wx in spite \^t the d^vlamtions 
wt m^uu* >\rifers of «u^r»» g^nnl 
»^rtt\uv th.^u |H^^>ipU\^oity. that it is 
U\^l K^^nthxh u>>«Uon.^luy luen^ly 
wh^v h thoN hsU%\ tml IV^le>uunisiu 
h^^Ms K>wtwh \Hr ^V^»u*h, The evi- 
^M^^^^* vvt ^\\^«*^^x*l \;>^lhoui*s Mt U*«st 
^».^**^\\v ^^^^Mp^^uy lu the various 
|s w^'^ H^^^N^U'^ rtwumulate. If the 
t^v^^xh a«v not exterminating the 
^^'»^^**^^«^^ nunistei-s from Mada- 
^j^MtMr quite so soon as Father 
Phelim. of St. Umis, gleefully 
antlclpnted, he has no nmson to 
find fault with them. They stn^m 
to be going as fast as they can. 
This worthy representative of 
Airieriran principles should indul- 
gonf ly ron.Hider that they are em- 
}mrrH<f by tb^* n*'r'*r^»»ity of profes- 
sing nffvi/b/ri'Tit to r«'ligious free- 
fh^rfK f*f»A fb^>r, it rwiuires a little 

f-yff •*tn''^pf'f^\OU Uf ttftfl out how to 

f/-/ ''.f i/ , > M»>« ttifb th#* reality or 
f/'] / ifU^ f>*'f**'fitf'tf/n. He himself 
/!»,«»r,*»^^.< »<'*•> I/I Ur for shooting 
A 'Af»/ Iv/'x'rtfit ifiihister oflf- 
r».w,/t •'.-#^ </f \tfo$ti\ft a course would 
^^..,»,,^,i/ \>tt ttu ih'Ui'ral Gallieni*s 
«A.,^ //f ft fUt'^intfttt. lie must be 



left to take his time, and pardoned 
if, in spite of his best will. Protes- 
tantism is only crippled, not quite 
exterminated. 

On Sunday, the Ist of August, 
died Joseph Andrianaivoravelona, 
pastor of the Queen. He had ac- 
companied his mistress to Reunion, 
and there, on the Saturday, having 
a sense that his end was drawing 
near, he anticipated the prepara- 
tions for the communion of the 
following day. On Sunday morn- 
ing, after praying that, if it were 
God*s will, he might be restored, 
but if not, might be soon t^ken, 
he rose, drest himself, and, leaning 
against a small table near his bed, 
breathed his last. He was sixty- 
two years of age. 

A few minutes later one of his 
deacons, also a voluntary exile, said 
to his servant: *'Dada Naivo haa 
finisht his course ; now it is my 
txirn. Spread my bed, that I may 
die there." The bed was made 
ready; he strecht himself out upon 
it, and peaceably expired. 

The deceast pastor was one of the 
Christians w^ho suffered under the 
persecutions of Qxieen Ranavalona 
the First. He afterward became 
a distinguisht st*holar of the Eng- 
lish divinity schools, and then 
(uistiu* of one of the largest 
ehuivht^s of the capital, and also of 
the luilaet^ church. He leaves nine 
childivn. 

Miscellaneous. 

" Then"* is no parallel to the pres- 
ent |Hksition of England, except the 
position of the Roman Empire, and 
the Roman Empire fell after it had 
achievinl only jwirt of its great pur- 
pose. And why did it fall ? Be- 
cause Rome was |K>werful as an ex- 
ternal organization, but Rome had 
no spiritual iH>n tents to give to the 
people whom it conquered. It had 
no Gospel, it had no message, it had 
nothing to show — no means of ele- 
vating. And unless men are ele- 



1898.] 



EXTRACTS AND TRANSLATIONS. 



227 



vated by the government of other 
countries to whom they are subject, 
unless they are elevated, unless 
they get spiritual ideas, there can 
be no real hold in the material force 
that keeps them together. 

" The truth is nowadays becom- 
ing obvious. We are more and 
more seeing that intercourse with 
other countries, if it is to be of any 
real value, must necessarily be 
upon a religious basis. It is more 
and more being seen that you can 
not possibly influence a man at all 
unless you have influenced him on 
the religious side; if you have not 
toucht that, then you have toucht 
nothing. It is no good to improve 
things mechanically in civilization, 
such as making roads and provid- 
ing water-supplies. You know the 
Roman Empire made water-sup- 
plies better than we can, and yet it 
disappeared and past away, be- 
cause, as I said, it could not touch 
the spiritual basis of human life. 
There is nothing on which civiliza- 
tion depends but that. There is 
nothing else which is past on, there 
is nothing else which reproduces 
itself and gives true life. 

" I -was exceedingly interested a 
little time ago in going to a meet- 
ing — I think of the Calcutta Mis- 
sion — which was addrest by Mr. 
Bryce, who was askt to address it 
b(H:ause he had just been in India, 
and had seen something of the 
working of the mission there. 
Well, Mr. Bryce spoke with very 
great weight, of course. He said 
that his journey in India had at 
least convinced him of this, that 
unless England could succeed in 
Christianizing its Indian subjects, 
that empire could not last; that 
nothing else whatever could hold it 
together; that at present there were 
two sets of lives, two civilizations, 
two races simply in juxtaposition; 
that there could be no real inter- 
fusion of the two, and no real possi- 
bility of either one understanding 



the other, except on the religious 
side; that unless you try to under- 
stand men as religious beings, you 
do not get on from any other side 
at all. For there is the root of their 
life, the" root of everybody's life — it 
must, after all, be his religious 
ideas. However debased his relig- 
ion may be, you can only under- 
stand a man through his religious 
side, and benefit liim by giving liim 
a right religious idea. There is no 
other way of beneflting mankind 
at all. All else is simply from the 
outside, and has no basis of pur- 
pose." — Bishop Man del Creioh- 
TON, D.D., C M, Intelligencer, 

M. G. Appia, in the Journal dea 
Missions for November, 1897, de- 
votes three pages to a very appre- 
ciative notice of **The New Acts of 
the Apostles." He says: "No one 
will read this book without expe- 
riencing the irresistible and benefi- 
cent impression that an author 
who knows how to speak with so 
intimate a persuasion to the men 
of his time, is doubtless himself a 
focus of spiritual fervor, a Chris- 
tian who has the right to repeat, 
under forms modern and sometimes 
a little American, to all the friends 
of missions, the ancient lesson of 
St. Paul and St. John : * Be fer- 
vent in spirit.'" 

The French readers "will be 
happy to And that the translator 
has added to the original some ex- 
amples and some biographical traits 
entirely French. More than one 
pastor will feel himself constrained 
to develop for himself, while profit- 
ing by the facts fumisht by the 
author, and inspiring himself w^ith 
his sacred passion, his own Netv 
Acts of the Apostles. Accordingly, 
we recommend the work to all 
friends of missions." 

The Allgemeine Missions-Zeit- 
scrift, in an extended account of 
the development of the Church 
Missionary Society, gives Henry 



228 



GENERAL MIB8IONABT INTELLIGENCE. 



[March 



Venn's ideal of the g^wth of the 
native churches as consisting of 
three stages : Self-support, self- 
government, self -extension. The 
first is to go over into the second, 
the first two into the third. 

Henry Venn (son of John Venn, 
a principal founder) was secretary 
of the C. M. S. from 1^1 till 1872. 
At the beginning of his secretary- 
ship the statistics stood as follows: 
Receipts, £85,536; ordained mission- 
aries, 117; native clergymen, 10; 
communicants, 6,050. At the end 
as follows: Receipts, £156,440; or- 
dained missionaries, 204 ; native 
clergymen, 148 ; communicants, 
25,000. 



English l!rot6& 

BT REV. JAMES DOUGLAS, M.A. 

The Baptist Missionary Society, — 
According to custom the usual 
prayer-meeting was held at the 
mission hoiise, Furnival St., on 
New Year's day. Rev. George 
Kerry, for forty years the Indian 
secretary of the society, presided 
and delivered a brief, but stirring 
address. Several representatives 
from other missionary societies 
took part, and mission work in all 
its varied branches was remem- 
bered before the Throne of Grace. 

A neic Map of India is now ready. 
It shows all the Baptist stations 
distinctly and has been prepared 
specially for this society by Mr. 
Stanford, the well-known map- 
publisher. Christian Endeavor so- 
cieties and Missionary unions 
would find their interest in mis- 
sionary enterprize greatly aug- 
mented, if the position of the vari- 
ous occupied fields of the world 
was more fixed in the mind. The 
small ness of what has been done 
and the vastness of what is to be 
done are by such study made evi- 
dent. 

3/r. WUlUnn Hill, the secretary 
of I he Bible Translation Society, 



writes through the medium of the 
Baptist Ueraldj earnestly asking 
support- in the work being done in 
translating and distributing the 
Gospel in the many tongues of the 
heathen world. The Bible is, un- 
doubtedly, one of the "best mission- 
aries;" therefore, the propagation 
of the Gospel of Jesus Christ is 
greatly aided by the distribution of 
the Scriptures in the languages of 
the world. 

The Presbyterian Church of Eng- 
land has recently celebrated at 
Marylebone the fifth jubilee of the 
•* Westminster Assembly's Shorter 
Catechism." Between eight and 
nine hundred were present, and the 
event was worthily celebrated as a 
fact in England's history, when a 
g^at stand was made for the faith, 
and a great effort was made to pre- 
serve in all it* purity the truth 
once delivered to the saints. 

Hakkaland, — As in Manchuria, 
so in South China, the Roman 
Catholics are giving much trouble 
to Protestants and also to the man- 
darins, who dare not punish them 
because they claim the protection 
of the French. The French Repub- 
lic, whatever it be at home, seems 
to have it« foreign policy largely 
determined by a wish to please 
Jesuit priests. Witness Madagas- 
car, New Caledonia, Algiers, and 
now North and South China. 

China Inla^id Mission, — Mr. 
Hudson Taylor in making an ap- 
peal in behalf of "This Generation 
of the Chinese," draws attention to 
the fact that, whereas fourteen 
years ago there were only two wit- 
nesses for Christ in all the millions 
of Shensi, Mr. King and Mr. Eas- 
ton, now there are seventy -seven. 
Tliere are also over twenty stations 
in the province, while above five 
hundred have been baptized, not a 
few of whom are now in the pres- 
ence of the Lord. 

According to the calculation of 



1 



1S9S.] 



SNOLtSU NOTES. 



229 



Mr. Geoi^e King, of Shen-si pro- 
vince, on whose heart evidently 
the spiritual needs of the present 
generation of Chinese heavily 
press, some 1,500 missionaries are 
required for China's immediate 
evangelization. The measure, he 
believes, could be most economically 
conducted, and the carrying of it 
out would entail, in his judgment, 
no loss to the home church, since 
more is lost annually at home 
through backsliding, in conse- 
quence of lack of Christian work, 
more than would suffice to carry 
the blessed Gospel through the 
length and breadth of China 
proper. 

The Ciiddapah Mission. — This 
mission, begun 70 years ago, and 
representing a large district of the 
Madras Presidency, has increast 
during the last ten years as never 
before. Ten years ago there were 
only 203 communicants, now there 
are 881. The numbers of adherents 
has more than doubled in this de- 
c^ade, while "the most gratifying 
result of all is that the number of 
evangelists, teachers, and cate- 
chists has risen from 44 to 126." 
Mr. N. C. Daniell, named in the 
foregoing paragraph, will reinforce 
the work in this promising land. 

Church Missionary Society. — The 
general outlook in West Africa is 
encouraging. This applies special- 
ly to Aremo, a district of Ibadan, 
and to Ijeba Ode. The Jehus are 
becoming, according to the Rev. R. 
A. Croker, less hostile to Christian- 
ity; there are new inquirers almost 
every week, and the increase in the 
congregations, particularly in the 
villages, is markt. This testimony 
is confirmed by the Rev. F. Melville 
Jones, who reports that **a great 
movement is perceptible among the 
people," and that the main hin- 
drance to much larger accessions is 
••polygamy." An interesting item 
concerns Iseyin, where the band of 



Mohammedans, priest and all, have 
joined the Christians. 

At Ouitcha a difficulty has been 
caused by the proselytizing efforts 
of the Roman Catholics, who have 
had recourse to bribes to effect their 
object, and have also spread their 
literature abroad. To counteract 
these efforts, special instructicm is 
now being given in the Romish 
controversy. 

Presbyterian Church of England. 
— This society's agent in the Jewish 
London quarters, Mr. Polan, has 
been much encouraged of late by 
direct fruit, and by the increast 
spirit of inquiry shown by the Jews 
who have congregated in White- 
chapel, and hail from many lands. 
He tells of a Jew from Russia, who 
came to London expressly to in- 
quire more fully into the truth, and 
who was attracted by the Hebrew 
word, Shalmn, Sh€ilovif placarded 
on the window-bills of the White- 
chapel mission. His confession, as 
sent by letter subsequently, was: 
'* I have read the * New Testament.' 
I find that the Law and the Proph- 
ets speak of one Messiah. ... I 
believe that Jesus of Bethlehem is 
the true Anointed One." Other 
cases of more or less hopefulness 
are given, the record closing with a 
gladsome note of thankfulness. . 

India. — Special significance at- 
taches to the recent baptism of 
Syed Ali Hossein, a Mohammedan 
student, who during the last six or 
seven years has i-ead and studied 
the Bible, the Koran, and many 
controversial books. As one of gi*a- 
dually deepening convictions, he 
finally decided to become a follower 
of the Lord Jesus C^hrist. He does 
this counting the cost and foresee- 
ing the persecution and hatred 
which his profession of Christ is 
certain to entail. At present he is 
in the Free Church College, Cal- 
cutta, and is hoping to be a preacher 
to Mohammedans. 



230 



GBNEftAL MtdSIOKARY IKTfiLLl(^£NCfi. 



[March 



THE KINGDOM. 

— Well does Bishop J. P. New- 
man affirm: *• The boldest thought 
ever suggested to the human mind 
is Christ's proposition to convert 
this world to himself. For origin- 
ality of conception, simplicity of 
method, and certainty of result, it 
has no parallel in the world of 
thought. Bolder than the dream 
of the Macedonian to conquer all 
kingdoms by his sword; than the 
purpose of the Roman to unify all 
governments into one; than the 
hope of Leibnitz to create a univer- 
sal lang^iage for this our babbling 
race, it stands forth sublime in its 
isolation, to excite our admiration, 
inflame our zeal, invite our co- 
operation, and inspire our faith in 
the future of mankind." 

— Judge Tucker, brother of the 
late **A. L. O. E.," served long in 
India, giving to missions $200 per 
month. To those who remonstrated 
at his liberality, he replied: "There 
are 86,000,000 adult population; 
5,000 die daily; every day's delay 
means 5,000 souls." At the en- 
trance to the station he had four 
stone tablets erected. On two, the 
Ten Commandments, on two, John 
iii. 14-18. After the duties of his 
office were fulfilled, he preacht 
Jesus. ** If every hair was a life," 
said he, ** I would give them all to 
Him." He fell in 1857. at the hands 
of the mutineers. On his sitting- 
room walls were inscribed, "Fear 
God," "Love your enemies," 
" Prepare for death." 

— As indicating progress in con- 
victicm and zeal as touching mis- 
sions, attention has recently been 
called to these three notable facts. 
Whereas at former sessions of the 
Lambeth Conference (Church of 
England), this theme of themes 
received but scant notice or none at 
all at the last session it was at the 
for6 front, it held the place of hon- 
or. The Westminster Confession 



and Directory for Worship, not 
strangely, since it dates from the 
middle of the seventeenth century, 
lays no sort of emphasis upon the 
duty of spreading the Gospel to the 
ends of the earth. And the Book 
of Common Prayer, originating yet 
further back, is sadly inadequate at 
the same cardinal point. 

— Again and again is the query 
put, Why the cause of foreign 
missions should be so much more 
popular than that of home mis- 
sions, whereas the evidence is 
overwhelming that no such partial- 
ity exists. Thus the Church Mis- 
siofiary Intelligencer shows that 
while the Church of England ex- 
pends for the work abroad about 
$3,250,000 annually (£650,000), for 
the work at home upwards of $40,- 
000,000 (£8,054,000) are expended. 
And the Missionary Herald finds 
that while the Congregationalists 
gave last year about $1,060,000 to 
evangelize the West, the South, 
etc., only some $470, (XX) were donat- 
ed for the redemption of the entire 
vast pagan and Mohammedan 
world. And no doubt all Christen- 
dom is giving in about the same 
proportion. 

— Robert E. Speer reports an ob- 
ject lesson given by the mission- 
aries in Seoul, who built a street in 
front of their premises in the most 
approved way. The Koreans were 
not slow to see the advantages of a 
well-paved street, with deep gutters 
at the side, and now there are 
miles of such streets in that city, 
making it one of the cleanest and 
most attractive in that part of the 
world. 

— Some idea of a missionary's 
isolation may be gained from the 
fact, stated in the Missionary^ 
Herald, that Dr. Atwood, in Shan- 
si, China, had not seen a European 
face in fifteen years, excepting 
those of his fellow-missionaries. 



1898.] 



0&)mRAL Mld&iOKAHY tKteLLIOfiKce. 



231 



WOMAN'S WORK. 

— Dr. Dennis, writing of woman 
as she is to-day, says: '<Sbe is still 
regarded, as of old, in a non -Chris- 
tian environment, as a scandal and 
a slave, a drudge and a disgrace, a 
temptation and a terror, a blemish 
and a burden, — at once the touch- 
stone and stumbling block of hu- 
man systems, the sign and shame 
of the non-Christian world." 

— The Zenana Bible and Medical 
Mission has missionaries in Ben- 
ares, the sacred city of Hinduism. 
An English woman visited that 
city, who has given efficient help 
in the conduct of a soldiers* home 
at Kawal Pindi. Her comparison 
of the value of such a non-religious 
tbo most kindly and helpful insti- 
tution and the Zenana work she 
saw in Benares is instructive. **I 
have seen," she said, on her return 
to Rawal Pindi, "that all the work 
we are doing here is mere child's 
play compared with missionary 
work, and henceforth I am going 
to be a missionary." 

—The W. C. T. U. of the District 
of Columbia have organized a vig- 
orous campaign against the sale of 
liquor in the official restaurant at 
the Congressional Library. They 
wiU lay the matter before Presi- 
dent McKinley, and if this effort 
does not succeed, they will ask affi- 
liated organizations throughout the 
country to join them in a monster 
petition against such desecration 
of such a building. 

— Some of the work done by the 
Traveler's Aid of the Pittsburg 
Deaconess Home during the first 11 
days of service at the station: 207 
trains were met and 586 persons 
aided, making an average of 2 per- 
sons to the train. The classes of 
people aided were the aged, the 
sick, women with small children, 
and young girls traveling alone. 
One of the last class, who had just 



come from Ireland, wanted to find 
her sister who was at service in a 
family in Allegheny. The deacon- 
ess, as soon as free from her station 
duties, took the girl to her sister. 

— The Fall River, Mass., Deacon- 
ess Home has received an offer of 
$7,000 from a generous man, pro- 
viding $3,000 are contributed by 
others. He is the same friend who 
gave the home, worth $10,000. 

YOUNG PEOPLE. 

— The Gleaners' Union connected 
with the Church Missionary Soci- 
ety has about 100,000 members and 
added 11,080 last year, supported 14 
"own missionaries" by the central 
funds and 33 others by branches 
on their own account, and besides 
paid over to the C. M. S. £2,000. 

— The Galveston, Texas, Y. M. 
C. A. entered on New Year's Day a 
new building, costing $65,000, and 
the gift by bequest of Henry Rosen- 
berg. 

— The Band of Hope movement 
is in its fiftieth year, and an ear- 
nest effort is made to increase, by 
a million more, the membership of 
these societies in Britain' and 
America. There are at present 
23,000 societies of juvenile abstain- 
ers, with a tot«il membership of 
about 3,000,000. In Lancashire and 
Cheshire, England, there are 1,250,- 
000 children of school age, of whom 
not more than 400,000 are pledged 
to abstinence. An effort is being 
made to add 200,000 members, and 
funcTs are being raised pU over the 
country. 

AMERICA. 

United States. — According to the 
Chicago Trihu7i€, in 1807, upwards 
of $33,000,000 were given in large 
sums for public uses, of which 
women were the donors of $13,- 
400,000; nearly $15,000,000 i-eacht 
the treasuries of religious societies, 
and colleges received $10,000,000. 



232 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



[March 



— Private gifts to the first-class 
educational institutions in this 
country for the last twenty years 
aggregate nearly $200,000,000, or 
an average of nearly $12,000,000 a 
year. 

— Through the death of a bache- 
lor uncle, 35 children of Kokomo, 
Ind., and its vicinity have been 
left money to give them a univer- 
sity education. More than forty 
years ago W. H. Trabue disap- 
peared. During the war he served 
as a colonel of a Mississippi regi- 
ment under the name of W. H. 
Tribbitt, and afterward settled at 
Terry, Miss., where he accumulated 
a large fortune, and recently died 
in New York, leaving an estate 
worth $3,000,000. The will pro- 
vides that all his living relatives of 
school age, and all to become of 
school age, shall receive a university 
education, and at the conclusion of 
the college course receive in addi- 
tion a sum of money equal to their 
school expenses. 

— The Armour Packing Co. is 
erecting a large building in. Kansas 
City for the use of the Salvation 
Army. It is 50 feet wide and 80 
feet long, and there are three stories. 
The auditorium on the ground floor 
will seat 700 persons, the second 
floor will be utilized as offices and for 
officers' quarters, while on the third 
floor there will be a Poor Man's 
Hotel. 

— Some 12 years ago a Chinese 
lad, Chan L. Teung, in a laundry in 
Boston, began to work his way 
toward securing an education. 
Identifying himself before long 
with the Mt. Vernon church, he 
grew in favor with all, and new 
after graduating with honor from 
Harvard University, he has gone to 
Foochow to become a teacher in 
science in the Banyan City Institute 
of the American Board, fief ore his 
departure the Mt. Vernon church 
gave him a public reception. 



Canada. — Alex. Eraser, of Ottawa, 
recently offered a donation of $800 
for the support of native mission- 
aries in Japan. Correspondence 
was had with Dr. Macdonald, and 
5 names were selected — 3 mission- 
aries and 2 evangelists — namely, E. 
Yamanaka, Y. Hiraiwa, K. Yama- 
ga, A. Kato, and K. lizumi, whose 
aggregate stipends amount to just 
$800 in gold. 

— Mr. Sampson, C. M. S. mission- 
ary at Cumberland Sound in the 
Arctic regions, writes to the soci- 
ety: **On Christmas Eve I gave a 
lantern exhibition to about 80 
souls, lasting for two-and-a-half 
hours. At the close I was com- 
pletely done up, owing to the in- 
tense heat and the dreadful stench 
arising from the oily persons of the 
Eskimos present and the nature of 
their clothes — all undrest furs." At 
another station he had for church 
and school a house in which the 
dogs were fed. It was 5 ft. 6 in. from 
floor to ceiling, the walls being 
made of barrels and the floor and 
seats of hard snow^. He had to 
stand over two smoking Eskimo 
lamps. •* I am glad to say we were 
packt like sardines," he writes, 
*'and had a splendid time singing 
hymns and reading the Gospel." 

EUROPE. 

Great Britain. The estate of the 
late John T. Morton, of Aberdeen, 
has l>een valued at £786,719 gross, 
and £714,186 net. After making 
provision for his wife and sons 
and certain legacies, Mr. Morton 
disposed of the residue of his estate 
in the following manner: One-six- 
teenth to the Waldensian Church, 
in Italy; and seven-sixteenths to 
the Moravian Church. One other 
fourth part of the residuary estate 
is to be for the benefit of the China 
Inland Mission, the money to be 
distributed among the missionaries 
in China, and to be applied in 
founding and building schools, and 



1898.] 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



233 



for evangelizing the Chinese. Un- 
der the remaining fourth part the 
following charities will benefit: 
Aged Pilgrim's Friend Society, 
London Aged Christians' Society, 
the Widows' Friend Society, and 
the Aged Christians' Friend Soci- 
ety of Scotland. Loridon Christian. 

— At a recent meeting of the 
Foreign Mission Committee of the 
English Presbyterian Church, a 
resolution was adopted declaring 
that it was expedient, in view of 
the great expansion of the church's 
C^hina and Formosa missions, and 
of their urgent claims on the re- 
sources of the church, to take in 
consideration the desirability of 
withdrawing from the station of 
Rampore Boalia, India, thus ena- 
bling the church more fully to 
strengthen and extend her work in 
China and Formosa. The Advisory 
Committee was instructed to make 
arrangements with the Free 
Church, or some other church, for 
the transference to it of the Ram- 
pore Boalia mission, the English 
Presbyterian Church to pay a sub- 
sidy for the carrying on of the 
work for a series of years. 

— The Friends' Foreign Mission 
Association has been amalgamated 
w^ith the Friends' Syrian Mission. 
The larger society found itself at 
the close of its financial year with 
a reported expenditure of £14,994, 
and income of £11,935. The deficit, 
£Si,060, has since been met by special 
contributions. In Madagascar, the 
Friends have shared the ill-treat- 
ment meted out. to all the Protes- 
tant missions. The greatest trial 
was the co^upulsory surrender of 
their fine new hospital to the 
French authorities, no compensa- 
tion being offered for the buildings, 
and only an utterly inadequate 
amount for the drugs, instruments, 
and other property. The medical 
mission property being thus confis- 
cated, the medical school for the 



training of native students neces- 
sarily came to an end. 

— The Church Missionary Society 
has selected 2 new missionaries. 
Dr. W. R. S. Miller, and the Rev. 
L. C. Jonas, to go as pioneers into 
the Hausa States in company with 
L. H. W. Nott, and in preparation 
for this campaign all the 3 brethren 
hope to go to Tripoli for the study 
of the Hausa language. Mr. Nott 
sailed early in January, and will 
make all necessary arrangements 
for the others to join him a few 
months later. 

The Continent. Signs of life are 
manifest in the French Roman 
Catholic Church. Of the 20 stu- 
dents who have recently entered 
the Protestant Theological Faculty 
in Paris, 6 were formerly priests. 
A new journal also — Le ChrMen 
Fraiigais — has just appeared, pro- 
claiming itself **the organ of evan- 
gelical reform in Catholicism." It 
asserts that more than 20 priests 
have already felt it necessary to 
separate from the church. 

— The Hermannsburg ** Farm- 
ers' " mission had an income of 
$80,325 last year. The expenses 
were heavy on account of the 
famine, the rinderpest, and the 
plague in South Africa. 

— At his Christmas reception to 
the cardinals and others who gave 
him greetings, the Pope spoke in 
deprecation of the conflict between 
Church and State in Italy. Impar- 
tial minds must needs desire it 
ended. He believed the majority 
of Italians were against it, and 
thought the Government did 
wrong to go contrary to the will of 
the people, who were now con- 
vinced that political unity had not 
brought them prosperity. The 
rights of the Papacy should be re- 
stored; it needed to be independent. 
— Itidepe tufeiit. 

— According to reports from Rub* 



234 



oeNBRAL MtSfitOi^AftY tNTELUOfilrCS. 



[March 



sia, there is a possibility that the 
religious situation will be material- 
ly alleviated. The famous M. Con- 
stantin PobiedonostseflF, Procura- 
tor of the Russian Synod, it is said, 
will be relieved of his post and be 
succeeded by (^ount Ignatieif, now 
Governor of the Province of KiefF. 
The Count is a thorough-going Rus- 
sian, and believes heartily in ag- 
gressive Russian policy; but he has 
always shown himself able to rec- 
ognize changing circumstances 
and influences. During the Russo- 
Turkish war he cordially indorst 
Bible work in the Russian army; 
and altho the Bibles thus sold were 
afterward confiscated when the 
army entered Odessa, and were 
burned, in all probability with the 
C'Ount's knowledge, still it shows 
that he realizes the inadvisability 
of the government's opposing itself 
to the trend of religious liberty in 
thought and action. — Independent. 

— There would seem to be room 
for a few missionaries in Russia. 
For it is stated on good authority 
that .over 50,000 soldiers — cavalry, 
infantry, and engineei's — guarded 
the railway between the German 
frontier and St. Petersburg on the 
Czar's recent journey from Darm- 
stadt to his own capital. The sen- 
tinels along the lines were placed 
within sight of one another, and 
were instructed in special methods 
of signaling in case anything un- 
usual should happen. The most 
extraordinary precautions were 
taken at the frontier station of 
Virballen. Every bridge was mi- 
nutely examined and tested; houses 
in the immediate vicinity of the 
line were closely watcht, and a mul- 
titude of workmen were employed 
in tapping the rails and examining 
the sleepers. The entire traffic waa 
dislocated for days before the ar- 
rival of the imperial train, and no 
one save those known to the au- 
thorities aa absolutely reliable 



sons were allowed to approach the 
neighborhood of the railway. 

ASIA. 

— Says Rev. J. H. Barrows: "Asia 
is the continent of diversities and 
divisions. It includes conservative 
China, progressive Japan, the co- 
matose and decadent Buddhist, and 
the fierce, simple, and restless Arab. 
Only a common faith can bring 
unity and order into its chaos — 
not Buddha, not Hinduism, not 
Islam. It can only be Christianity, 
whose teaching of divine father- 
hood and human brotherhood has 
come through Jesus Christ. Its 
condition is little understood. 
Nearly half of its inhabitants are 
prisoners for life ; its great cities 
are unclean ; the mass of its popu- 
lation half naked ; one-quarter 
with only one meal a day ; with 
famines that sweep off millions of 
victims. Most Hindus are on the 
verge of starvation at least period- 
ically. Even for their physical im- 
provement we must give them 
(christian ity. 

Islam. — In Palestine are found 23 
Jewish agricultural colonies, 6,000 
colonists, and 100,000 acres under 
cultivation. This is mainly the 
work of the last twenty -five years. 

— In Church at Home and Abroad 
Dr. Mary Eddy writes as follows : 
** I took a large supply of books 
with me on a tour which lasted two 
months and a half. My Bible 
woman had a special talent for 
selling them, and even sold at the 
last my own little pocket Testa- 
ment, as our supply waa exhausted. 
Since then, on every tour, long or 
short, I take with my medical sup- 
plies a full assortment of Bibles, 
Testaments, and separate voweled 
portions. The first tour after the 
new year opened, 5 napoleons* 
worth of books were in stock. 
Miss Ford, my associate, sold all 
of these to the patients, and since 



18&8.] 



(JEKERaL M16610NAIIY IKTELLIGEKCtt. 



235 



then two more orders have been 
exhausted. One little boy sold a 
treasured pack of cards to gain 
possession of the Gospel of John. 
During my last trip 31 portions 
were sold in a village where the 
light of the Gospel had never before 
penetrated." At Ban las I spent 
10 clinic days and had 600 attend- 
ances from 13 villages, while at 
Dibble, where we have 40 new 
evangelicals, I had 13 clinic days 
and 525 attendances from23 vil- 
lages." 

— Is the Bible a seditious book ? 
It has been so regarded in many 
periods of the world's history, and 
is so regarded now by a high official 
in Eastern Turkev, who seized two 
copies of the Bible and condemned 
them because of the first verse of 
the twelfth chapter of Daniel, and 
threatens to collect and burn all 
books containing this passage. I^t 
us read from King James' version 
that terrible rebellion-breeding pas- 
sage : '* And at that time shall 
Michael stand up, the great prince 
which standeth for the children of 
thy i)eople : and there shall be a 
time of trouble, such as never was 
since there was a nation even to 
that same time : and at that time 
thy people shall be delivered, every 
one that shall be found written in 
the book." 

India. — The king of Nepaul, the 
mountainous independent state 
north from Bengal, lost his queen. 
She had been terribly pitted by 
small-pox, and committed suicide 
in disgust at her loss of beauty. 
The king, in his anger at her death, 
first revenged himself on the doc- 
tors — flogged them and cut off their 
right ears and their noses. Next he 
rounded on the gods. He set loaded 
cannon in front of the images, and 
ordered the gunners to fire. The 
men, in terror of the gods, refused 
to obey. Some of them were killed 
by the order of the irate monarch, 



and then the cannon were dis- 
charged. Down fell the gods, the 
whole pantheon being destroyed. 

— A Hindu father recently 
brought his little motherless girl to 
a mission school, and askt that she 
might be received. She was six 
years old, and was sought in mar- 
riage by a man of 40, who offeretl 
200 rupees for her ; but her father 
could not consent. Then the priests 
demanded her for the vile service 
of the temple, but he would not 
yield, and instead begged the mis- 
sionary to receive and protect her, 
saying : **For years I have watcht 
the 200 Christian girls of your school 
go back and forth, and I never have 
seen an unhappy face among them ; 
I want my daughter to be like 
them." 

— Dr. K. S. Macdonald, says the 
Chinstiarij told the Missionary C'on- 
ference at Calcutta that the decay 
of caste is rapidly going on. The 
educated classes pour contempt on 
it, observing it in public for per- 
sonal ends, but utterly ignoring it 
in private life. Eating-houses are 
increasing in Calcutta, and in these 
Hindus eat all sorts of food without 
asking who prepared it. Western 
musical instruments have got into 
the harems, and Hindu young ladies 
are taught music by European pro- 
fessors. Modes of traveling also 
tend to produce this same disregard 
of the severe demands of caste. 

— This is what the Swami Vive- 
kananda, who ought to know, says 
about his fellow Hindus: ** Com- 
pared to many other races, I must 
tell you in plain words, we are weak, 
very weak. First of all is our physi- 
cal weakness. That physical weak- 
ness is the cause at least of one-third 
of our miseries. We are lazy; we 
can not work; we can not combine; 
we do not love each other; we are 
immensely selfish. . . . You 
talk of reforms, of ideas, and all 
these for the last one hundred 



23G 



GENERAL MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



[March 



years; and when it comes tx) prac- 
tice, you are not to be found any- 
where; so that you have disgusted 
the whole world, and the very 
name of reform is a thing of ridi- 
cule to the whole world. The only 
cause is, you are weak, weak ; your 
body is weak, yoiu* mind is weak." 
He said the Hindu religion is now 
*'one degraded mass of supersti- 
tion," with ** the most hideous cere- 
monies, the most horrible, the 
most obscene books that human 
hands ever wrote or the human 
brain ever conceived, the most 
l)estial forms that ever passed un- 
der the name of religion." 

— The reports from the plague- 
aflfected centers are, if possible, 
more unfavorable than those of last 
week. The number of deaths in 
Bombay is greater than at any 
time since the recrudescence of the 
disease. Poona is faring still worse. 
The scourge is working fearful 
havoc in the native city. Advices 
from there describe the situation 
as inconceivable by those who do 
not see it for themselves. The fell 
disease has appeared at a new vil- 
lage in the Punjab. Thus far the 
south and east are happily exempt 
in the providence of God. How 
long these regions will remain so 
remains to be seen. — Indian Wit- 

7l€88, 

— Dr. Downie in the Baptist 
MiHsionary Review tells of an int^er- 
esting baptismal scene which took 
place in an out-station at Nellore, 
called Rebala. ** It is a jungle vil- 
lage where a little handful of 
Christians have been struggling for 
a long time to get a little chapel 
and school house of their own. AVe 
promist them a door and window 
if they would do the rest, and when 
w^e went out to the dedication we 
could hardly avoid sharing the 
manifest pride the poor people had 
in showing us the house they had 
built to the Lord. It is only a mud 



hut covered with palmyra leaves, 
but we doubt if Solomon felt any 
prouder at the dedication of the 
temple. A church will be organ- 
ized as soon as the people are able 
and willing to call and support 
their own pastor, which, we think, 
will be very soon." 

— Principal Smith, of the Baptist 
Theological Seminary, Insein, Bur- 
ma, reports an attendance of 142 in 
the Karen, and 36 in the Burmese 
department. The class in Greek, 
after a year of foundation-laying 
in Green's Handbook to the Gram- 
mar of the Greek Testament, is now 
studying with g^at enjoyment and 
profit. Dr. Harper's Inductive 
Method with the Gospel of John. 
Next year, which will be third and 
last, they will read passages 
throughout the Greek Testament. 

China. To the civil service exam- 
inations in China about 2,000,000 
candidates are admitted every 
year. Literary criticism, history, 
agriculture, military affairs, and 
finance are among the subjects 
covei*ed. Until recently the ques- 
tions have been limited to Chinese 
affairs. Now, however, it is re- 
ported that the examiners recom- 
mend the Old Testament a^ a text- 
book, ''because it is the classic of 
Christian countries," and a new 
question on the examination papers 
this year is: " What do you know 
of the repeopling of the earth by 
Noah and his family after the 
flood? " 

— The Manchuria Presbytery of 
the United Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland is composed of 13 evangel- 
ist missionaries, 4 medical mission- 
aries, 14 native elders. At a i-ecent 
meeting it reported 28 congrega- 
tions, 63 chapels, 41 churches, 9 
dispensaries and hospitals, 1 native 
pastor, 17 native elders, 105 native 
deacons, 5,802 baptized persons, 
0,300 applicants for baptism on list, 



I 



1898.] 



OENKRAL. MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE. 



237 



58 schools, 680 scholars; and 2,000 
persons were baptized last year. 

— *• The weather was bitter cold, 
but we had no dieans of heating 
the building, and so depended for 
warmth upon our clothing, and if 
I was a missionary I was cold and 
hungry. I wore a native dress and 
planned, as far as I could, to use 
native food. About 20 women gath- 
ered to the class, some of these 
sleeping in the chapel, others re- 
turning to their homes for the 
night. I was so forfunate as to 
have for my own use one small 
room, about 10 x 6. This contained 
a kang large enough for one person, 
and no other furniture. In one cor- 
ner I had a heap of charcoal; in the 
opposite a pile of cabbages, and a 
heap of sweet potatoes, and two or 
three bunches of onions. We had 
five large jars in the room, one for 
white flour, millet meal, rice, and 
millet. Besides these I had a few 
shelves, on which I placed my books 
and a small store of home remedies. 
Among my women were two with 
small children. Those babies slept 
in the daytime, so that their mo- 
thers made real progress, but my 
rest at night was often interrupted 
by their wails. The women called 
them *the little watchmen,' and 
altho the chapel was in a lonely 
place on the outskirts of the village, 
we never felt afraid of thieves as 
long as those children cried so much 
at night." — Miss Morrill, 

—This is what Rev. W. A. P. 
Martin has to say of Rev. J. Hud- 
son Taylor and his gieat society: 
••He is the Loyola of Protestant 
missions. When I first met him he 
was a mystic absorbed in religious 
dreams, waiting to have his work 
revealed — not idle, but aimless. 
When he had money he spent it 
on charity to needy Chinese, and 
then was reduced to sore straits 
himself. When the vocation found 
hi^m it made him a new man, with 



iron will and untiring energy. He 
erred in leading his followers to 
make war on ancestral worship, 
instead of seeking to reform it ; 
still, in founding and conducting 
the China Inland Mission, he has 
made an epoch in the history of 
missionary enterprise." 

— Miss Hu King Eng, the young 
Chinese girl whom Li Hung Chang 
has appointed a delegate from 
China to the Women's Convention 
in London in 1888, is said to be 
very successful as a doctor in Foo- 
chow. She studied for seven years 
in the University of Michigan, and 
received the degree of M.D. there. 
She is now in charge of a hospital, 
and the story is told of a coolie who 
wheeled his old blind mother 1,000 
miles on a wheelbarrow to take her 
to the woman doctor. An opera- 
tion for double cataract was per- 
formed, and the woman can see as 
well as ever. 

Korea. — Those who are earnestlv 
looking for the victory of Christ's 
Kingdom on the earth, have their 
faith constantly tt»sted by news- 
paper reports of movements among 
the nations. The growing ascend- 
ancy of Russia in Korea means, 
to these watchmen of the night, 
just one imperative inquiry; Will 
the Russian (Greek) Church be 
able, with its priests and its pag- 
eants, to smother the Christian 
life already introduced into Korea? 
According to his confidence in the 
divine and energizing power of the 
Gospel, each answers that question; 
but in it lies a tremendous argu- 
ment for pushing the Bible in Ko- 
rea, and pushing it now, before 
priests and nuns fetch it, in a for- 
eign tongue, across the Russian 
border. — Wornaii^s Work for Wo- 
man, 

— Recently a colporteur in Korea 
gathered some people about him, 
but before he could tell them any- 



238 



GENERAL MISSIONABT INTELLIGENCE. 



[March 



thing about the good books he car- 
ried, and which he wished them to 
buy and read, they had to feel of 
him and handle his hat and his 
clothes. In some places a mission- 
ary has been askt to take off his 
shoes and stockings, that the people 
may see whether he really has feet 
and toes like themselves. Once a 
missionary in China, after he had 
preacht to a company which seemed 
to be listening intently, askt if any 
of those present would like to make 
any inquiries that they might know 
more about what he had been say- 
ing, to which one of the company 
said immediately: "We would like 
to know what those two buttons 
on the back of your coat are for ?" 

AFRICA. 

A missionary from Central West 
Africa tells how the natives were 
affected by their first sight of 
artificial human anatomy. A 
missionary was giving a group of 
natives a talk on astronomy, and 
when he told them about the move- 
ments of the heavenly bodies one 
of his heai-ers bluntly said, "You 
lie." The missionary said, "What 
would you say if I should tell you 
that in my country people some- 
times take out their teeth to brush 
them ? " This was greeted with de- 
risive laughter. But a lady mission- 
ary present, being prompted by a 
sign, let her hand-made teeth drop 
into her lap. Every native fled 
from the room in consternation, 
and after that they promist to be- 
lieve everything that the misHJoii- 
ary might say. 

— *•! am growing old," said the 
father of a scholar of the French 
Pn»testant mission on the Kongo, 
•*and Wfore I die I want to have 
my boy back for a time, that I may 
tell him all about our quarrels, so 
that he may know who they are 
tr ho aire us corj^ses,*^ 

^A clever writer lately >vrote a 



■book about a man who spent much 
time in Africa, which from begin- 
ning to end is a long-drawn wail. 
It would have cured both writer 
and hero of all moping to see the 
manner of Mackay's life. He has 
no time to fret and groan and weep; 
and God knows if ever man had 
reason to think of "graves and 
worms and oblivion," and to be 
doleful and lonely and sad, Mackay 
had, when, after murdering his 
bishop, and burning his pupils, and 
strangling Uis converts, and club- 
bing to death his dark friends, 
Mwanga turned his eye of death on 
him. And yet the little man met 
it with calm blue eyes that never 
winkt. To see one man of this 
kind, working day after day for 
twelve years bravely, and without 
a syllable of complaint or a moan 
amid the "wildernesses," and to 
hear him lead his little flock to 
show forth God*s loving kindness 
in the morning, and his faithful- 
ness every night, is worth going a 
long journey for the moral courage 
and contentment that one derives 
from it. — H. M. Stanley. 

— When the new converts at Man- 
gamba, in the Kameruns, West 
Africa, wanted to build a reg^ular 
chapel in place of their prayer-shed, 
they pt»titioned the Basle Society 
for a gi*aut of $1,000. The home 
committee appropriated only $aOO. 
The negro generally likes to be 
helpt along, and is not overfond of 
bestirring himself, but in this in- 
Htance he did surprisingly well. For 
months they workt overtime and 
hiivihI their earnings for their 
(*hapel. When they brought the 
money to the teacher, it was found 
that the amount did not reach by 
far. They resolved to have an Afri- 
can collection, which certainly will 
find no imitation in America. The 
chai>el committee went from house 
to house to collect the subscrip- 
tions. Vrhoever was not able to 



1898.] 



OENERAIi MISfilONART INTELLIGFVCE. 



239 



pay was summarily dealt with. His 
belongings were seized and put up 
at auction. No one demurred; they 
thought it was a good joke on them. 
A negro, however, has not much of 
this world's goods, so there was still 
a deficit. TJien the order went forth 
that no one should buy new clothes 
until the chapel was paid for. A 
young man who had gotten a new 
loin cloth was compelled to give it 
to the collector. Great was the joy 
when at last the day of dedication 
arrived, and they could give the 
Lford a house of His own. 

— M. Coillard, of the Paris So- 
ciety's mission to the Barotse, re- 
lates this incident: " In ten days the 
grass, and even the brushwood, had 
reasserted their rights, as if in 
revenge; and when we penetrated 
to the tents the smell of mouldi- 
ness chokt us. The whole place 
was a mass of mud, alive with 
frogs and millipedes. A hiuricane 
had upset everything aud broken 
my crockery. That good fellow 
Paulus [a native evangelist] had 
pusht his scrupulous fidelity to the 
point of even keeping the fragments 
of my cups and plates I It was too 
much of a good thing. I fled from 
the ruins, and installed myself in 
one of my huts, which is scarcely 
any better. The termites, centi- 
pedes, seuruyi, wamor-ants, had 
taken possession of everything be- 
fore my arrival; but it was the 
frogs more specially that had made 
it their rendezvous. They were 
every where— on the ground, on the 
walls, in the roof. They fall on 
one's head in bed, into the dishes 
on the table; they are not afraid of 
a bath in a cup of coffee, and have 
the impudence to croak in my face 
from the edge of my inkstand now 
whilst I am writing. This is a pre- 
lude to the nocturnal concert which 
awaits me. It is quite regal." 

— The Zulus keep no record of age 
except by events, and children are 



clast together if bom before or 
after a grelit battle, a great storm, 
or a g^at drought. By a kind of 
leap year arrangement a Zulu girl 
may, without embarressment, pro- 
pose marriage to any young man 
upon whom she has set her heart. 

— A Zulu woman's hut is ^er cas- 
tle, and she will shut the doer even 
on her husband. Miss Cclenso 
says, **I have heard an argry 
woman say to her spouse: 'Not a 
scrap of food shall you eat to-day? * 
and he sneaks away meekly." 

— Nyassaland from its climatic 
and geographical condition is par 
excellence the land of industrial 
missions. The Zambesi Inaustrial 
Mission maintains some 600 acres 
of land under cultivation, and 
altho small profits have hitherto 
been realized owing to the coflFee- 
shrub only attaining fruition after 
three years' growth, yet from the 
harvest of 1897 the sum of 72,000 
marks ($18,000) is expected. Forty 
Europ)ean agents and between 700 
and 800 natives are employed upon 
the plantations. 

ISLANDS OF THE SEA. 

— The London Missionary Society 
has received such favorable news 
from Madagascar as to be able to 
state as follows: ** It is implied that 
a modus viveiidi w^ith the author- 
ities had been found, and in con- 
formation of this the deputations 
state that Miss Hare's services were 
greatly needed at Fianarantsoa, 
from which, in consequence of the 
break-up of her work, it had pre- 
viously been decided to remove her, 
and that they had decided to cancel 
the arrangement for transferring 
her to Samoa, and were keeping 
her at her post. We must wait for 
details ; but this telegi'am is un- 
doubtedly the most hopeful thing 
received by us from Madagascar for 
many a day." 

— H. M, Dauncey writes from 



240 



OEXERAL MISSION ABT INTELUGEXCB. 



[March 



New Guinea: "To-day has been 
one of the • extra ' day»— three ser- 
vices and Sunday-school, all well 
attended ; and this afternoon I 
baptized 15 adults, and had 56 at 
the communion service. One inci- 
dent pleased me. I was going over 
the list of candidates with the two 
deacons. Of one man I was doubt- 
ful. I appealed to them, and they 
at once spoke out, saying he was 
not a fit person to l)e baptized. It 
showed that they had graspt the 
meaning of the rite. The Delena 
people are going in for a new 
church, and hav^e resolved to pro- 
vide it themselves. They want an 
iron church, and toward paying for 
it have collected sandal wood, 
which has realized £47 128., whilst 
they have enough in hand to bring 
in £10 or £12 more. Further, they 
and the folks just around here have 
paid (in sandal wood) this year £4 
18u., for Testaments and hymn- 
books." 

—And Rev. C. W. Abel of this 
same island says: ** I could go on to 
speak of cleanliness ; of the law we 
have had enforced for several 
years, that every boy and girl 
should have a morning and after- 
noon bath ; of the opposition with 
which this unpopular statute was 
met ; of the tyranny of it being 
suspected ; and of my good Raro- 
tongan teacher, who washt him- 
self in cocoanut oil — oh, those pun- 
gent days — coming to me to ask, in 
all seriousness, where it was stated 
in the Bible that these excessive, 
uncongenial ablutions were a »ine 
qua lion of the Christian life ; and 
yet, how, to-day, my children pre- 
fer cleanliness to dirt, and regard 
jiersonal unsavoriness as a dis- 
grace." 

— It is a very remarkable fact 
that after the complete extinction 



of the native heathenism of Fiji, a 
foreign heathenism should have 
been introduced by the immigra- 
tion of coolies from India, some 
10,000 of whom are now to be found 
in the group, mainly engaged in 
the production of sugar. The first 
of these laborers came into the 
country as far back as 1879, and 
since then a steady stream of im- 
migration has flowed, chiefly from 
the villages of the Northwest Prov- 
inces, to Fiji. Altho the coolies 
are not more than ten per cent, of 
the population, they committed 
more crime than the whole of the 
other sections of the population, 
and it became an absolute necessity, 
as well as a clearly defined duty, to 
do something for their moral and 
religious welfare. Moreover, it 
was felt that to neglect them 
would be to expose the life of the 
Fijian church to serious perils. 
One feature of the case that g^ve 
encouragement to missionary work 
among the coolies is, that through 
leaving India they have ** broken 
caste." They did not bring their 
priests with them, and were eflPect- 
ually removed from the old associ- 
ations of worship and ceremony. 

— Twenty years ago the Dutch 
on Sumatra subdued the Batta 
tribes dwelling on the banks and 
the island of the great lake Toba, 
in the mountains of the w^est side. 
The Batta posses t a certain degree 
of civilization, but practist canni- 
balism and other cruelties. As 
soon as the country was pacified, 
the Rhenish missionaries who, 
since 1861, were laboring among 
the Batta on the coast and in the 
valleys, advanced their posts into 
the Toba region. Last May a mis- 
sion festival was held on the banks 
of the lake, which was attended by 
nearly 8,000 persons. 



Missionary Review of the World! 



Vol. XXL No. 4.— OW Series.— APRIL —Voj.. XI. No. 4.— JViw Series. 



SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS OF TUE HALF CENTURY.— 
INDIVIDUAL LINKS BETWEEN GIVERS AND TUE 

MISSION FIELD. 

BY THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF. 

No practical problem, now occupying the wisest and best minds, 
is more engrossing than this : how to secure, from clicerf ul givers at 
home, a hearty and unfailing support for workers abroad, or on the 
borders of civilization in the home land. Great as is the need of a 
larger force in the field, the question pressing just now, with tre- 
mendous weight, is how to keep the laborers already in the field, and 
prevent disastrous retrenchment in the work already begun. On 
every side, and in every direction, the grand undertakings of the 
Church are at risk. Debls so enormous as almost to wreck boards 
representing home and foreign missions, and deficiencies so crippling 
to all aggressive action as to compel retrencliment instead of advance, 
have caused a chronic alarm and apprehension that are paralyzing to 
all hopeful enterprise. It is only great faith in God that dares take 
one step forward and onward when the work presents such an aspect 
and prospect. 

Devout souls stand in the presence of such a crisis in missions, 
with the deep conviction that it is both needless and shameful. There 
is money enough, yea and piety enough, to remedy all these evils and 
supply all these deficiencies, were the money and the piety only made 
available. In nature, power and energy have always been present, but 
have not always been properly applied. And so the conn^^cting links 
seem somehow wanting between Christians at home and the work and 
workers abroad. Dr. Thomas C. Upham has said,f that there is in 
every commonweath, " a conservative body of men who, in their free- 
dom from passion, can estimate the just claims of truth, and, in the 
strength of moral and religious principle, will at all hazards do what 
is right." And hence, *' when great constitutional and moral ques- 

* This periodical adopts the Orthography of the following Rule, recommended by the joint action 
of the American Philological Association and the Philological Society of England :— Change d or 
ed flnal to t when f>o pronounced, except when the e affects a preceding sound.— Publibhxbs. 

tUfeofFaith. aoOp. 



242 6PIB1TUAI. XOTKXEaPTS OF THE HAI^ CESTTKT. [April 

lions arc at stake, the retsuka have generallj been faTorable to law and 
trntb, in conseqnence of the aofi-^seion at the precipe ni»-»ment of danger 
of those of all denominacions of person*, who, in thtrir devotion to 
rectitude of principle, have declined to reo/gnize liie e»:»en:-iMns of 
party discipline, and wi.o ci>LT:i:c:e the g»:-na:ne * Imperial Gnani ' or 
• Macedonian PhaLinx/ wb«j strike •.•l!t at the nionient of imminent 
hazard, and wh«j»e moral strei.gth renders thtrm invincible-" 

Tlie Church of G«-i is iLe ii«»pe of all z*f*.»d enterprises, and within 
its sacred inclosare are the very ~ B-^^j-gnani of the Kinz.** There 
is on the earth a vast ompanv of j»rayerfuL intelligent, consecrated 
men and women, amply sntli<.ient in nnn.lAer, amf»ly ellirient in 
faculty, and not at all d*-fi«ient in either sympathy f«»r h«ily activity 
or in self-sacrifice for it.> pr»»ni«»ti«jn: and, if this iMnly of GcmI's dear 
saints conhl l»e bniui/iit into vitai t*»n<-h with the work of missions, 
monev and workers wi»uid i^e e«»niinn;illv fortih-omiiii*^: ifiere would 
be alike men in the field an«l "^^ mt^at in <Mrtrs house.'* It is the link 
of connection that is lacking. The niajoriiy of Clirisi's disciples 
know little of the wants of the worM-UeM, ami have never come to 
feel the needs and claims of the work. Tlieir niinds and hearts, con- 
sciences and sympathies, have not yet been really enlisted. If any 
impression has been made upon them, it has 1>een (KH*Hsional and 
incidental, and hence the res]H)nse has )»een spasniiMiie and impulsive. 
But in them lie the latent possibilities of vast increase in all that aids 
the best enterprises of the Church— tlie wtdnr which needs only 
proper machinery to connect it with the work to he done. 

When any temporal disaster, like plague or famine, makes its 
appeal, money flows in streams, and sometimes in floo<ls. The diflfer- 
ence lies here: the appeal in the latter case is loud and strong, echoed 
by every newspaper, emphasized in every sermon and public meeting 
for relief. The calamity that is present or threatening becomes 
everywhere the current topic of conversation. There is no eluding 
its clamorous demand for help, and knowledge of facts kindles sympa- 
thy and sympathy loosens purse-strings and heart-strings. Can not 
the perishing millions who know not the Gospel, be so brought prac- 
tically into proximity with the millions of disciples who really love 
the Master, and are ready to respond to His command and to their 
claims, as that a constant stream of consecrated gifts may be secured 
beyond the risk of all this uncertainty ? 

In reference to this matter, we desire to put once more on record 
our own deliberate, calm, prayerful, and mature judgment, that no one 
thing VJould do more to secure a prompt, permanenty and altogether 
unprecedented advance in missions, than this same plan, which the 
writer has advocated for more than twenty-five years — and which has 
b(jon steadily growing in favor and in success — of supporting indi- 
vidual missionaries in the field hy individual contributions. 



1898.] LINKS BETWEEN GIVERS AND THE MISSION FIELD. 243 

Nothing is more needed in all missionary aggressive enterprise than 
three grand conditions : Kiiowledge of the field of work, sympathy with 
the worker, ^n^ prayerful interest in the work. When these are secured, 
gifts pour in without special appeals and without cessation. One 
method of supplying all these conditions readily suggests itself. Any 
man or woman of a family that is immediately linkt to the missionary 
cause by the support of a missionary, will naturally come to know the 
field, to feel oneness with the worker, and to pray interestedly for the 
work and its progress. In repeated visits to Britain, having crost the 
sea now seven times and back, and having spent a large part of the 
last ten years in Great Britain, the writer has been brought into con- 
tact with hundreds of families that, as such, support one or more 
missionaries, in some cases of their own number, and in others of the 
church or denomination to which they belong. And in such cases 
there are uniformly found an intelligence as to missions, a deep i)er- 
sonal sympathy with missionaries, an absorbing interest in the work 
and in the people among whom it is done, a high standard of giving, 
and a high level of praying, not commonly met with under any other 
circumstances. 

For example a Scottish family — a poor family — gave one, two, 
three sons to missions. One of them became disabled, and his sister 
went and took his place, and two of the grandchildren followed — six 
from one house. Need it be said that in that household the standard 
of knowledge, zeal, prayer, and giving was very high ? Another fam- 
ily — that of a Scottish knight — sent a daughter to India as a fully 
equipt medical missionary; the effect on the whole family life was 
uplifting, and that family became itself a little missionary society, 
with all the conditions of success. Again a family — comparatively 
wealthy — resolved to give, pound for pound, and shilling for shilling, 
to the support of missionaries, the amount spent on home expenses. 
That house is the gathering-place of missionaries and a school of 
missionary information. Both the husband and wife can discourse 
of missions in any part of the world with intelligence and power. 
There is a family in Liverpool, whose son is in India in the Civil Ser- 
vice, but himself practically a missionary. Letters pass to and fro, 
and in that home any of us may learn of the condition, especially 
of Indian missions, and a habitual giving is there to be found, 
which shows a world-wide sympathy. A family in London supports 
not one but many mission workers, wholly or in part, in various fields. 
X framed list of subjects for daily prayer is hung up in plain sight, 
and, as each new day comes, the subject for that day is conspicuous. 
Of course, giving is bound to go with such praying, and the hus- 
band and wife, each one the independent possessor of a fortune, have 
given up all hoarding of money that they may enrich others, and 
frugally avoid needless expense that they may have more to bestow. 



*>44 SPIRITUAL MOVEMKNT8 OF THE HAL!' TSNTURY. [April 

That home is another missionary training-school. Another family of 
eleven sons and daughters are all engaged in mission work of some 
sort; the city of London is their field. One of them is training for 
the foreign field and has offered himself ; and there again all the con- 
ditions are met, high intelligence, earnest prayer, fervent sympathy, 
and habitual giving. Such examples might be multiplied without 
limit. But these justify and illustrate the principle, which is all we 
need to do. 

Before being confronted with these and like examples, the writer, 
in the year 1870, proposed to a church, of which he was then pastor, 
that the i/ou 71 f/7ne?i should form themselves into a missionary circle, 
and undertake to support a young man abroad. The proposal ])roved 
a seed in a congenial soil and took root. A number of the young men 
thus associated undertook the support of a young man who was just 
going to Japan and who spent years there as a most efficient and 
acceptable missionary and educator. Need it be said that the stand- 
ard of knowledge, praying, and giving in that church rose to an 
uncommon level ? In 1869 the sum total of benevolent and missionary 
offerings reacht about $1,800; in 1879 they reacht about $18,000, for 
that church was one of the best organized in the country in the 
matter of its mission bands and societies, from the " Rhea Band ' of 
the Sunday-school up to the adult organizations. 

In 1883 I settled in Philadelphia. There was a large body of 
people, numbering in all from 3,000 to 4,000, more or less closely 
identified with Bethany church and its great Sunday-school. After 
some few years of education in missions, taking up country after 
country and missionary heroes and heroines, etc., there was a band 
of several young people who proposed to go out to some foreign field 
as a colon V, and Hon. Jjhn Wanamaker offered a thousand dollars for 
the pastor to go and prospect and locate the field for the colony. It 
was then probable that the entire support of this mission band would 
have been attempted by the church, as Pastor Harms' church in 
Ilermannsburg had done, so long before. The head of this mission 
band was a young Welsh licentiate and his wife, others who offered 
being simple artizans and tradesmen. At that time there was presented 
to the ])resbytery a printed statement covering all the facts, and asking 
only for encouragement. It was most graciously received, and 
referred to a committee to confer with the board; and the result was 
that it wjis deemed by the board unwise to encourage any such inno- 
vation, and so the whole matter fell through. On calmly reviewing 
the whole matter, there is no doubt that there would have been a largo 
shrinkage had the theory been reduced to practise. Some of this pro- 
posing mission band would j)robably have "gone back" when the 
actual work was undertaken. Xo doubt much of the glamor of 
enthusiasm would have faded away, like Ephraim's goodness, the 



1898.] LINKS BETWEKN GIVERS AND THE MISSION FIELD. 245 

morning cloud, and early dew. No doubt the conservative policy of 
presbytery and the board had much worldly wisdom back of it. But, 
after all reductions and deductions have been made, it still remains 
true that, had that church sent one or more missionaries direct to the 
fiehly it might have become, with the generous and enterprising busi- 
ness man who has from the beginning been practically at its head, 
one of the main feeders of missions ! 

Take the Presbyterian Church as one example of what could be 
done by the individual missionary plan. The board needs, let us 
say, $1,000,000 for the proper prosecution of its existing missions. It 
has all it can do to get this sum, tho there is a membershi]) of as 
many souls as it asks dollars annually. Of course, if this amount could 
be equally and proportionately divided; if each member would give one 
dollar a year, one-third of a cent a day, the whole amount would be 
raised without any self-denial — tho that is a damage rather than an 
advantage. But this result, simple as it is, can not be secured. The 
bulk even of Presbyterian church-members give nothing! What if 
out of the whole denomination ^yc hundred churches could be found 
from Maine to California that would give 12,000 each to the support 
of a missionary abroad, keeping in touch with him by letters, study- 
ing his field, and praying habitually for his work ? We should have 
the $1,000,000 and all the rest of the denomination left to work on 
for 8uri)lus amounts. Or, let us suppose 1,000 churches to give %\fiOO 
each, the same result is accomplisht. 

In this vast membership of about 1,000,000 there are believed to 
be not less than twenty thousand millionaires. In one church, of 
which the writer was pastor, there were twenty men or women, any one 
of whom could without self-sacrifice have maintained a missionary in 
the field. There are no less than two hundred and fifty men in this 
one denomination that represent an average of ten million each, or an 
aggregate sum of <52,5()0,OOO,0O0. How few of us know what that sum 
means! If piled up, in five dollar gold-pieces, tliat aggregate wealth 
would reach three thousand five hundred viilcs info space! But, of 
course, we know that millionaires are not always or generally self- 
denying givers. But can not there be found 1,000 men or women in 
this whole Presbyterian Church that will each undertake, at the cost 
annually of $1,000, to support a missionary in the field? And what 
unspeakable advantage to tho yivcrs! What increase of knowledge 
of the field of work! What increasingly sympathetic touch with the 
missionary and through him or her with all other fields awd workers; 
and what a stimulus to prayer, to giving, to personal consecration ! 
What has been shown to be i)ossible in this one denomination in the 
United States furnishes only an examj)le of general possibilities if the 
Church of God were in dead earnest. 

Eighteen centuries have sped since our Lord gave his final com- 



246 SPlRiTtTAI. MOVEMKNTS OP THE HAI.F CEKTURY. [April 

mission. To-day where remain at least 800,000,000 of human beings 
to be reacht with the Gospel message. And of these 25,000,000 will 
die during the year 1898, over 2,000,000 a month! At the prese?ii 
rate of mission progress the world will never be overfaken. In fact, at 
a time when every condition of the field demands adva^ice and every 
condition of the Church justifies it, in seven out of ten of our mission- 
ary societies the decree has gone forth for retrenchment from tweniij 
to twenty-five per cent / In other words, with the population increas- 
ing at the rate of 2,000,000 a month, and proportionately dying, the 
Church of Christ, that aggregates at least fifty million Protestant 
members with hoarded wealth that defies computation, instead of 
sounding the silver trumpet for the assembling of the camps and the 
forward march around the ark of the covenant, bids the ignominious 
drum of a worldly selfishness to beat a retreat ; and we retire from 
positions, gained at the cost of blood and of treasure, and of lives 
given for Christ; wo actually surrender from, one-fourth to one-fifth 
of our outposts and captured fortresses, and bid the foe once more 
sweep back upon the territory claimed and possest for God ! 

And if one nowadavs raises the crv of alarm, and thunders out 
a remonstrance; if one declares that missions have never been in 
greater danger of utter collapse through this lack of adequate giving, 
the answer, from some fellow-believers, is ridicule, rebuke, stigmatiz- 
ing epithets, such as "pessimist," "croaker," etc. 

One grave consideration should be before us as to individual 
responsibility. Untold disaster to Church-work has been entailed by 
the withdrawing and withholding of offerings en the jmrfc of those 
to whom the local church and the denomination have a right to look 
for financial support. A church-member should have very solid rea- 
sons — reasons that would stand not only the scrutiny of an enlightened 
conscience, but the searching inquiry of omniscience — who treats with 
neglect, indifference, or contempt the mission work of the church and 
denomination to which such individual member belongs. A board, 
or other representative committee, is but an administrative body. It 
sends missionaries to the field under the implied pledge of the 
church it represents, to stand behind it and to support them there; 
and to this implied covenant every church-member is a necessary 
party. To allow the missionary agency to be crippled by an empty 
treasury and half wreck t by debt, is something for which, therefore, 
every church-member is responsible, and will be held accountable by 
the Master of us all. 

This i)lan of thus directly connecting home churches, families, 
and individual givers with the mission field by these living and personal 
links, has been growing in favor, and having increasing proof of God\s 
blessing, of late years. We have already seen how that, in connection 
with tlie Church Missionarv Societv of Britain, there are about 300 



1898.] LINKS bETWEEN GIVERS AND THE MISSION FIELD. 24^ 

missionaries maintained by special gifts of individual donors, without 
prejudice to the general work, which is a very important fact. The 
Presbyterian Board in this country is just now advocating a similar 
policy, encouraging individuals to give to the support of special 
missions and missionaries, while they carefully caution such donors 
that they deem it unwise for such gifts to be limited to special object i^ 
in the mission field, as it has been found that interest is apt to decline, 
and support to be withdrawn, when such special object is no longer 
deemed advisable or practicable.* Of course, when gifts to missions 
are prompted by a truly Christ-like spirit, they will never be limited 
by too narrow a range of personal sympathies or individual preferences. 
The work is cosmopolitan, and demands a cosmopolitan soul behind 
it — catholic, impartial — universal sympathy, and support. When it 
ceases to be wise to pursue any particular line of work, or to occupy 
any particular sphere of service, when any form of effort obviously 
lacks the divine sanction, consecrated gifts will not be withheld 
altogether, but only diverted to some wiser, better channel; the work 
at large must never suffer because any local work fails to commend 
itself to our further approval and cooperation. Otherwise we are 
moved by self-will and not the will of God. 

We commend for consideration the following suggestions: 

1. That every local congregation shall at once organize with refer- 
ence to the support of at least one foreign missionary , to be associated 
with its own church life and work. Some congregations can do more 
than maintain one. Some may not feel equal to the support of even 
one; let such associate with themselves one or more smaller churches. 

2. Let eiuihfamilg ask the question ; Can we as a household support 
a missionary abroad ? Many a family that has never yet thought of 
such a thing as possible, will at once sec that by a small reduction of 
family outlay, or by consecrating a certain precentage of family 
income, a missionary could represent them abroad. 

3. Let every individual Christian solemnly ask and answer this 
question: Could I not this year support a missionary? There is a 
man — known to the writer — who is alone in the world and spends at 
least $10,000 a year for his own keeping; another who pays $10,000 
a year rent and has not a cliild or dependent; another who spent 
$25,000 in one year's travel; another whose personal expenses are at 
least $15,000 exclusive of house rent; another who, with one child, 
spends $10,000 annually. There are others who retrench in every 

* A pertinent example of this method of Rupportinj? a inissiunary, and of enlistinf^ the 
BTmpAtnies of a church is fumisht in the case of the late Dr. A. C U(H)d, who was sustained in 
his arduooa work in Africa by the contributions of Trinity Presbyterian Church in Montclair, 
N. J. This church askt the board that they might assume his entire support and salary, and 
regard him as their special representative abroad. Tlie arrangement resulted most happily. 
Hw relation to the board was unaltered thereby, and a particular benefit accrued, not only to 
that church, but to the Church at large ; for never before had he allowed himself to write 
such full, leisurely letters. The pastor. Rev. Orville Ree<i, testifies to the blessed influence of 
these letters on the church, in the real interest awakened in foreign missions, the warm 
attachment to the missionary, and the increase of prayerful giving. It was as tho the church 
Ua I a second ";)a»/or in Africa."— "A Life for Africa." pp. 148, 149. 



248 SPIRITUAL. MOVEMBXTS OF THE K..LF CEXTUBY. [April 

» 

direction, cheerfully and habitually, in order to give, like that man 
who supports an entire mission with its six workers, paying outfit, 
transportation, salary, etc., out of his o^vvn pocket; yet that man is 
not a rich man, but one of very moderate means, but who does busi- 
ness and makes money for Christ. 

Mr. Luther D. Wishard is about to give a year to a special effort 
to interest individuals in foreign missions. He has large qualifications 
for such work. To his life-long interest in missions is added his four 
years' visitation of the foreign field, and so he is thoroughly informed 
on these matters. His twenty years' service, first as College Secretary, 
and then as Foreign Secretary of the International Committee of 
Young Men's Christian Associations, has kept him in touch with the 
field, and given him wide acquaintance among missionary workers 
at home, fitting him to enlist the cooperation of prominent laymen. 
He is an effective speaker, and deeply appreciates and strongly empha- 
sizes the vital relation of missions to the spiritual life. TJie Presby- 
terian Board may well be congratulated on securing his services. He 
accepts tliis work only temporarily, and his appointment involves no 
addition to the board's executive force, and no increase of its adminis- 
trative expenditure, the entire cost, including not only his salary and 
travel, but even postage and stationery, being met by a layman, who 
already himself supports two foreign missionaries through the board, 
and believes that many others might be induced to cooperate in this 
way, if the matter were personally presented to them. 

Alas! the Church of God as a body is still asleep, or, if awake, 

criminally apathetic and letliargic. And the Master of us all will 
have some day an awful reckoning with us for wasting His goods, and 
neglecting His scattered sheep, and disobeying His command. There 
is bloodguiltiness to be required of this generation. Let us abandon 
the work of missions altogether if it be not Go(Vs work and ours by 
His appointment. But if it Im His work, then in the name of God and 
of Christ, and of the Gospel, and of Humanity let us do it, and do it 
with some such enthusiasm, prayerfulness, generosity, sacrifice, giving 
of money, and giving of self, as tlie magnitude of the trust and the 
field, and the magnificence of the work and the reward, and the 
majesty of the Divine King and Captain demand! 

The one thing which tlie Master is now pressing upon the atten- 
tion of all His disciples who have ears to hear is the absolute neces- 
sity of remembering, as before God, their individual duty and privi- 
lege. He solemnly challenges every disciple to face three great 
questions, as one who alone is to give account of himself unto God. 
However we nifiy hide hero behind tlie mass, or lose ourselves in the 
crowd, at the judgment-seat of Christ every one of us, in awful alone- 
ness, must confront these tremendous questions: " Hast thou wasted 
my goods ? " " Hast thou neglected a dying world ? " " Hast thou 
shut thine hand and purse against thy needy and perishing brother 
man?" And we need to meet tlieso questions, now, with a practical 
answer which will stand this scrutinv, if we are not to be "ashamed 
before Him at His coming." 



THE CUNDITIUN OF WOMEN IN INDIA. 249 



THE CONDITION OF WOMEN IN INDIA. 

BY REV. EDWARD STORROW, BRIOIITON, ENCH.AXD. 

Strange social usages have prevailed in all (iges. Some of tliem 
have liail their origin in differences ot religion and race, others in 
intellectual and physical anporiority, and others again in pure preju- 
dice and selfiehncss. Whatever their origin, they have generally 
wronght toward evil and oppression, however innocent their origin or 
epecioas their aim. Of all these, there is probably not one which hiis 
had a more specious origin, endured for a longer time, extended its 
influence more widely, affected society more vitally, or produeetl ae 
large an amount of suffering and degrmlation, as the low status of 
the Hindu women. 

The main features which have given it this durable, far-reaeliing 
power are, that it assumes to be based on essentially natnral distinc- 
tions, to have divine sanction, and rigidly defines what all women are 
nxtrally and intellectuallvt «ud how they should ho treated from tlio 



250 fBK ooxDmox OF woxex cr cmiA. [April 

cradle to the grare. How this gjBtem originated, and the caases 
which led to its perpetuation, maj be sabsequentlj eoneidered. Oar 
first aim will be to describe the actoal position of women earlj in this 
century, when their condition, according to natire ideas^ first came 
to be adequately understood by Enropeans. 

Happily now more wise and humane sentiments are banning to 
prevail; but we wish to show what Hinduism, when left to itself, did 
for the Tast race which came nnder it^ rule, to excite deeper interest 
and sympathy in the condition of women, and to enconrage effort for 
their emancipation. 

The deepest wish of a Hindu father has always been to hare a son, 
since sons are an honor to a family, daughters a dishonor and a 
burden. The former alone is qualified to lead the funeral cere- 
monies, essential for the happy transmission of the souL The birth of 
a son, therefore, was a welcome erent; that of a daughter most 
unhappy, lowering the mother in the estimation of her family and 
neighbors, and possibly in her relations to her husband. Girls received 
no education. Even the art of reading and writing was regarded not 
only as unnecessary, but as positively dangerous, because likely to 
make women disobedient and conceited, and putting in their power 
gifts more likely to be used for mischief and intrigue than for good 
purposes. Here and there a learned Brahmin taught his daughter, 
but such instances were rare, for ignorance was considered 'Hhe 
ornament of a woman,'' and there is no record of a school anywhere 
for girls, tho education for boys was greatly valued. A quasi divine 
authority directed, and custom — the uncliallenged despot in all Indian 
affairs — ruled that every girl should be married before her twelfth 
year of age. Probably the greater number were married much earlier, 
and some when mere children of five and six. Marriage was not at 
these early ages followed immediately by its consuramationy but 
usually — and always with those of high caste — was accompanied by 
three conditions : 

(1. ) Strict seclusion in the zenana. 

(2.) Abject submission to the husband's authority, and the mother or 
sister-in-law, who ruled the zenana; and 

(3.) Perpetual widowhood in the event of theliusband's death. 

Dread of caste defilement^ fear of the gods, and suspicion of 
women were the three ruling sentiments of all heads of families. The 
chastity of the women was assumed to be best secured by not allow- 
ing them freedom to walk abroad or to think or act for themselves. 
Even in her own family, she is not free to leave the zenana and pene- 
trate into that side of the house exclusively given over to the use of 
her father-in-law, brothers-in-law, uncles, and male cousins. 

Submission to her husband was absolute, and prest to the extent 
of abjectness. She must not sit in his presence until told to do so. 



]898.] THK CONDITION OH- WOMEN IN INDIA. 25l 

nor begin a conversfltion, or eat with him, or express any opinion 
contrary to his. Silent submission, not only to his will, but to his 
reproaches, and eyen to his cbustisement, naa regarded as the duty of 
a wife. 

If the husband died, tlie wife became a life-long widow. Even if 
they were mere children, who had never lived together, or seen each 
other but for a moment during the elaborate marriage ceremonies, her 
marriage was regarded as shameful to her and insulting to the 
memory of the husband and his family. 

Widowhood had also to be associated with life-long austerities and 
hnmiliations. It was deemed fitting that all Joy and brightness should 
pass forever out of her life. Her plentiful and mucfa-loved orna- 
ments and bordered attire had to be laid aside, and were often vio- 
lently torn from her; her head was shaven, she had but one meal a 
day, and was obliged to fast for two days in the month; she was sub- 
ject to reproach, contempt, and abhorrence, and was forbidden to be 
present on any occasion of festivity. This was the prescribed usage, 
tho the poor widow might 
be a little child or a delicate 
woman. 

There were but three 
escapes from this inferno: 
prostitution, death, and the 
suttee. The first was adopted 
by multitudes, and the last 
by many, especially in the 
great province of Bengal. 
They sometimes adopted 
this course in despair, not 
seldom as an act eminently 
holy and meritorious, and 
frequently at the persua- 
sion of relatives, who tiiua 
got rid of what was really 
an encumbrance and sup- 
posed to be a disgrace, which 
by this act was turned into 
a family honor. 

Girls being unwelcome 
as a family reproach, a bur- 
den, and acanse of anxiety 
if not of shame, it is hanlly 
surprising that infanticide 

was common. Tliere is _^ - 

every reason to think that ^ lat? c*-tk hibuu wuham. 



252 THE CONDITION OP WOMEN IN INDIA. [April 

some millions annually thus disappeared. It became a system, and 
was hardly held to be a disgrace. The facilities for it were great. 
The father had only to give the sign, by a movement of the hand to 
say " It is nothing, take it away,'' when the pressure of tlie midwife's 
hand on top of the head or throat, or tlie pan of water, or the 
poisoned breast, or the adjoining jungle, or river, or tank received the 
unwanted one. 

All these customs were sanctioned by public opinion, and prevailed, 
more or less, for many centuries among a people twice as numerous as 
now inhabit the United States, and over an area almost equal to all 
Europe, west of Russia. They centered into the common daily life of 
immense multitudes, as the following illustrations will show. 

The prevalence of suttee was brought to the notice of the govern- 
ment early in the century. Careful inquiry showed that while it was 
everywhere regarded as a most sacred and meritorious deed, it pre- 
vailed chiefly among Ragputs and in the large and populous districts 
near Calcutta. The Serampore Mission in 1804 sent ten agents to 
collect information as to its prevalence within thirty miles around 
Calcutta. They reported that more than three hundred widows had 
been immolated within six months. 

Subsequently government inquiry showed that in twelve years, 
from 1815 to 1826, 7,154 thus died in the presidency of Bengal. In 
eight of these years, 287 were burned in Madras, and in nine years 
248 in Bombay. In 1818 there were at least 839 suttees in British 
India. Child-wives were often disposed of thus, and sometimes several 
women thus died at one time. In the parliamentary papers there is 
given a list of 61 widows, all under eighteen years of age, who thus 
perisht between 1815 and 1820. 

A Brahmin had married forty wives. Twenty-two died before 
him, but the remainder all became suttees, leaving more than forty 
children. In another instance a Brahmin, who had married one 
hundred wives, died, and twenty-two of his widows became suttees, 
the fire being kept burning for three days. 

Infanticide was yet more common and was confined to girls. It 
was seldom caused by poverty and want, and was most prevalent 
among the Ragput and other superior classes. The blue-books 
abound with such evidence as the following: 

**The far greater part of the Sharijas in Kutch followed the practise. 
In Kathiawar the lowest estimate was that 1,0(K) were annually destroyed, 
and in Kutch 2,000." 

In many large districts government officials made such reports as 
the following: 

** In 157 families there were 32 daughters, but 189 sons. In 13 villages, 
with 654 families, 429 boys and 100 girls. Elsewhere 350 boys and 90 
girls. It was admitted that in one tribe the proportions were 118 boys 



1S98.] THK CONDITION OF WOMKN IX IXI>1A. 253 

and 16 girls; in a second, ^0 and 98; a third, 131 and 01; and a fourth, 14 
and 4; a fifth, 30 and 7," etc. 

It was estimated, on good authority, that in Malway and Rajputana 
not less than 20,000 infants were annually destroyed. 

The British Government has made this practice a penal offense 
and used its great influence with the native states for its suppression; 
but feminine life is little valued, and, as the natives say, ** Nothing 
is so eaeily destroyed as a flower/' Therefore, the crime, tho abated, 
yet goes on, as some curious facts reveal, esi)ecially this very obvious 
one: the government census tables for 1891 state the entire popula- 
tion to be 146,727,296 males and 140,496,135 females — proportions the 
reverse of those which nature produces. 

The early age of marriage, the cruel and repressive usage to which 
widows are subjected, and the stern hostility to their remarriage, are 
among the greatest evils of India. Usage and quasi divine authority, 
enjoin that if the marriage of girls is delayed beyond the age of 
twelve, the parents neglect a great duty and commit a great sin. 
There were, when the census was taken in 1891, 22,657,000 widows, 
almost one-sixth of the entire female population. Of these 13,870 
were under four years of age, 60,040 between five and nine, 174,500 
between fifteen and thirty-four. The manifold evils of this state of 
society may be imagined, but can not be described. It offers great 
temptations to vice. It burdens a large number of families. It con- 
strains widowers, if they marry, to take child wives, for others are not 
to be had, and it is no unusual thing for men of thirty or even fifty 
years of age to have wives of eight or ten. 

In such a condition of society the education of women found no 
place; tho highly valued for men, and carried by some very high in 
literature and philosophy, it was, as we have said, even in its simplest 
elements, regarded not only as unnecessary but dangerous for 
women. A pundit here and there tauglit a bright and favorite child, 
but probably not one girl in 25,000 was ever in any sense educated. 

This was the condition of female society when England, with sur- 
prise, found herself mistress of this magnificent empire, and when 
missionaries began their divine work. The actual condition of things 
came but slowly to bo understood, and yet more slowly to be dealt 
with, for their hands were full of pressing preliminary work. Their 
course was most difficult and dangerous, and native sentiment was 
suspicious, reticent, and hostile to change. Happily, in spite of all 
this, a good beginning in every direction has been made, and gives 
great promise for the future. It is as when the sweet and gracious 
influences of springtime have begun slowly to work in nature toward 
the beauty and fruitfulness of summer. 

By what slow and even painful processes the missionaries tried to 
teach girls as well as boys; how, meeting with little success, their 



354 THE CONDITION OF wMKN IN INDIA. [April 

wives tried giris' schoola, and by feminine witcliery and all manner of 
gentle devices, could only induce a few small children of tlio lowest 
castes to venture on u ])recarious attendance; bow tliey tried boarding- 
schools, and finally zeuana instruction — all this can not now be told. 
It is apathetic story, and one full of interest and importance; a story 
of quiet, persistent, unobtrusive love in which angels would deligbi 
Tliia only can here bo stated. Three great factors have mainly con- 
tributed to the change; 

1, Tbe usages and policy of the English race as an object lesson to a 
singularly iuteltectual and observant people. 

2, The general influence of Christianity as taught by missionaries. 

3, And above all, the highest education given in all the Anglo-Indian 
colleges and schools to the ^Rte of the upi>er classes and castes in all the 
most important cities of the empire. 

Tlie early methods employcil for reaching women np to the middle 
of the century have gradually been enlarged in 
a manner surprising even to the natives them- 
selves, and hardly expected by the missionaries. 
The movement is not general, but where mis- 
sionaries have labored for a few years, and the 
kind of Echook named have been active, the 
condition of women has been greatly improved. 
For instiince; 

1. Some of the worst usages have been 
abolisht, or greatly restricted. Infanticide was 
prohibited in 1S02. Suttee in 1829. Female 
education was undertaken by the government 
A cBBisTu.v BDiMi (tiKL. in 18j0. THc rcmarrjage of widows legalized 
in ISJC. The age of consent raised in 1891. 
On questions on which public opinion rather than legislative action 
must bring about a change, there is a markt advance. The most 
influential classes are now advocating the restriction, if not abolition, 
of child marriage; the eucouragement of female education, more 
respect, and greater freedom for women; the humane treatment of 
widows and their remarriage, and the proliibition at least of Kulin 
polygamy. Each one of those steps points to a beneficent revolution 
affecting the happiness of many millions of women, with reflex advan- 
tages to the male population. 

'i. It ia a hopeful sign that in spite of tlie force of ancient customs, 
the suspicion and distrust so general, and the restraining influence of 
large masses of the population, there is a great desire on the part of so 
many to respond to Christian effort. For instance, common schools for 
girls are better attended and are often earnestly desired. Schools of 
a better class are here and there formed. Kativea spontaneously form 
and manage girls' scliools. Native Christian Bible-women and Euro- 



1898.] THE CONDITION OP WOMEN IN INDIA. 25.') 

pean ladies UBually find free access to read the Scriptures, to explain 
Christian truth alike in towns and villages, and are doubly welcome if 
possessing medical skill. 

3. The greatest sign of change is in the zenana movement. Ko 
dwellings were ever more jealonaly guarded. No women were ever 
kept in such bitter, dreary ignorance, I remember the time, even in 
Calcutta with its immense population, and many thousands of well- 
educated and highly intellectual native gentlemen, with the gracious 
status of Englishwomen before their keen and observant eyes, when 
no missionary's wife conld have gained access to a single zenana to 



instruct the ladies and teach Christian truth. Now there and else- 
where 40,500 such homes arc open; in many of them several women 
aa well as children are taught. Nor is this all. In a largo number of 
similar houses missionary instruction is now given by native women, 
and by men to their wives. 

4. The advance of education will bo seen from the following figures, 
altho all information previous to the middle of the century is 
approximate only. In 1855 the Rev. J, Fordyce, the actual founder 
of zenana visitation, estimated the number of girls at school through- 
out India to be about 5,000 or 6,000, one in every 15,000 females! 
In 1S78, the number was 78,078; in 1887, 213,428; and in the gov- 
ernment census report for 1801 were (women): — 



2 56 THE KNIGHTS OP THE BROOM. [April 

Learning 107,662 

Literate 543,485 

Illiterate 127,728,768 

The movement for the elevation of women had its origin chiefly 
in the exertions of the missionaries^ and they have been the leaders in 
every subsequent forward movement. The advance they have made in 
recent years will be seen in the following table; for before 1870 lady 
missionaries, and the zenanas open to them, were very few. 

1S71 1890 

Foreign Female Teachers .• 370 711 

Native ("hristian Female Teachers 837 3,278 

Girls' Day Schools eW 1,507 

Day Scholars ^,078 02,414 

Orphans 2,005 1,784 

Zenanas visited 1,300 40,513 

The advance thus far made is gratifying, especially if the difficul- 
ties in the way of all progress be considered. 

5. But how much remains to be accomplisht! 

The females under instruction are 197,662, but tlie illiterate are 
127,726,000. Tliere is but one Protestant lady missionary to about 
190,000 of her sex I Probably not one zenana in a hundred is open 
to Christian visitation. Not one-fourth of the 715,000 of the villages 
of the empire have ever been visited by a Christian lady; or one-half 
the entire population ever heard the Gospel message I Yet within the 
range of Christian beneficence no one sphere is so vast and important 
as the elevation of these d^^spised and long-suffering women. 



THE KNIGHTS OF THE BROOM.* 

BY KEY. T. J. SCOTT, D.I)., BAREILLY, IXDIA. 
Missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Board (North). 

It is creditable to the scientific and enlightened spirit of British 
rule in India that, from the beginning, many officers of the govern- 
ment, both civil and military, have devoted much time and labor to 
the study of the natural history, ethnology, arclieology, and religious 
of India. Servants of the government have thus rendered valuable 
aid to all interested in this great country. One of the most recent 
examples of such research is that recorded in a pamphlet by Mr. R. 
Greeven on the origin, history, and customs of the " sweeper " caste 
of India. These people are especially interesting to missionaries as 
representing a large and most hopeful field of work. They are now 
yielding converts by the tens of thousands. 

Tlie people of this caste, numbering about 100,000,000 in north 
and central India, are commonly called sweepers, from the fact that* 

* The title of this article is the name of a fair-sized pamphlet on the sweeper caste In 
India by Mr. R. Greeven (Oxon), in charge of one of the civil districts of the Northwest Prov- 
inces, into which India is divided for revenue and magisterial purposes. 



1898.] THE KNIGHTS OF THE BROOM. 25? 

from time immemorial to them has been relegated the sweeping of 
houses and streets, and the general removal of filth. This not very 
genteel employment — this battle with dirt — has gained for them tlie 
facetious title of *^ Knights of the Broom.^' These sweepers are 
scattered over a large part of northern and central India, being settled 
more thickly in some places, where they often constitute a ward in 
the city, or a large section of the town or village, while in other 
places only a few houses of isolated families will be found. The 
caste is not always confined to the traditional work of the scavenger, 
for in many places they are occupied in agriculture, or are the village 
watchmen; some even belong to.the police force, or are trusty soldiers 
in the queen's service. Nevertheless, on account of the filthy drudgery 
assigned to the caste, the books of the higher classes refer to the 
sweeper with loatking, and the most stringent rules have been formed 
1,0 prevent contamination by even his shadow falling upon one of 
higher caste. 

There is generally nothing in the appearance of this people to 
mark them as a low, ignoble, outcaste race. One would often be puz- 
zled to distinguish them from the proud Brahmin priest, or the lordly 
warrior, with many generations of heroic blood coursing through his 
veins. In the northwest provinces the fairest children and prettiest 
women in the villages and city wards belong to the sweeper's class. 

Mr. Greeven found, to his surprise, that this despised caste "pos- 
sesses a military organization, follows a secret and mysterious religion, 
interlinkt with a poesy of tradition at once sublime and pathetic.'* 

It is still a mystery how this caste arose. They are manifestly 
Aryan in race, like the proud castes that claim their most menial 
service, while shrinking from their touch. Their folk-lore gives an 
account of their origin, which traces them to the best blood of the 
Hindu race. The story goes that early in the Hindu history certain 
princesses had invited their friends to a feast, but before the guests 
arrived, a calf fell dead within the sacred space consecrated for the 
banquet. In their perplexity they disputed as to who should defile 
himself by privily removing the carcass. The great warrior Arjun 
entreated the young Prince Nakul to save them from dishonor by 
removing it, but when the young prince had accomplisht his task, 
Arjuu immediately withdrew from him in disgust, swearing by the 
Vedas and Shasters that he never again would associate with him. 
This led to Nakul's separation from his caste and retirement to a 
forest, where he united with a wild woman, from whom descended the 
race of scavengers, whose work since then has been the toil of the 
sweeper and remover of dirt. 

After the entrance of the Mohammedan conquerors into India, 
the sweepers, in the performance of their menial duties for Moslem 
masters, gradually absorbed something of the Moslem faith and 



258 THE KNIGHTS OP THE BROOM. [April 

traditions, from which they elaborated another version of the manner 
in which they became involved in their degrading service. The legend, 
as gathered by Mr. Greeven, ran thus : 

** Adam and Eve, the clothed in flesh, were innocent as yet of the 
grosser needs of the body. They had no wants, save to contemplate the 
glory of the Almighty, singing, 'There is no God, save God.' The Lord 
was pleased with His handiwork, and commanded all His angels to 
worship Adam and Eve as their masters. All the angels obeyed save 
Satan, who refused, saying adroitly, * Hast thou not taught me that there 
is no God save God ? Thee will I worship, but none other.' Then the 
Almighty was angered, and sternly charged Satan to kneel down before 
Adam on pain of everlasting punishment. Satan was afraid, and affected 
to submit. Nevertheless guile and rancor were in his heart as he entered 
Paradise, where the seraph hosts were adoring Adam. ' Give ear, ye 
dullards,' cried Satan ; * how long will ye be content to continue fasting ? 
Behold the ears of corn how they ripen and grow yellow I Shall we ever 
despise God's bounty ? Nay, rather let us eat that the ears wither not, 
neither fall to the ground, serving no man.' Then Satan gave the ears of 
com to Adam and Eve and all the angels, and all ate. The earthly food 
turned to ordure in their bodies. So it was that the earth and steps of 
heaven were defiled." 

In consequence of all this, according to the legend, the Lord 
created scavengers to cleanse tlie earth and steps of heaven. 

From these legends of the sweepers the true origin of the caste 
may be inferred. At a very early period in the history of the Hindus 
the caste system was devclopt. Menu, tlie Moses of the Hindus, about 
800 B. c, laid down caste rules of remarkable severity. The repug- 
nance of the early Aryan invaders against the aborigines is seen in a 
social code of bitter severity against the cliildren of marriages with 
the aborigines. Menu speaks of such as the " lowest of mortals " — 
" a foul race.*' They were to dwell apart from others, and their 
shadow even was held to be defiling. The most menial and degrading 
service was Ji^isigned to them. The sweeper legends indicate that the 
caste arose from such infringement of the social code as forever 
excluded the condemned to an outcast life of great severity. Untold 
generations have past, but no atonement has bridged the gulf of social 
degradation. As outcivstes the sweepers in time organized their own 
caste rules and customs, and acquired a belief i^eculiar to themselves, 
drawn from many sources. From their legends various stages may be 
traced by which the sweepers past under the influence of other relig- 
ions. In the earlier days, separated from the Hindu community, they 
retained much of the old belief, and practist such ceremonies as were 
convenient to their situation. In more recent times, as Mr. Greeven 
shows, when the Mohammedans invaded India, the sweepers borrowed 
from them, and wove into their belief scraps suiting their fancy, so 
far as to be recognized as proselytes, but they never have acquired 
an^ social position among Mohammedans, 



1898.1 THB KNIGHTS OP THE BROOM. 259 

Still later, when the Sikh power developt, which was a kind of 
Hindu military movement in northwest India, a large number of 
sweepers joined it under Nanak Shah, the hero of a revolt against 
Moslem tyranny. The martial followers of the Nanak adopted the 
tenets of their chief, and abandoned the menial duties of sweepers. 

As stated, the sweepers have an elaborate system of their own, with 
secret ceremonies and esoteric teaching. They have more open cere- 
monies for births, weddings, and deaths. The following quotation from 
our author will indicate some of the caste rules of this outcaste class : 

" Only Lalbegis and Rawats eat food left by Europeans, but all eat 
food left by Hindus or Mussulmans. The shaikh mehters (sweepers), as 
Mussulmans, alone circumcise, and reject pig's flesh. Each sub-caste eats 
uncookt food with all the others, but cookt food alone. Only Helas refuse 
to touch dogs. Shaikhs and Lalbegis alone admit proselytes. No 
sweeper touches the corpse of any other caste, nor, within his caste, of 
any sub-caste except his own. While to the west of Delhi they are will- 
ing, and regard as their function, to sweep streets and bum corpses, in 
Benares they profess, on the authority of a legend, to abandon streets to 
chamars (tadners) and corpses to doms. In fact, sweepers by no means 
indorse the humble opinion entertained with respect to them." 

These people, in some i)lace8, have a remarkable clan organization, 
which seems to have been adopted in this form since the introduction 
of British power. It consists of a curious mingling of civil and 
military offices, with an order of procedure in clan council, and there 
are establisht punishments in case of offense against the rules of the 
tribe. Punishments consist of (a) fines, (b) dinners furnisht by the 
offender to the clan, (c) outcasting in case of non-compliance witlrthe 
demand for fines and dinners. 

Some branches of the sweepers add to their number by making 
proselytes. This is especially so of those who have taken on some 
form of the great proselyting Moslem faith. One tribe, the Lalbegis, 
or followers of the '^ red prince'' — a semi-mythical personage — after 
a long ritual at night, cause the candidate to drink a goblet of sweet- 
ened water, touch t in such a way by each member of the brotherhood 
present that the fingers are wet in the fluid. This is said to inspire 
him with lowliness and contentment in the degrading service of his 
life. The convert, generally an outcast from some of the Hindu 
clans, is entitled to sit on the tribal mat in assemblages, and smoke the 
common pipe. Cases are known of higher caste persons joining them 
for a coveted wife. 

The special point of interest in this numerous class of people at 
the present time, is a mass-movement among them toward Christianity 
in many places. And this is no hasty impulse. A third of a century 
ago, where now tens of thousands are turning to Christ, they seemed 
as difficult to reach as any caste. When I first went to India, in 1862, 
an earnest missionary of the English Church Mission had been work- 



260 THE KNIGHTS OP THE BROOM. [April 

ing among the sweepers for years, but with small success. His thought 
was that surely this people, with really no caste, and socially every- 
thing to gain, could easily adopt the new religion. After years of labor 
the missionary retired from India in broken heaJth and hope unreal- 
ized. I heard that, like Paul, in the deep interest of his heart, he 
had said, "I could wish that myself were accurst from Christ for my 
brethren, the sweepers.'' He saw it not, but the time of refreshing 
came, and the labors of missionaries among tliis deprest class now 
bear wonderful fruit. Witliin a few years, more than a hundred 
thousand souls from among them have been gathered into the Chris- 
tian community. Some missionaries have hesitated to push work 
among them, lest it might prejudice effort among the higher castes. 
Others, recognizing the opening, and believing that now, as of old, 
it is the glory of the Gospel that it is preach t to the poor, have pusht 
tlie work among these broken-hearted, socially ostracized, and 
imprisoned multitudes. Many churches have been organized among 
them and pastors raised up. And it is noteworthy that, after all, this 
movement does not hinder the work among other castes, for the 
missionaries who are seeking these poor people secure more converts 
among other castes than those who shun the sweepers. Able men 
have been raised up from among them who, as preachers and teachers, 
are nobly pushing evangelism, not only among people of their own 
clans, but among higher cjistes also. Others are taking their places in 
respectable remunerative secular employment. 

In the days of American slavery, the songs and aspirations of the 
enslaved were prophetic of the great deliverance to come. It is 
remarkable that the sweepers, in their outcast and downtrodden 
condition, have adopted an ancient prophecy of the Mahabharat, the 
great heroic poem of the Hindus, as in some way meaning restoration 
to honor and position for their tribe. The passage in the Mahabharat 
predicts a coming millennium for the proud Brahmins, the priestly 
caste. A wonderful incarnation as a "blazing Brahmin of mighty 
intellect having appeared, will destroy all things," that he may pre- 
pare the way for a new order. " Surrounded by Brahmins, that 
Brahmin will exterminate all the rulechas (outcastes) wherever those 
low and despicable persons may take refuge.'' But the sweeper has 
read into this ancient prophesy hope for himself. For centuries the 
name of Jesus and something of His teaching have been known in 
India apart from the direct work of missionaries. There is a tradi- 
tion that a sweeper was the means of restoring to life a hero of the 
Sikhs, Guru Govind Sing. The hero saint immediately said: 

•• Come thou Savior of the world, .Tesus. 

Under Thy sway shall flowera and lietel leaf fall from heaven. 

All men snail gather together and cry in joy : 

All hail thou Kuler of the universe. 

Vanquisher of foes and fosterer of the poor," 



1898.] DEVOTEES— HINDU AND CHRISTIAN. 261 

In the millenninm of the sweeper, as Mr. Greeven expresses it, 
"The prophecy of the rule.of Jesus has been fulfilled by the empire 
of the British. That empire has proved as gentle and kindly as the 
dying saint foretold." But Jesus one day will appear as the final 
Jlestorer of all things. " All shall join hands in paying Him honor. 
When the last stain of impurity shall have been cleansed away, all 
shall be alike pure and holy. The distinction between clean and 
unclean shall disappear. All castes shall be blended. All men shall 
eat together." Our author then contrasts the aspiration and hope of 
this lowly stratum of despised Indian humanity with the idea of the 
Brahmin, to whom his touch is pollution: 

" Thus the lordly Brahmin and the despised scavenger each in his 
way contemplates the approach of the millennium. Which is the fairer 
pictnre, the Brahmin gloating over the subjection and the extermina- 
tion of all races, except his own, or the scavenger yearning for the hour 
when there shall be peace and good-will upon earth, and all men shall be 
alike, pure and holy ? " 



DEVOTEES — HINDU AXD CHRISTIAN. 

BY LUCY E. GUINNESS, HARLEY HOUSE, LONDON. 
Editor of Regions Beyond, and author of "The Neglected Continent." 

Tlie holiest place in all Bombay is the beautiful "tank," down to 
whose clear waters lead flights of wide shelving steps, ai^i where 
bathers and little children play among reflections of the cloudless 
skies and picturesque masonry. To the minds of multitudes this is a 
sanctuary, a shrine. Round it a group of little temples rise among 
odd buildings, priests' houses, pilgrims' lodgings, and native homes. 
From time immemorial Valkeshwar has been a sacred spot. Many 
pilgrims have trampt through weary journeys to reach these shining 
waters, many anxious, clouded lives have been strained to the utmost 
to seek what here they seek, but never find. 

Four or five fakirs, covered witli filth and ashes, sit at one end in 
the hot sun, looking almost more like beasts than men. There they 
sit, almost naked, on the rough ground, surrounded by the various 
little pots and bowls and odds and ends which they employ for life 
and worship. One or two are smoking a powerful drug, which partly 
stupefies them. One talks to us by translation, and another, the most 
hideous of all, an animal-looking creature, with masses of matted 
hair full of dust and ashes, who seems really half insane, makes us a 
great oration all in his unknown tongue. Louder and louder he talks, 
preaching at last at the top of his voice, and pausing now and then 
amid his eloquence to blow shrill blasts on a cow's horn by his side. 

*' Wliy does he do that ? " we ask our boy. 



262 DEVOTKE!* — IIINDC AXD CHRISTIAN. [April 

" Whenever the holv man la hnngry lie blows his horn, mem Sahib, 
anil the people come out and bring him food."' 

What nni!-t bt the character of the faith whose ideal is before lie? 
We ["tanil bewildered in the sunshine, trving to realize that it is not 
a dream— that to these men, onr broihers, this filth, this degradation, 
thia nakeil idleness, is the emlHidinu-nt of sanctity— and our hearts go 
out to liidiu, the first example of wiiose greatest faith meets us in snch 
a form. This is Hinduism, hoarv Hinduism, three thousand years old. 
and ruling to-day more than two hundred million men and women. 
ITie s])ectacle before ns is the outcome of her teachings. This is the 
highest life one can lead. To their minds existence is an evil; eman- 
cipation from it in this life, and in countless future lives, is the ono 
hope. Detach yourself from earth, go without clothes; have no home, 
no friends, no people; do no work; take no interest in anything at 
all; en joy nothing, feel nothing, hope for nothing. Detach yourself — 
to do this, suffer pain, sleep on spikes, starve yourself, or eat carrion 
and nameless abominations; hold your arms up till they wither and 
the nails grow through the hand ; do anything and everything to get 
rid of your supreme curse — conscious existence. 

It is difficult for us nnder the influence of Jesus Christ to nnder- 
stand and grasp tliis Hindu theory. To those who know and follow 
Him, Ciirist makes sheer living beautiful, life on earth a privilege, and 
everlasting life beyond the gift of God to men. But to the Hindu 
living witliont Christmas to nmny, alas! in our own lands who live 
without. Him — mere existence seems a curse. These poor souls 



DBVOtBEe— HINDC ADD CHBIBTIAN. 



believe themselves burdened with being becuuse they are not good 
enough not to be. Hence they miiBt accumulate merit, raise them- 
selves laboriously by weary years of good works until tliey can at last 
escape existence. 

"The Hindu devotee," writes Bishop Thobum," "flatters himself 
Miat he can, by his penances of variouB kinds, accuuuiate merit. The 
word penance, to his mind, conveys no idea of repentance, bnt solely 
that of a means of acquirin;; personal merit. In the next place, ho is 
posBest with the idea that matter is inherently evil, and that since fais 
union with a material body is the source of moat of his misfortunes, he 
must make war on the body in order to liberate the eowl. . . . No 
doubt a large number of both sexes thoose a life of asceticism because 
theyflnditthesimplestandeaeiestwayof securing theirdaily bread; , . . 
but many of them show abundant evidence that they are sincere in their 
purpose, and persist, through long lives of severe suffering and privation, 
in faithfully following the course which they have chosen. 

" At nearly every great fair a number of men will be seen going 
through the self-inflicted torture of what is called the ' five flres.' Four 
fires are kept burning constantly around the devotee, while the sun, 
which makes the fifth, pours down his burning rays upon the head of the 
sufferer, Othent, for months at a time, never allow themselves to lie 
down to rest, hut permit themselves to he supported in a half -reclining 
position, or sometimeB suspended upon a cushion, with their feet dangling 
down at a distance from the ground. Some sleep on beds made of broken 
Stone, others on spikes, while others again seek torture for the body by 
abstaining from sleep altogether, or at least reduce their sleeping hours 
to the narrowest possible limits," 

This nightmare dread of existence is the natural outcome of the 
trattsmigration theory — that saddest and most hopeless of all human 

-fl. f>ee Htno "Hlodiiimn, Fast anil 



't/.AT.A-'.'-T.'o'.M'':. T'.-ir.k f..r o-'r n.'-.n^r.: of what ii wocM mean 
■;-.,'. •', V'>^e :!.:i: evtrv ;;;::. z iLIlz or. tb« £»■:« of the earth wa.? 
' >: VriT I.; i..'(,ir ^i-.'. — Mr U, '-ro.-!;, I.-je.-is, r^piCes, men — all 
a..*^ >*, .\'::;\^^\ ar. i iLjI h:::TLi3 s-::;li were ceietlesilv iiiifiing 
'.':.;• •-.'I'-i '■.i'".:X.-T-k ii'^,a:.-l u.--X fi>rever;L:ft ain'.pnf ihese.aci.-onling 
Vi t:,f:r v.'-r.Xf. or i-m^Hij? Tr3r.=ir.:rra:;on we f^i it, ar.d liismiss 
irifr j.i'r^ w.-.i a w..rl. But to i-'iVtr I'r.at ipJea, lo iLisk that the sonls 
V'iH 1'iv<; !--t, ;i!.l li.at deutb Lii* c-.i'.;-.-! a»a_T, are pent np in gome 
VyJy — a jai.kai's, a c^w'^ s eer[-/:.:'i, perhaps — aiiil w;'.l be bonntl 
tiiere, ft^linj, snflering, 
eiij'>_v:i!;i if tber can, 
nniil death Eniiiea them 
occe again, and once 
again tiiey change their 
hon-e and paas into some 
oiher form, as cooliea, 
kings, or what not — to 
belicTe that idea, what 
mast it mean? Think of 
the bnrden of it, the end- 
less, restless, weary ronnd, 
from which ia no escape; 
the grip of fate that holds 
yon and drives yon on 
aod ou ; the inexorable 
sentence, from which is 
no appeal, consigning jon 
to groYcling reptile life 
or loathsome being. You 
may be bom to-morrow a 
A HOLT MAii or iKDu. lepcF, BH idiot, a mur- 

derer, anything — Karma, 
yonr fate determines what shall be, and yonr fate depends entirely 
on yonr merits. There is no pity anywhere, there is no forgivenesB. 
'('rouble comes to you to-day ? Ab, yon earned it yesterday, back in 
your hwt body. Then you sinned, now you are punisht. Tliis 
theory apparently explains everything so satisfactorily — all the crook- 
f-Axwm and inequalities of life, all the strange chance of destiny. 
Itiit it is BO hard, so hopeless. Eiglify-six million times you will be 
burn and rclioin, to suffer, live, and die. 

What more natural tlian to wish to shorten the period? Become a 

devotee, jierhaps even a fakir. IJy so doing you detach yourself. 

Vi>n gradually escape reincarnation. You stand a faint and far off 

chance of sooTior finding rest— tlie oblivion of Nirvana—" not to be." 

Standing in the siinRliino, looking down on the spectacle before us. 



1898.] BIBLE 8TUDT FOR NATIVE AGENTS. 265 

on these scarcely human creatures, in their filthiness and ashes, realize 
the burden of belief that makes them what they are! Let your heart 
go out to the 26,000,000 people living in the Bombay Presidency only, 
in this one strip of country along the western coast of India, a land 
larger than Spain. Think of the waiting harvest in this one pres- 
idency. Look on her fields. And look beyond — away across the con- 
tinent of India with its 290,000,000 souls. Two hundred and eight 
millions of them are Hindus, living in the darkness of the faith 
whose devotees are before us, 60,000,000 more than the whole Protes- 
tant population of the world. 

You have been thinking of the devotees of the Eastern world. 
Where are the devotees of the West? Thank God there are many of 
them toiling here for the salvation of India, and many more scattered 
in every heathen land, besides many who are sleeping in missionary 
graves, and many working bravely on at home. But had we but one- 
half the devotion to Jesus Christ that the Hindu fakirs have to their 
gloomy faith, should we not do more to reach India's waiting millions ? 
Should we not hasten to give Him our time, our means, our strength, 
ourselves — to suffer daily loss in that devotion, and to sacrifice it may 
be all that we hold most dear, that we may help to bring these hearts 
the knowledge of His love ? 



BIBLE STUDY FOR NATIVE AGENTS. 

BY REV. ALONZO BUNKER, D.D., TOUNGOO, BURMA. 
Missionary of the American Baptist Mi^onary Union. 

Since we can not depend entirely on foreign missionaries to meet 
the. needs of the heathen world, we must lean more and more on the 
native helpers Hence the best method of preparing these workers 
for their mission is worthy of the closest study. The eflBciency of 
their preparation will depend very largely upon their spiritual grasp 
and experimental knowledge of the truths which they teach. They 
must also have some skill in the mode of presentation, and especially 
must their teachings be accompanied with that patient, melting love 
with which Jesus always taught. The doctrines, so disliked by the 
natural heart, if proclaimed in any other way than with such love, 
even tho it be with the eloquence of an Apollos, will have very little 
power over heathen audiences or individual hearts. 

Again, the progress of the Kingdom of Christ in these lands will 
depend largely on the quality of the native preachers. Besides ability 
to proclaim the Word with power, they must have spiritual insight to 
enable them to distinguish the true from the false, and to decide on 



1. -J. 



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. '.-e f -:. i in a stc^lAr ea-oaJion, 



»' ./ ..., /, / //^ ,, ,;^ ft,\ '/*o'/r;x:,lT or L.-t-.rv. r.-r in anT mere intellec- 

•■ • * m m 



1898.] BIBLB STUDT FOR NATIVE AGENTS. 267 

tual study of the Bible. It is trne that all such knowledge may be 
among the approaches to the Holy of Holies, but they are not the place 
where God dwells, and where the soul comes into immediate con- 
tact with its Lord. 

It is clear that the first requisite of a successful missionary teacher 
must be, above all things else, the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, 
whereby he may have His help in teaching. Here then we should 
give fullest recognition to the oflBce of the Holy Spirit, as a Teacher 
of the things of our Lord. No part of the responsible duties of the 
ambassador of the Cross needs His help more than that of preparing 
a native agent for Ilis work. 

As Paul preacht with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven, so 
must the missionary teach, if he would secure success. May he not 
boldly claim here that help which was given to the Apostle, when he 
spake "not with enticing words of men's wisdom, but in demonstra- 
tion of the Spirit and power ? " How is it possible to deal with the 
spiritual lives of others, save as we have the enlightening influences of 
the Spirit in our own? l^his is the more necessary, if possible, in 
dealing with these souls recently saved from heathen ignorance and 
superstition. We find them (speaking now of the Karens of Burma) 
without any adequate apprehension of the heinousness of sin in the 
sight of God, even, in most cases, after their conversion; or of God's 
great love in Jesus Christ, or of the love of our blessed Lord for lost 
men in His sufferings and death on the cross. All these wonderful 
truths are, at first, largely a theory. They do not enter into their 
experience, or move their sentiments very much. It is only by repeated 
teaching by their missionary, and the miraculous work of the Spirit, 
that these verities in our faith get hold of their hearts and begin to be 
felt by them in their experience. 

The Holy Spirit works in many channels, but one of His appointed 
ways is through the Holy Scriptures, and perhaps the best method of 
reaching the hearts and consciences of our people is in Bible exegesis. 
Certainly there is no other method of teaching that gives such oppor- 
tunities for personal dealing with our people as does this. The 
Word of God is the peculiar instrument of tlie Spirit. "Sanctify 
them through Thy truth; Thy Word is truth." Here, if anywhere, 
we may come into close contact with the hearts and lives of our 
pupils. In practise we have this method peculiarly adapted to tlie 
spiritual wants of the native disciples, as well as to their growth 
in grace. As they struggle up out of the superstition of heathenism, 
along the way of the new life, they are daily beset with troops of 
trials which arise from want of early training, from close contact of 
their heathen neighbors, and from lack of such helps as abound in 
Christian lands. 

In Bible exegesis we have a most ready instrument for encourage- 



268 BIBLE STUDY FOR NATIVE AGENTS. [April 

ment or rebuke, which may be applied to any need, at any time. Here 
also a little experience on the part of a learner becomes a key, by 
which, nnder the hand of the teacher, the way may be opened into 
larger experimental knowledge. It is also a ready means of correct- 
ing any misapprehension of divine truth. For example, it is diffi- 
cult for a native Christian to learn how trial and suffering can be a 
proof of the love of God, rather than a judgment for the punishment 
of sins; but the exegetical study of the twelfth of Hebrews makes it 
all plain to him, and his doubt is turned to certainty. The little 
experience he has in discipline of God's love may be used to unlock 
for him this mystery of human trial. 

Again, the exegetical study of the life of Christ, His sufferings, 
temptations, and trials. His lowly life among the poor, and His won- 
derful teachings, discloses, as nothing else can do, the loving fellow- 
ship of Jesus, the Son of God. His life is so unlike anything they 
have ever seen in heathen lands, that it is almost too much for 
them to grasp, and too often they realize it only as a dream which 
one can not expect to experience or imitate in this life. Blessed, 
thrice blessed, is the missionary who is able so to live the Christ-life 
before them, as to give a practical illustration of this loving fel- 
lowship of Jesus. In this study, the native Christian is gradually to 
apprehend the love of God for the world, in the gift of His Son, and 
also that which is a never-failing source of wonder and astonishment 
to him — the love of Christ to His enemies. 

Again, there is a strong tendency among our native Christians to 
worship God as do the heathen their idols. That is, they too readily 
adopt a form of worship without its spirit. This may also be true of 
some in Christian lands, but they have less excuse than those who 
were born and reared in superstition and ignorance. They are slow 
to realize that the living God, whom they are taught to worship but 
can not see, is a real prayer-hearing and prayer-answering Person. 
Karen Christi«ins are especially gifted with fluency of speech, yet they 
are not the only ones in this fallen world who seek fine words which 
shall pleiise the ear rather than a plain talk with God. Too many 
pray as if they were reciting a piece before an idol. But Scripture 
exegesis brings the worshiper repeatedly face to face with God in the 
Bible. He there hears God speak and learns to realize Him as a liv- 
ing, loving, and interested Person, and that His worship does not con- 
sist in forms and ceremonies, however beautiful and elaborate they 
may be, but in reverent approach to Him in confession and petition. 

Again, wliile almost all other forms of knowledge acquired by the 
disciple will fade from his memory, spiritual knowledge, which 
becomes more or less experimental by such practical study and teach- 
ing of God's Word, will never fail, but will increase by use and be 
always available. It becomes, too, the most powerful weapon, when 



1898.1 B1BL.K STUDY FOR NATIVE AGENTS. 269 

backt by a gentle spirit, one can use in these dark lands, in dealing 
with heathen saperstitions. 

In this connection we should notice the necessity of emphasizing 
certain doctrines of the Bible in onr training of a native ministry. 
The first and most important of these is the doctrine of the ministry 
of the lloly Spirit. They are very slow to recognize the church or the 
body as the temple of the Spirit, or Ilis personalty or presence with 
the believer. Continued teaching on this point is necessary, but the 
marvelously added power of those who apprehend the great truth, and 
experience the fellowship of the Divine Comforter and Helper, com- 
pensates a thousand-fold the time and strength expended in teaching. 
As the indwelling of the Iloly Spirit, enduing the missionary with 
power for service is all-important, so in all native workers; the Spirit 
is one for all. 

Native Christians have not a little difficulty in divesting them- 
selves of* the idea that their salvation depends much on their good 
deeds instead of solely on the merits of Jesus. They are so accustomed 
to think of judgment following sin, as " the cart-wheel follows the 
ox," that the doctrine of grace is too often a mystery to them. More- 
over, the doctrine of vicarious suffering is so foreign to all their 
experience, that the atonement is very hard to apprehend, tho they 
readily profess to understand it. Hence the necessity of emphasizing 
this doctrine. The doctrine of "constraining love," also, should 
always be taught side by side with the atonement, for in this we get 
the true and highest motive to right thinking, acting, and living. 
The transformation of character under the teaching of the doctrine 
of the Holy Spirit, atonement, and constraining love, is sometimes 
most remarkable. 

Again, there is seldom any family discipline among these Eastern 
peoples. Hence it is difficult for a native Christian to make the love 
and justice of God agree. He is always asking, " If God loves me as 
the Bible says, why does He let me suffer?" The strict discipline of 
oar training-schools, and careful teaching on this point are necessary. 

The pupils must learn that absolute loyalty to Christ is founded on 
absolute obedience to Him, not even counting their lives dear to 
themselves. It is a matter of constant surprise to see how many of 
our disciples endure hardness as good soldiers of the Cross, trials 
which would seriously test the faith of any missionary himself, and 
some even suffering martyrdom for Jesus* sake. 

Finally, it is wise to keep before the native learner the joys and 
rewards of heaven. We have found the Eevelation one of the most 
popular books of the Bible on this account. He can readily understand 
the triumphs of the Gospel there depicted, and as he delights in figures 
and symbols leading up to these trium])hs, he quickly responds to 
these riches of hope. He accepts these foretold victories of the Cross 



270 THE GRKAT BXTRMESB. PAGODA. [April 

with a child-like faith, and brings them into his daily life as a com- 
fort and support under the many trials he must meet with in his 
efforts to live a Christian life amidst his heathen surroundings. 

In summing up what we believe to be the best method of Bible 
prei)aration for our native workers we would say : — 

First. — The missionary can not prepare himself too carefully by daily 
study of the Word of God, meditation on the portion he is to teach, and 
prayer for the help of the Holy Spirit, and he should assiduously teach 
his pupils to practise the same method. 

Second. — Let the method of teaching be largely one of Bible exegesis. 

Third. — Always apply the teachings which arise in daily lessons 
experimentally and to specific cases, as far as possible. 

Fourth. — Always keep the love of Christ to the front, for love begets 
love, and thus the pupil may be led to love and know Him more immedi- 
ately, " whom to know is life." 

Fifth. — Encourage the learners by all means to ask questions, and so 
educate by drawing out rather than by pouring in. 

Sixth. — Patiently meet every difficulty presented by the pupil, how- 
ever trivial. It is only a pebble that sometimes tiums the beginning of a 
mighty river to the east or to the west. 

Finally. — Let the spiritual and experimental be always in advance. 
This is all important and indispensable to a successful worker. All other 
knowledge is subsidiary. 



THE GREAT BURMESE PAGODA. 

BY REV. U. GUATTAX GUINNESS, D.D., LONDON, ENGLAND. 
Founder of the East London Missionary Institute. 

Crowning a liill near Rangoon tlie Swe-Dagon Pagoda, the greatest 
and most venerable pagoda in Indo-China, lifts its golden pinnacles 
into the clear blue sky, towering to a height above that of St. Paul's 
Cathedral in London. A host of smaller pagodas surround it, whose 
walls and roofs are carved into fantastic shapes, while within them 
sit countless statues of Buddha, in white marble, in gilded wood, 
in black metal, in glittering brass; the sitting figure being always the 
same in form, the legs crost beneath, the right hand recumbent, the 
left hand open in the lap, to receive the gifts of worshipers, with an 
aspect of imperturbable calm upon the countenance, the look of a 
being who has reacht the rest of Nirvana. 

Shaven, bare-headed, yellow-robed priests attend in every shrine 
of this vast pagoda; they lead the devotions, they light the taperj\ 
they chant the prayers, they take the gifts, candles, rice, flowers, 
money, they supervise the ceremonies. Crowds of gaily-drest Bur- 
mese move through the wide courts, or stand around the stalls, or 
listen to the fortune-tellers, or kneel before the statues of Gautama 
Buddha. With hands prest together they repeat their prayers, a 



1898.1 THK GBBAT BURMBSB PAGODA* 271 

rosary depending from their fingers; or reverently bow before the idol 
till the forehead touches the ground. 

Statues innumerable adorn the pagoda, from the gigantic leo- 
gryphs, or dragon-like lions, which guard the entrance, to the legend- 
ary figures of Gautama on the lofty roofs and pinnacles. On this 
spot a nation has lavisht its wealth through long centuries, to adorn 
the worship of Buddha with the utmost magnificence. That wealth 
]ias built these terraces, these long ascents, these countless shrines, 
these glittering spires; generations of pilgrims have filled these image- 
houses with their gifts ;^ have burnt the incense, and scattered the 
flowers, and chanted the prayers in a worship never intermitted day 
or night. And this has gone on for ages. As long ago as in 
the time of the Maccabees and of the Babylonish captivity, a pagoda 
to Gautama Buddha was standing here. One pagoda has followed 
another; as one has decayed another has been built; larger pagodas 
have been built over smaller ones; shrines and statues of Buddha have 
been multiplied, roof has been added to roof, spire to spire, and pin- 
nacle to pinnacle, until now this wonder of the Eastern world, con- 
taining, as it is said, not only actual relics of Gautama, but of the 
three Buddhas who preceded him, stands on this spot in unrivaled 
splendor, attracting pilgrims from every province in Burma, from 
Cambodia, Siam, Korea, and Ceylon. 

And yet there is about it all a look of mental and moral poverty, 
and even of barbarism. The carvings are grotesque. There is a weari- 
some sameness of idea. Buddha sits in the same posture in every 
shrine. There are whole rows of Buddhas, pagodas filled with nothing 
but statues of Buddha. On that one form all this wealth has been 
lavisht. To that one figure every eye, every thought has been 
directed. The calm, abstracted look of a reputed saint who has 
attained, as the reward of personal merit, a fixt unsuf^ering state, rivets 
the gaze of worshiping thousands; the hope of eternal quietude, of 
a waking slumber untroubled even by a passing dream, of a sort of 
living death, an existence wrapt in the stillness and silence of Nir- 
vana, fascinates the mind of every worshiper. Gautama Buddha is 
the great object of their adoration and guide of their hopes. This is 
that ancient idolatry which holds half Asia in its grip. Day by day 
the cloudless sun pours its splendor on the material adjuncts of this 
scene of spiritual darkness. Here millions adore the dead. Ilere the 
living God is all unknown. To Him none bow the knee. None fear 
Him, or praise Him, or proclaim His truth. His glory fills heaven 
and earth, but none behold it here. All bow to Buddha in this holy 
of holies of the Eastern world, this center of ten thousand times ten 
thousand pagodas lifting up to-day their spires over half the world, 
from the palms of Ceylon and the peaks of the Himalayas, to the 
I*iver8 of Burma and China^ and the shores of Kore^ and Japan. 



2T*i BBIGHTKR DATS IX MADAGASCAR. [April 

A relig^ion which igiiures tiie existence of God, which denies the 
exi.-ileiK-e of the skjuI, which affirms transmigration and the reign of 
fate, which proclaims pain and punishment, bnt knows nothing of 
grace and pardon, which lipids forth no prospect of immortality, 
which offers no hojK? for the j>re»ent life, and none worthy of accept- 
ance for the fature, is stilL and has been for aires, the dominant 
religion of Asia. Under the veil of astrology, deril worship, or witch- 
craft, the powers of nature are adored. The self-denial of the ascetic 
irf ma;rnifie<l as the hisrhest art of virtue. The doctrine is believed 
that man holds himself the kevs of heaven and hell: a hell of seven- 
fold horrors, and a heaven of sensual or dreamy delights. The golden 
statue of Gautama Buddha has practically been placi*d upon the 
throne of God, and is there to-day; not to listen to the prayers which 
are addrest to it, for it is deaf; not to stretch forth a helping hand to 
the mass of misery at its feet, for it is paralyzed; not to feel for the 
woes of humanity, for it is sonlless and dead; but to fix the gaze of 
K'nighted millions, to direct their vain and deluded hopes, and to 
hide from them in life and death the character, presence, and glory of 
Him who alone is the Creator, the Ruler, and Redeemer of the world. 



BRIGHTER DAYS IX MADAGASCAR. 

BY BEV. TVM. C. COUSINS, M.A. 
Missionary of the London MisBionary Society at AutananarlTo. 

A special deputation* from the directors of the London Missionary 
Society has for eight weeks past (Oct. 15-Dec. 10) been engaged in a 
careful revision of the society's work here, in making arrangements 
with the missionaries of the Paris society, and in endeavoring to 
convince the French authorities that the aims of the society are purely 
religious, and not political. The Tisit of the deputation had long 
been lookt forward to, and their special mission has been the object 
of much prayer. Now we look back upon it with a deep feeling of 
thankfulness, and with a belief that all has been wisely ordered. 

The first matter demanding the efforts of the deputation was to 
try and remove from General Gallieni's mind the strong prejudice he 
luis felt against the work of the society. The men chosen as its 
8[)ecial representatives were admirably fitted for this task. Mr. 
Thompson's full knowledge of fill the facts, and his courteous, yet 
firm, manner, coupled with Mr. Spicer's bright and hopeful spirit and 
evident wish to be on friendly terms with all men, proved a most 

* Tlie two members of the deputation were the Rev. R. Wardlaw Thompson, the weU-known 
Forei^ Secretary of the London Missionary Society, and Mr. Evan Spicer, a member of the 
liOndon County Council, and a broad-minded, energfetic, and earnest supporter of the general 
aims and work of the society. 



1898.] BRIGHTER DAYS IN MADAGASCAR. 273 

happy and successful combination. The general affirmed his belief 
in the loyalty of the missionaries; but said that many of the native 
adherent8 of the society regarded it as a special representative of 
British power and influence. These still hoped that through its inter- 
vention some help against French rule might be forthcoming. To 
convince the natives that France is master here, he seized our build- 
ings and took other harsh steps. The deputation offered to issue a 
letter to the native Christians under our care stating clearly that such 
hopes were utterly groundless, that the aims of the society were 
entirely moral and spiritual, and that if any adherents of the society 
indulged in such foolish talk, they might render it impossible to con- 
tinue to work in Madagascar. Such a letter was issued both in Mala- 
gasy and in French, signed by Messrs. Thompson and Spicer, and by 
all the London missionaries in and around Antananarivo.* 

The growth of confidence on the part of General Galli6ni has been 
very markt, and he has, during the last few days, given unmistakable 
evidence of his sincerity. He has allowed the society to reengage 
Hova evangelists who were banisht from Betsileo, and has given us 
permission to buy a house in Ambohimahasoa, from which town its 
mii>8ionary was evicted a year ago, simply because of his connection 
with the London Missionary Society. Furthermore, on Monday 
(Dec. 6th), he paid a personal visit to the girls' school in Ambodin 
Andohalo in order to show the people that he did not in any 
way oppose our work. In his address he said that tho it had been 
agreed that the building was soon to pass into the hands of the French 
Government, he should now recommend the colonial minister to allow 
it to remain as a girls' school under the care of the London Missionary 
Society. lie also said to the parents and others : '^ You see I am help- 
ing these missionaries and you must do the same.'' This visit of the 
general has given great delight to our many native friends, and they 
begin to see that the days of repression are passing away. 

The next important matter for the consideration of the deputation 
was the arrangements to be entered into with the Paris society. As a 
result of the conference eight large districts have been placed under 
the care of that society. These districts contained in 1895 (before the 
war) 550 congregations. Elementary education throughout the whole 
of Imerina and Betsileo remains under the care of the Paris society, 
altho General Gallieni told the deputation that the London Missionary 
Society was at perfect liberty to resume control of the schools if it 
desired. AVhen, early in 1897, the schools past under the care of the 
Paris society, they were 438, and contained 30,955 scholars, and the 
number has largely increast since the transfer was made. It is thought 
wise to allow all these elementary schools to remain under French 
care, as they will more readily understand and fall in with the views 

* The letter has since been reprinted by the generara order in the Journal OjglcUU, . 



274 BRIGHTER DATS IX MADAGAfiCAB. [April 

of the gOTcmment. Fall lil>ertj is, at the same time, accorded to the 
L. M. S. mistiionaries iii the various districts (either in person or 
through properly appointed representatives), to give religious instruc- 
tion in the scliools. 

The general results of the visit of the deputation to Betsileo are 
eminently satisfactory. Two districts (Ambositro and Isandra) are 
placed under the care of the Paris society, as well as all the elemen- 
tary education. The girls' school at Fianarantsoa, which had for a 
time been taken over by the Paris society, will now revert to the Lon- 
don Miesionary Society. M. Beuezesch, who represents the Paris 
society in Betsileo, has shown great earnestness and activity, and has 
done much to restore confidence among our native adherents. lie has 
made it clear to all that Protestants are not to be considered the ene- 
mies of France. The nii.<sions on the east coast, at Tamatave and 
Anibahy, will no longer be carried on by the London Missionary 
Society, but tliere is reason to hope that either the Norwegian society, 
or some French or Swiss society will enter into this work. 

The net result of recent chantros is that about half the territorv 
formerly workt by the Ijondon Missionary Society has now been given 
up, and that whereas, when the hist statistics were gathered, we had 
1,445 congregations under our care, we now have less than 700. In tliis 
smaller area and among the 700 churches still under our care, it is be- 
lieved that much good work may still be carried on. The districts for- 
merly under the care of individual missionaries were too extensive to 
jillow of efficient superintendence, and with smaller districts and more 
iialivc helpers, it is hoped that much may be done to strengthen the 
niiurches that have been so sadly weakened by the events of the past 
two years. Already there are signs of returning confidence and hope. 
The reign of terror seems to be drawing to an end. The state of siege 
has been raised, and we are once more under civil rule. The Jesuits 
appear to have gone too far, and to have tried the patience of the gov- 
ernment. They have evidently received Fonie caution or check, and are 
far quieter than a year ago. The government has begun to see how 
much harm was done by stirring up religious strife all over the country. 
At the same time we can not siiut our eyes to the fact that the Roman 
Catholics are growing in number and influence. The Roman Catholic 
religion is regarded as the French religion, and many flock to their 
churches. The most distressing aspect of the question is that many 
Protestant children have been sent to the Roman Catholic schools for 
the sake of the French language. The Protestant churches of the 
future may be less in number and may have far smaller congregations, 
but we must work and pray in the hope that there may still exist a 
vigorous body of Protestant Christians who, by their intelligence, 
their religious earnestness, and the testimony of pure lives, may do 
much to promote the highest interests of their native land. 



1898.] "THE RUIN OF INDIA" BY BRITISH RULE. 275 

II.— MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. 

"THE RUIN OF INDIA" BY BRITISH RULE.» 

BT 6. H. KELLOGG, D.D., LL.D. 

I have read with equal pain and astonishment an article by Professor 
Des Islets, entitled "The Ruin of India," t wherein various assertions are 
made which, were they justified by facts, would show this government 
to be one of the most pitiless tyrannies on the face of the earth. But I 
rejoice to be able, to the credit of our common civilization and Christianity, 
to assure the professor that, from whatsoever source he has derived his 
supposed information, he has been in this matter most egregiously 
deceived. 

In his very first sentences the writer shows that he is under a total 
misapprehension of the facts regarding the riots in Calcutta and the 
assassinations in Poona during this last summer, which he intimates 
to have been due to the ** frightful oppression " which India is enduring 
at the hands of her British rulers. In reality, however, both the riots 
and assassinations were occasioned, not by the ill-doing, but by the con- 
spicuous well-doing of the government. 

In the case of the riots an appeal had been taken to the High Court 
by a certain Bengali gentleman of rank, regarding the ownership of a cer- 
tain piece of land on which stood a Mohammedan place of prayer. The 
High Coiirt on reviewing the evidence sustained the appeal, and ordered 
the premises to be vacated by the Mohammedans. When they refused 
to do this, the government officer proceeded to remove their building. 
Hence the riot. Where in all this was the ** frightful oppression ?" 

In Poona and Bombay the terrible black plague has been I'aging for 
months. As the only means known to modern science of combating the 
pestilence with any hope of success, the government ordei'ed the segrega- 
tion of all that were stricken in special hospitals, either provided by gov- 
ernment, or, wherever preferred, by the members of the different castes 
and religions, each for themselves. But the people generally would not 
let cases be known, and constantly secreted the sick in close and poison- 
ous quarters, thereby intensifying the infection and spreading the disease. 
Under these circumstances the government ordered a compulsory house 
to house inspection of such infected cities, the compulsory cleaning of 
filthy houses, the removal and burial or burning of the corpses frequently 
found in them, the forcible removal of all in them found sick with the 
plague to the hospitals provided, where all who chose might have the 
best treatment known to modem science. These searches were carried 
out by organized parties made up of native gentlemen, British soldiers, 
and English ladies who volunteered for the purpose. But all this, instead 
of moving the people to gratitude, excited a fierce tempest of angry 
hate, of which the deepest secret doubtless was to be found in the intense 
caste pride and superstition of the Mahratta Brahmins, who were thus 
compelled to admit into the sacredness of their houses these unclean 
foreigners, whose very shadow falling on their food is supposed to render 
it so unclean that it must be' thrown away. Those who have been engaged 
in this work have been threatened with death, sometimes violently 
assaulted, assailed both in India and even at home, by radical members 
of Parliament, with the most atrocious and unmentionable calumnies, and 
♦ From the Prtabyterian Review^ Toronto. t Presbyterian Messenger, Sept. 80, 18W, 



276 MISSIONARY DIGEST DKFARTMENT. [April 

at last this culminated on the Queen's Jiibileedny m the Poona assassi na- 
tions, wherein the officer in charge of these plague operations was shot 
at night by one of these same Mahratta Brahmins, as now confest by 
the assassin himself. 

Again Professor Des Islets makes this astounding assertion — that 
fnnn the wretched millions of India " England extorts every year, with- 
out any compensation, the enormous sum of $150,000,000." * Without any 
cimipenBation! How any intelligent man can say that EIngland gives "no 
com[)ensation " to the people of India for the taxes she takes, passes com- 
preheiusion. In the first place, in return for these, she has given the peo- 
ple, fnmi one end of India to the other, a system of government which, 
in so far as it is administered, not by natives, but by the niembers of 
Her Majesty's Covenanted Civil Service, stands to-dny as a model to the 
whole world t%tr |Hirity and incorruptibility, and magnificent labors f.ir 
the help of the {■> vert y 1:1 rickeo millions of Ibis over-crowded country. 
In ihe days t>f the Miihaiuui^tan rule of India. Tavemier wrote that a 
Intvt-ler in India "mtgbt klways to take with him twenty or thirty 
(intied men." Is tht' [trvi<ent »>evurity no "compensation" for revenues 
l«k<-n frv>ni the lo-op''' ^ 

Aj^niiu the Itriti-^h rtilers of India hare during a comparatively 
»hort |vri<xl ilevflopt a system of education which has planted schools, 
rt'It»'K»'»- ""'' u'liversities in every part of the land. These are supported 
iu UiX'" l""'* ••>■ revenues taken fn>7n the people. Is a great educational 
HSMfui like this, supervised by cultivati-d university men from home, no 
■'i,\>miieiisftlion" for the taxes taken from the people? 

AKniu. out of the revenu<-H gathered from the people the government 

haH i.»iislructe<l— to illustrate— in the Northwest Provinces alone, and 

within the lifetime of the prem-nt generation, 10.173 miles of irrigation 

cHuals. which last year supplied water to 11,437 villages and watered over 

S.WK^dl*) acres. Similar figures might be given for the Punjab and other 

{uirtH of Hritish India; and the government is at present plauntnganother 

iiiiiK»illc<-"t system of irrigation for Oudh and Rohilkhand which, when 

i-ari'li'd out, will t>e of even greater magnitude and irrigat« over two 

tiud i> iguarter million acres. Kxcept for the tens of thousands of miles 

of In-ljfiilion canals which have tieen built and are still being constructed 

b,>' tliK Hritish go%'eminent, this last year would have witnest a famine 

hi'ti'. In comparison with which the horrors of that now drawing to an 

rtiil would have seemed insignificant and for the like of which we should 

hiivii to go back to tlie happily by-gone days of independent native rule. 

To thi'.ie instances of the return given to India by her British rulers 

for the taxes taken from the p:rDple may ho added ntany others, due 

cxrlitsively to British rule, which spa^e forbids me more than to men- 

llon. Kuch are e. g., a most complete postul system, with the unit of 

, to all parts of India and Burma, a hnlf-anna, or one cent; a 

ejegraph, by which a message can he wired anywhere in India or 

for as low as sixteen cents '; connected with the post-office, also, 

timent savings-bank by which, in any post-offlce in the empire, 

dc-|K)Kited, at interest, so small a sum as eight cents — a favorite 

invextment with thousands of the very natives who most vigor- 

■nounce the goveniment: hospitalsand dispensaries scattered all 

; land whei'C the poorest may have enlightened European treat- 

.TtTBKe of fltty cents per capita ■ year. 



1898.] **THB RtriN OP INDIA** BY BRITISH RrLE. 2'J"}' 

ment gratis; permanent security — no doubt, sometimes, at the expense 
of one of those "useless frontier wars," for which the professor blames 
the government — against the fearful Mohammedan raids and invasions 
by which, previous to British rule, large parts of India had been repeat- 
edly laid desolate; magnificently graded macadamized roads, connecting 
all important places in India, not to speak of steamboat lines, and rail- 
ways with fares so low that one can go, if he please, from Calcutta to 
Peshawar, near the Afghan frontier, 1,542 miles, for about $6.00, etc., 
etc. This enumeration is far from complete, but it will suffice to enable 
the average reader to judge with how nruch of truth and justice it is 
charged in the article reviewed that England ** extorts " her •* enormous " 
revenues from the Indian people ** without any compensation." 

Professor Des Islets strangely regards the railways of India not as 
works of enlightened beneficence, but "as immense siphons to drain the 
resources of the country toward England." The truth, again, is the exact 
opposite. Even with the vast irrigation system, except for the railways 
little could be done to mitigate famine, simply for lack of transporta- 
tion. And yet the professor can only see in the railways of India another 
evidence of the greedy tyranny of its British rulers, and de pite tens of 
thousands of miles of these railways and irrigation canals he can write: 
"The famine in India is a famine of which the English are the cause." 
But what he calls a "proof of this," is, if possible, more astounding than 
the original assertion; namely, that "the great native vassal states, with 
50,000,000 of population, do not suffer from famine." I never heard such 
a statement made before, and no wonder, for it is utterly incorrect. 
Given the same conditions of soil and climate, the native states suffer 
from famine precisely as do the contiguous British districts. 

It is, indeed, true that a very large proportion of the people are dis- 
tressingly poor; but there is only one sense in which it can be said with 
unqualified truth that this is due to the British domination. India is 
enormously over-populated. In the Ganges valley the population ranges 
from 500 to 700 to the square mile. Before the British rule began almost 
incessant wars helpt to keep - the population down, and when famine or 
cholera or deadly fever would sweep through the country, the native 
rulers as a rule did nothing to save life, millions perisht, and the conges- 
tion was relieved. But now it is different. The Pax Britannica has now 
long ruled; intestine wars are at an end; cholera is checkt; famine is 
relieved, and mortality is otherwise diminisht. The vei y excellence and 
beneficence of the government becomes the direct occasion of increasing 
that over-population which is the necessary cause of the extreme 
poverty of the mass of the people. In this sense only is there any truth 
in the statement that "the English are the cause of this famine." 

I am far from maintaining that every British official is a saint, or 
that there have been and are no grave mistakes in government policy, 
and no great moral wrongs which are still unrighted. But on the 
whole, despite tremendous difficulties, it is probable that no existing 
government has ever shown such a grand example of the application of 
the Golden Rule to the administration of the affairs of a people as the 
British government in India has been exhibiting, especially during this 
past year of terrible disaster and trouble. If an impartiality in justice 
lietween the various subject peoples, so absolute and colorless that it 
causes the government to be cordially hated by millions of the adherents 
of both the chief religions of the country; if the expenditure of mil- 



278 Miste^.'XHT ioi-E=T rkETAKTWENT. [April 

linns r>'TH;ctt*;!r f -r -hr tjot-lhtr^ii m (if ji.>rertT, the prerention 
nf faiuiiH-. aod itir TTurvid tV <^ jt*T)f>ii. l»w*rlT (u»der repeatitl 
thpeais.J a I'imviT iv;TLrc i,>r ilx-i: LiiidDCi«< and hM»efic*nc*, be Chris- 
tian: if ii lie riri;t *i>d ttnssifci !«■ i»ui ax «jd to suii*«. thtigKisro, 
iufaniii-idf'. and — a« ix ptLn» .«f S<i=;ii India — the mmpuLNH-T nakedness 
*rf lo«--(ajic T\>iDt-ii: if :t V » t jrt I trtr-i Uii duly, in the interest alikp 
of ItiiiLa and the »h,>ie »-.triJ !-■ ii.ri.of, at whaisoeTer risk, even the 
fauiriiT Mf a j»i>-jd Eniji^iE'f .-ff Sl.'iiaiiiimdaii's house, nitber than tn 
alii.'T -.be " Blbtk iMiii" to ncr -sarwarainrti: then I may wilboul fear 
aT-. w ty sef.itJ r\-in ii-tj.-r- tii*- <rJ"--Tth irf n^iire than thirty years' inti- 
E-*;*- *■', lii-lAD.-v »:Th lr-.:.a. that i>..--»i;te-Tandinp sonietim** failures 
ar»i zrat- cJ^ate-k. and *ii>K>r;;mt* evrc rryut mora] irrcmg. in adminis- 
•.*-T^:z -*■ fi:;(»^T-T.:ni; liw p,\vrti«»-=t .j thi-se af7.<«m.00l>: yet, on the 
»■.-»-. ;-j* j^-ew-r.t Ifc-^;i>fc »d>-.::T5 :«!»;;.« irf India is pn>hahly more 
iv^'.j-i. 'y t hr-;-.-.Un thar. t'i*; ,-f any iflber c««iiitry in the world. 



BAMABAl-S FA^IXE WIPOWS. 

In €wr Sept ens l>er 1*T number w IW^ wnx- aecoant of the rescue 

'^ <:. :id-ii:d>.>ii-. carried to br Psiktita Kamattai in Ponna. Bomlwy 

ii*».Ofni y, india. Since that liin» the ble«sinp i>f li<«J and the generous 

c\-'ntrihuiion#of t~hri>iiansat hnnio 

' ' ' aj>J ah(\iad have caused inarkt 

T«Mtnv«:> in the work, and many of 

li-.e pirts and Toung women in 

I Shared* Sadao have Ri^en their 

h.'aris to God. We g«ther the fol- 

k'Win^ items of interpst in regard 

to ih^ work from Ramabai's re- 

portsand fnim articles in the Botn- 

fai^ a nil rrl ill n Mod Indion IT't^riewi. 

I!.iiii»)ui i« now in .\nierica, and is 
Ix'in^ warmly welcomed hy those 
w hii have heard *>f her work for the 
Master. ^^> hope soon to hnve a 
satisfactory paper on the cimdition 
of the child- widows of India nnil 
what is being done for them. In 
herpnblishl report Bamabai writen 
as follows (Oct., ISBT): 

"In Apnl 19M. I attended a 
camp-mevtingat Lanowlee, accom- 
panied by fifteen of my owti girls 
who were believers in the Lord 
Jesus. Mr heart iras full of joy 
and peace, and I offered thanks to 
the Heavenly Father for having 

' 1 given me fifteen children, and I was 

TA«*. A I..J-...I .. CHILD »ii>oir u BBC '''' '''^ Spirit led to prBV that the 
hxTKHKu amBAi'ii HOME, Kv. Lord would be eo gracious as to 

squure the number of my spiritual 
(Jiildi-en iMifore the next camp-meeting takes place. Every circumstance 
wniiaKBinKt thever>- thought. For in the first place not more than sixty 
or iiixty-Hve girls nt the most could be admitted in my school. Then the 
tiiinilH-r of my HchiHilfinrls was but forty-nine, and some of them were to 
Ikuvc d'inng the eiummcr holidays. 



1S9S.] 



RAICAU.VI a FAMINE WIDOWS. 



In October I heard of the terrible famine in the Central Prov- 
inces, and received my call from 



"Six months past aTcny from that time, and our work went on aa 
usual. There was no increase in the number of my pupils, on the con- 
trail, the number went down to forty-one. 1 knew nothing of the famine 
I in Central India, nor that I could get any girls from that part of the 

God to go there and rescue s 

of the young widows who were 

starving to death. It was not nntil 

the last week of December that I 

had the courage to obey the call. 

I was doubtful whether I could get 

any of the kind of girl widows ttuit 

I coidd admit into my school. The 

chief dif&culty was the want of 

place to shelter the girls and of 

money to maintain them. The 

Lord put it in my mind to rescue 

three hundred girls ; and in less 

than ten months from the time 

when I b^fan the rescue work, tho 

Lord has given mo nearly three 

hundred girls from tho famine 

districts. These are my own girls, 

and I am free to bring them up in 

the fear of God; praise the Lord I 

No one of them is compelled to 

become a Christian, and yet most 

of these new girls delight to attend 

prayer and to hear the Word of 

God. About ninety now girls have 

accepted the Lord Jeaus as their taiu, * cHHiariiu wifk, *s snc Lirr 

Sjivior, and I believe that hefui-e b>»abai"b hohe, ibut, 

the next camp-meethig the mmilHT 

of my spiritnal children will increase 1o 'J2ii, and my prayer to siiiini-i' 

the nuinlMT fifteen will he answered, 

" 1 had no human sourccH to depend upon, but the Lord rniued friendu 
for me, and money wan poured into our treasury, and the blessings of the 
I»rd came down like a shower, and His promise as recorded inPs. Ixxxii. 
10 has been literally fulfilled. I must hero record heartfelt gratitude and 
give thanks to the dear children of God who have so generously sent 
donations from all parts of the world. Most of the girls who had been 
nothing but skeletons and wild like the beasts of the jungle, are now 
looking fat and humanized. Many of them show great intelligence and 
eagerness to learn. Those who have profest faith in (.'hrist are showing 
signs of B. real change of heart by sen-ing and helping other girls, by 
their self-forgetfulnesa and love toward one another. 

"The Lord gave me so many blessings in the shape of girls that there 
was ' not room enough to receive ' them in our former schoolhouse. 
So I was obliged to add a wing to our school building in Poena; to build 
another large house in our farm at Kedgaum, and, finding th.''se insuf- 
ftfient to shelter all the girls who are in my charge, I have hired another 
Lungalow for a period of ten months until the other large buildings now 



280 j(I88IONABT DIOB8T DBPARTMENT. [April 

under construction at Kedgaum are finisht. They will shelter over two 
hundred and fifty girls.* There we shall have primary industrial schools 
to train the girls accordmg to their abilities. The most intelligent of 
these girls will be placed in the higher standards in oiu* school at 
Poona. 

"The famine relief work has been taken up as a Christian work, and 
it shall be so to the last. The Holy Spirit has now put it in my heart to 
pray for starting a Christian mission in the village where our famine 
girls' school is to be. I request my Christian friends to pray especially 
for the true conversion of my famine children and for this mission which 
is to be started shortly." 

Rev. D. O. Fox, who has audited Ramabai's accounts, writes : 
*' Kedgaum is thirty -four miles from Poona east on the railway. The 
farm Joins the railway station, and has one hundred and twenty acres, 
all under cultivation. Three wells have been dug, which will yield abun- 
dance of water for the use of the Home and for the cultivation of the 
farm. Things about the farm look as if the Pundita is likely to be as 
good a manager of a farm as she is of the Home. 

<• We went through her accounts and gathered up the totals of her 
expenditures for eight months ending with the 0th of September. The 
cost of caring for an average of two hundred and fifty girls, including a 
few women, is a little over eight rupees per month per head. This 
includes all expenditures of food, clothing, salaries of teachers, and other 
workers in the Home, washing, cooking, and other household utensils, 
furniture, school books, and other expenses connected with the Home." 

Miss Baird, of the American Friends' Mission, Nowgong, Central 
India, says : "At the beginning of our work of gathering children from 
the famine sufferers to send to different mission-schools and orphanages, 
we were met with a difficult question, namely, what shall we do with 
the young widows who come to us perfectly destitute ? They could not be 
admitted into the mission-schools, and many of them were too young 
and pretty to be kept with safety upon our open compound. After pray- 
ing for guidance Miss Fistler wrote to Pundita Ramabai, asking her if 
she had room for any such girls. With her usual promptness she dis- 
patcht — * coming.' Since then she has visited Central India four times, 
and has taken about three hundred young famine widows to Poona and 
Kedgaum. 

" A month ago, when I visited Poona and Kedgaum, I could but 
exclaim, * What hath God wrought amongst the heathen by the ministry 
of one woman! ' Our starved, emaciated girls of three months before had 
become round and rosy beyond all recognition, and were singing hymns 
as lustily as tho they had always been familiar with them, many had 
learned to read, and there have already been thirty real heart conver- 
sions in the home at Kedgaum, where the work among the girls is thor- 
oughly evangelical, unhampered by any promises to caste-keeping 
relatives, t 

* The annual ezpenseo of this new eiitabliAhment^ where three hundred girls and workem 
ar« to be maintained — will amount to flfty thousand rupees (about sixteen thousand dollars). 

t Many have askt why Ramabai eetimates for more money for the support of her girls than 
the missionariM do for the same number of children kept in mission-schools and orphanacrm 
Ramabai makes a real home for the girls, while missionaries are usually contented to give 
children simply a boardtnir-aehooL She lives with her girls, and gives to each that which she 
considers necesaary for her own health and strength. 



1898.] RAMABAI*8 FAMINE WIDOWS. 281 

" I think the most beautiful work of grace I have ever seen in any 
child's heart was the following: A few evenings ago we were late in going 
to have prayers with the girls, so when we got to the door we found dear 
little Anandi had gathered all the women and children together and was 
praying aloud with them and they repeating the prayer after her. How 
the heart of our Father God must have rejoiced as He heard such requests 
and thanksgiving as ascended from that room. *Our kind heavenly 
Father, we do thank You for bringing us here, giving us such dear 
friends, and especially for Ramabai. Oh ! our kind Father, those of us 
who love You, we want You to keep our hearts very clean, and those who 
don't love You, quickly clean their hearts, and keep them clean by Your 
Holy Spirit dwelling in them. Oh ! our kind Father, take care of all us 
in this Home and the Poona Home to-night ; bless all who look after us, 
and abundantly bless Ramabai and Sundrabai who take such care of us. 
Now, Father, we thank You for Jesus and for what Jesus promises to do 
for us. Take care of us to-night, and forgive us wherein we have given 
You pain to-day, for Jesus' sake. Amen.' " 

Miss A. Parsons, of the '* Poona and Indian Village Mission," gives 
an interesting picture of days spent with Ramabai's famine widows 
at Kedgaum. She says in part: "They are a sad pitiful sight when 
first they come I Some almost too weak to move, some through want 
of cleanliness and proper food are covered with sores, that it is pain- 
ful to look at them, others through sheer poverty have been reduced 
to wearing the same article of clothing for such a very long time that it 
is impossible to stand near them without feeling faint through the very 
unhealthy odor proceeding therefrom. Praise the Tjord for what a few 
months in the Home have done for such! They are not only clean, and 
the majority of them strong and healthy, but they have wonderfully 
toned down through the Christ-influence that has been exerted over 
them, and now instead of quarreling and fighting, they gladly do any- 
thing for one another, or for those who are in charge of them. Some 
have accepted Christ as their Savior, and many of us who are older in 
the Christian life, might well envy them their simple faith in a God 
whom they believe not only has made a way of salvation from sin for 
them, but one who cares for them and promises to supply their every 
need." 

Rev. W. W. Bruere held ten days' special services in the Poona 
Home last year, and at the close 116 women and child-widows were 
baptized. Later he went to Kedgaum to hold a mission. The women 
had been prepared for these services by constant daily religious 
teaching ever since they entered the Home. At the close of three days' 
services sixty-seven had been converted. The meetings were continued, 
Mr. Bruere returned, and as the crowning event on November 15, the 
baptismal service took place. It was a rare sight when seventeen bullock 
carts, crowded with seven and eight women in each, started out for the 
Bheema River, five and a half miles distant from the farm. Songs of 
joy arose one after another as they slowly went along, methinks mingled 
themselves with the joy around the throne when sinners are converted. 
A tent was pitcht on the bank of the river, which served as a dressing- 
room. A short service was held by Rev. W. W. Bruere, after which the 
baptisms took place. The happy faces and frequent expressions of praise 
showed that the Spirit teaches His children alike the world over, for 
these women had never come in contact with many Christians, revivals, 



282 MISSIONARY DIGEST DEPARTMENT. [April 

or baptismal services. One hundred and eight women and girls and one 
boy of twelve years of age were baptized. 

The chief thing that imprest one in the meetings was the real work- 
ing of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of the girls, producing real sorrow 
for sin and an earnest search for salvation. Then when the light would 
break in, there would be the spontaneous utterance of such notes of 
praise as the one Spirit alone can teach. We all know how timid the 
women of this country are about speaking in public, but when Jesus 
comes into the heart, the joy of salvation drives out fear. One aft>er 
another they would rise and tell of forgiveness of sins, yet in language 
peculiarly their own. 

On Sunday ** something new" came into existence — a church of 
widows. Connected wMth the church a Sunday-school was organized, 
with regular oflBcers and teachers. The older girls (those under Rama- 
bai's care prior to the famine) have a chance to prove that salvation is 
not a selfish acquirement, for they are given a class in Sunday-school as 
well as appointed class-leaders to instruct those in their charge. 



THE LIVINGSTONIA MISSION IN AFRICA.* 

BY RIGHT IIOX. LORD OVERTOUN. 

Twenty-four yeai*s have past away since David Livingstone died on 
his knees at Ilala, near Lake Bangweolo. While his body was brought 
home by loving hands and laid to rest among the mighty dead in West- 
minster Abbey, his heart rests near the spot where, in suffering, he spent 
the last night of his life, among the people he loved so well. 

His death rang the great bell for the evangelization of the Dark Con- 
tinent, and the Livingstonia Mission, advocated by Dr. Stewart, of I^ove- 
dale, Livingstone's fellow-traveler, was founded in 1874, and stands 
to-day a nobler monument to the gi-eat misHionary than crumbling 
marble. The following year the Ilala Hteaniod into Lake Nyassa, bearing 
a company of pioneer missionaries, headed l)y Dr. Laws, who for a quarter 
of a century has ably dii-ected the Livingstonia Mission. During all 
these years a battle has been steadily wag(»d of Light against Darkness; 
the Gospel against Heathenism; Liberty against Slavery; Civilization 
against Barbarism; Righteousness and Truth against Vice, Cruelty, and 
Superstition. 

By God's good hand upon us the small band of 1875 now numbers 28 
Scottish missionaries and 112 native evangelists, while there has been 
formed a native church, with seven congregations, 12 elder« and deacons, 
and 291 members. There are now 85 schools, with 354 native teachers 
and monitors, and with a daily attendance of 11,510 pupils. 

The great purpose of the Livingstonia Mission is to win Central 
Africa for Christ. The work is carried on on four great lines : 

J. Evangelization by the direct proclamation of the Gospel at the 
various mission centers. At Bandawe the attendance at church on Sab- 
bath numbers upward of 1,000, and from each center native evangelists 
go out every Sabbath with the Gospel message to surrounding villages, 
some as much as t«n miles distant. The chui*ch building has become too 

• From The Free Church of Scotland Monthly. 



1898.] THE LIVING8TONIA MISSION IN AFRICA. ^83 

small, and the session and congregation have petitioned for help to hiiild 
a new church, seated for 1,400, to which they are to contribute £200, 
($1,000). Not only the adults are reacht, but the children are specially 
eared for and taught in Sunday-schools out of God's Word in their owti 
tongue. They have a great talent for music, and delight in the hymns 
which are on the lips and hearts of our bairns at home. The printing 
and circulation of the Bible in the native dialects have greatly helpt the 
work, and the people are gladly paying for the Woini of God and Chris- 
tian literature, which are now spreading through the country. 

2. Medical Missions, — As in all lands, so in Africa, this work has 
arrested and won the people, and given them perhaps their first idea of 
what Christianity is. That men better, wiser, stronger than they should 
come, not to destroy or rob them, but to heal .and help, is a mystery 
beyond their comprehension. When they see men and women healed 
and cured by those who are constrained by love of God, and learn that 
the Son of God lived and died on the earth to save them, is it to be 
wondered at that their confidence and then their hearts were won ? At 
Bandawe alone more than 10,000 cases have been treated in the past 
year. 

3. Education, — No thoughtful or observant man now questions the 
policy of educating the natives, for in the march of civilization and com- 
merce, the demand is steadily on the increase for trained and intelligent 
natives, and the daily attendance at the eighty-five schools is very large. 
There are a large number at the elementary stages, but many, esi)ecially 
at the Institute, are in the fifth and sixth standards. The diversity of 
tongues — nine different languages being spoken in Nyassaland — greatly 
increases the difficulty of school-work. We are feeling more and more 
the desirability of having a uniform language, and are trying to adopt 
the Nyanja language, enricht by such words as may be adapted from 
others. 

4. Industrial Work, — The experience gained, and the success achieved 
at Lovedale under the able guiding hand of Di\ James Stewart, satisfied 
us at the outset of the mission that we must sock not onlv to take the 

ft 

Gospel of Christ to the people of Nyassaland by direct preaching and med- 
ical missions, but also to educate them — not only in ordinary school in- 
struction, but to train them in industrial pursuits — so that some occiii)a- 
tion might be given which would take the place of their one occupation, 
warfare, and also prove beneficial to the people by training them in the 
arts of peace. We therefore, at all our stations, have more or less given 
instruction by Christian tradesmen in carpentery, brickmaking, agricul- 
tiu^, building, and latterly printing, telegraphy, and tailoring, as well as 
elementary ambulance work. A central training institute receives the 
more promising pupils, and makes them into mechanics and tradt»sm(»n 
who will do much to develop the country. The demand for admission 
from all the stations is three times as gi-eat as our accommodation, staff, 
and funds allow us to receive. 

The work of the Livingstonia Mission is changing the country and 
the people. Slave-raiding, with its horrors, is almost a thing of the 
past. Poison-drinking is ceasing. Superstition is dying out. Fields are 
planted wnth coffee, wheat, and potatoes, and gardens with vegetables. 
New fruit and timber trees are being planted, and cattle are being raised 
and tended. All this has been wrought by God througli the Gospel, 
through the labors of our noble band of workers. But Africa is to lie 



284 MISSIONARY DtOEST DEPARTMENT. [April 

won by her own sons and daughters, and for this end we are laboring. 
Within the last six months 285 men and women have confest their faith 
in Christ. The field is great, and there are openings around us, which 
for lack of men and money we can not yet enter, while they are calling 
us to come. 



REV. PROFESSOR JAMES LEGGE, M.A., D.D., LL.D.' 

T. His Work in China. — The fame of Dr. Legge as a Chinese 
scholar of the very first rank has traveled throughout the world. He was 
of such a scholarly turn of mind, that he might have risen to high 
eminence in the university in which he was trained, but his mind, how- 
ever, was set upon becoming a missionary. Accordingly, in the year 
1830, t he was appointed to labor in the great empire of China. 

In those early days China sternly and haughtily refused to allow 
foreigners free access into the country. Dr. Legge, therefore, began his 
missionary life at Malacca, Avhere he became the presiding spirit in the 
college which had been establisht there for the higher education of 
Chinese young men, who, it was hoped, would play an important part in 
the elevation of their country. 

Aft/er the conclusion of the war between England and China, and the 
signing of the Treaty of Nanking, by which Hongkong was ceded to the 
former country. Dr. Legge hastened to take up his residence there. 
He was not content with being able simply to acquire the spoken lan- 
guage of the Chinese, but determined to study the written characters in 
which the books are printed. Thus he would be able to read for him- 
self the writings of the ancient sages of China. Dr. I^gge was a hard stu- 
dent. As his knowledge of the lang^iage gi'ew, and his acquaintance with 
the writings of Confucius and Mencius became more thorough, the purpose 
to translate these into English gradually fixt itself in his mind. Those 
who would understand the Chinese, must study their sacred writings. 
Dr. Legge determined that this should be made possible by translating 
them into English. The Chinese classics reveal the mind of China more 
than any other books that have ever been written in that great empire. 
They stand, in fact, in very much the same relation to the people of 
China as the Bible does to the English. They have had to do with the 
molding and development of the Chinese character. From early times 
down to the present they have been the only 8chool-b<K)ks that would 
be tolerated in any school throughout the eighteen provinces. Every 
man that professes to be a scholar knows them off by heart, and even 
those whose educaticm is most imperfect will assume an appearance 
of culture by quoting sentences that they have learned from them on 
all possible occasions. They are the royal road to distinction and honors 
in the State, for only the men that have received their degrees by pass- 
ing examinations in them can hope for high official appointments. 
Every man in China is a C-onfucianist flrat, no matter what else he may 
be after. 

To perform this great task one would naturally suppose that Dr. 

• From the L. M. S. Chronicle. 

+ James hegf^e was born at Huntly, Aberdeenshire, on Dec. 30, 1814, and studied first at 
Kinf?'8 College and University, Aberdeen, and then at Highbury College, London. He was a 
member of the church a.s8enibling at Trevor Chapel. Brompton, then under the pastorate of 
Dr. John Morrison, whose daughter, Mary Isabella, was his first wife She died in 1852. Subne- 
quently he married Mrs. WlUets, the widow of the Rev. O. Willets, of Salisbury. 



1S98.] REV. PROFESSOR JAMES LEOOE, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 285 

Legge would have had to devote all his energies to it, to the exclusion of 
almost e>*ery other work. But when he was most busy with the classics, 
he seemed also to be fully occupied in preaching. He was, besides, pas- 
tor of Union Church, in Hongkong, and as a public-spirited man and a 
loyal citizen, was always ready to expend brain and time for the fur- 
therance of any plan that had at heart the welfare either of his country- 
men or of the Chinese. The one thing, however, that has given him a 
world-wide fame is the profound scholarship that enabled him to trans- 
late the sacred books of China, and thus bring them within the reach of 
every student. In doing this he has broken down the great wall that hid 
that nation from the West, and has given thinkers an opportunity of 
studying the ethical principles upon which Chinese society has been built. 

11. Professor Legoe in Oxford. — In 1876, after the labors of an 
average lifetime, he left China for England to become professor of Chinese 
at Oxford. But since that time he has been no less the Chinese missionary 
than in the earlier days at Hongkong. He has made it his chief concern 
to toil at the Chinese language and literature in such a way as to bring 
the West into a fuller and more sympathetic knowledge of the East, and 
we have had further translations of Chinese classics and treatises on 
Chinese religions from his prolific pen. He has also trained here in 
Oxford many able and competent missionaries. But of almost equal 
importance, we seem to lose in him a great Christian ambassador — to 
whom men from the far East were ever welcome, and who was unceasingly 
sought out in his Oxford home by all who were interested in China from 
whatever cause. 

His belief in the necessity for Christian missions was never dimmed. 
When a paper was to be read before a Nonconformist society upon 
"Missions: their Use and Abuse," he discovered that some of the mem- 
bers were inclined to be somewhat critical and unsympathetic. He 
therefope wrote a long letter to the secretary, giving the arguments which 
he would have used had he been able to be present. One paragraph 
deserves quota.tion: 

"From the time that I began to think of what might be my own 
course in life — long before I was ten years old — it was as clear to me as 
that 2 4- 2 = 4 that if I could not find a good reason, which Christ would 
admit, for not l)ecoming a missionary, I must go as one to some foreign 
field. For nearly ten years the search for such a reason went on in my 
mind, until every sophistical excuse which I proposed to myself was 
gradually disposed of, and, in 1839, 1 went as a missionary to the Chinese. 
I thank God to-day that I was finally constrained to adopt that course, 
and when I look back on the more than thirty years that I spent among 
that people, I venture to think that it was to me *a jirace given to teach 
and preach among them the unsearchable riches of Christ.*^" 

In this spirit he lived and workt in Oxford, and his abundant services 
in the churches are to-day remembered with gratitude. His funeral 
service in Mansfield Chapel was a veritable grammarian's funeral — for 
Eastern and Western learning were there amply represented. But it was 
more than that. Our greatest scholars were there to do honor to the 
man of learning ; but there were many also present from far Hankow, 
and distant Amoy, and elsewhere, whose presence bore eloquent witness 
to his great achievements as a pioneer worker in the gi'eat Middle King- 
dom. On the special hymn sheet was the apt quotation from his own 
translation of Confucius: *• If a man in the morning hear the right way, 
he may die in the evening without regret." 



286 



IXTERNATIOXAL DEPARTMENT. 



[April 



III.— INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



EDITKD AND CONDrCTKIJ BY REV. J. T- GRACEY, D.D. 



XmpreaBiQDB Made by the Student 
Yolimteer Oo&TentiaiL 

REV. D. L. LEONARD, D.D. OBER- 

LIN, O. 

All things considered, including 
the theme continually uppermost 
in every mind and heart, the great 
religious movement represented, 
the intellectual and spiritual char- 
acter of the delegates with the stu- 
dent bodies which sent them, the 
eminently business-like manage- 
ment of affairs, the well thought 
through and comprehensive pro- 
gram, the remarkable high average 
excellence of the numerous addres- 
ses, the ruling spirit and motive 
from first to last, the really tre- 
mendous tho quiet and controlled 
enthusiasm everywhere manifest, 
it is to be counted a remarkable 
and significant gathering, and one 
not often, if ever, equaled. Re- 
duced to a sentence, the meaning 
of the convention was, world-wide 
missions at the' very soonest pos- 
sible constitute the supreme and 
exigent business of the entire Chris- 
tian Church; but, alas, only the 
fow are fully awake and possest of 
intelligent, burning zeal. 

Among the characteristic feat- 
ures were such as these: Here was 
a movement most clearly providen- 
tial in origin and inspiration, that 
is, springing up outside of all eccle- 
siastical planning and manage- 
ment, spontaneous, fairly leaping 
into life, irrc^sistible, like Christian- 
ity itself, the Reformation, modern 
missions in Carey's day, or the Sal- 
vation Army. Not strangely some 
confusion results, some revolution 
in certain well-establisht ideas, pol- 



icies, methods, so that no little re- 
adjustment is required. Butchiux'h 
leaders and judicators may well 
make haste to square themselves to 
the changed situation, and at once 
proceed to put in harness the po- 
tent celestial forces here found al- 
ready massed and waiting to be 
wielded. 

Or, the late convention stood for a 
phase of the most marvelous and 
impressive modem uprising of the 
youth of our churches, to take their 
share of toil and responsibility, 
eager to learn, ready to fit them- 
selves for efficient service. Tho 
Sunday-school and the public- 
school systems were prophecies of 
good things to come; later the 
Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion with its kindred Young Wo- 
men's Christian Association gave a 
broad hint of what was in store for 
the Kingdom of forces auxiliary, 
as well as the more general move- 
ment for the enlargement of wo- 
men's sphere, with the Society of 
Christian Endeavor and its adapta- 
tion to well-nigh every denomina- 
tion, and the Student Volunteer 
Movement to cap the climax. All 
which means that from henceforth 
not one sex only, but both are to 
be represented in the vast mission- 
field both at home and abroad, and 
not merely by the older half of the 
Lord's host, but by the youth and 
the children as well. These latter 
ai'e to be enlisted int/O the service 
of the Great Captain in earliest 
years. And this well nigh startling 
innovation upon all hoary prece- 
dent is to be accepted heartily and 
with thanksgiving. These •* irreg- 
ular" undertakings are not to be 
lookt at askance, opposed, represt. 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



28' 



hut rather to be encouraged, guided, 
and utilized to the utmost. 

One could hut notice the blessed 
and perfect unity which pervaded 
every session. Here were brought 
together old and young, gre^t and 
small, black and whit«, male and 
female, British, Canadian, and 
American, from every section of 
the land, North, South, East, West, 
denominations by the score — 
Methodist bishops and Episcopal 
bishops, Presbyterians and Bap- 
tists, from both sides of Mason and 
Dixon's line ; Lutherans of divers 
kinds, and many others, but nobody 
cared for the difference or stopt to 
think of it. The one weighty, all- 
absorbing fact was, we ai-e Christ's, 
and are here to learn how we can, 
at the soonest, crown Him King of 
kings and Ix)rd of lords to the very 
ends of the earth ; and that fellow- 
ship of the Spirit in the bonds of 
peace was possest of a celestial 
quality as tho Pentecost had come 
again. 

What divine power went forth on 
Saturday from those five-and- 
twenty denominational rallies in as 
many sanctuaries; in some cases as 
many as twenty or thirty returned 
missionaries sitting upon the plat- 
form, ready to bear witness to the 
world's perishing need and of the 
power of the Gospel to save. The 
aggregate of these audiences could 
not have been much short of 15,000, 
and on Sunday, when practically 
every church in Cleveland and 
vicinity was addrest both morning 
and evening by missionary secreta- 
ries, returned missionaries, student 
volunteers, presidents, or profes- 
sors, and all upon the one theme; 
Let us arise at once and gird our- 
selves to the mighty ta^k of making 
Jesus King. 

Two thoughts in particular may 
be specified as having made a deep 
impression upon at least one au- 
ditor. Again and again it was 
urged with earnestness that diffi- 



culties standing in the way of the 
world's speedy evangelization, like 
the vast multitudes of the unreacht, 
the strength of the great false re- 
ligions, lack of money at home, 
etc., are excuse not the least for 
discouragement, for giving up in 
disgust or despair, but are rather 
to be made a spur to faith, prayer, 
aggressive effort. This point was 
made emphatic. If the missionary 
societies are afflicted with empty 
treasuries, and so can not send the 
volunteers who are ready to go, 
then let the latter proceed to seek 
needed funds from relatives, from 
the local church to which they be- 
long, or from neighboring churches. 
Such is the impulse of a soul dead in 
earnest, of genuine faith and hero- 
ism. Like Britain's greatest prime 
minister, the Lord's servant is 
called to ** tread on impossibilities.'* 
No word more true, more weighty, 
or more solemn was spoken during 
those five notable days than that of 
Dr. Hall, when he said in substance 
that, as a rule, with very few ex- 
ceptions, in our Christian colleges, 
and even our theological seminaries, 
the students do not have afforded 
them, either in the curriculum or 
in aught that their instructors say 
or do, a fair opportunity to face 
the all-ifnpoiia nt question, whether 
they shall consecrate their lives to 
some form of strictly missionary 
toil in the foreign field or at home. 
He would have in both seminary 
and college at least a two hours' 
course required, and another two 
hours' course elective, fitted to sup- 
ply a chance to settle rationally 
this great matter. Surely no man 
or woman can claim to have se- 
cured a liberal educiition who cares 
nothing about the world's evangeli- 
zation, and because he knows 
nothing about the appalling spirit- 
ual needs of humanity and the ob- 
ligation resting upon every renewed 
soul in every possible way to carry 
the glad tidings of salvation. 



ttr^r^ 



JNTKR9ATIOXAL DEPARTICENT. 



[April 



AatoDomj of Vatire Munon Ohmches. 

A Kreat many quest ions of policy 
in th^ conduct of foreign mifssions 
are forcing themMelven to the front 
hirnuitanei>UNly in a way to demand, 
HH they ought to command, wide 
and prcifound connideration. The 
miMHionary 8rx;ietie8 have counted 
their HucccKHeH at the close of the 
flrst century of Protestant move- 
ment in non-CJhristian lands, and 
cheered their supporters on to new 
endeavor, but the crisis of the hour 
calls for a general frank acknowl- 
edgment of the seriousness of the 
situation confronting them in the 
twentieth century, and for con- 
certc^d consideration about how to 
grapple with the problems which 
experience shows them to have left 
untoucht, or about which they have 
made mistakes. When the Ecu- 
menical Conference convenes in 
1C(X) in New York, is it to spend its 
energy in formulating its past 
achievements chiefly, or will it 
mass its forces to some business- 
like investigation of what a century 
has taught them they ought to 
seek to correct in fundamental and 
far-reaching principles of economy? 

A graver problem than even 
''self-support" in foreign missions 
is that of self-control, self-propaga- 
ti(m, and leadership of native com- 
mitt<»e8 by natives. If self-sup- 
port is considereii a prerequisite to 
autonomy, may it not also be pos- 
sible that autonomy is the short 
cut to self-support ? The ultimate 
goal l>eing a self-acting and self- 
developing native church, how early 
ought such (Christian community 
to lie left to bear the responsibility 
of its own development ? What 
ivHiMinsibility have the missionaries 
and mission boards entrusted them 
with ? Have tln»se churches been 
kept in leading-strings from over- 
caution, to the detriment of their 
growth in I earing responsibility ? 
How are they ever to learn to han- 



dle their own aflPairs and push on 
their aggressive work, if the oppor- 
tunity of trying to do so is denied 
them ? What is the result of a 
century of cautiousness in throwing 
on them responsibUlty ? 

The native churches in West 
Africa in 1868, in a debate with 
their home authorities in England 
over the proposal to make a Euro- 
pean successor to Bishop Crowther 
in the Niger See of the Church of 
England, made a deliverance,signed 
by forty-six of their clergy and 
laity as representatives of the body, 
in which the following occurred: 

''Christianity has seen about a 
century in West Africa generally, 
and yet it to this day wears the 
character of an exotic. It has not 
succeeded to root itself in the soil ; 
to get the people generally to iden- 
tify their interest and their lives 
with its existence and that of its 
institutions, and exercise toward 
it that devotion which they or their 
ancestors had exhibited toward 
heathenism. 

" There is no strong ^arantee for 
permanence and contmuity in this 
exotic character, and Africans who 
believe in the regenerating power 
of the religion and wish to see it 
cover the whole country, who have 
some knowledge of its fate in North 
Africa, after many centuries of ex- 
istence, and of the complete failure 
of even its Roman Catholic form in 
comparatively more recent times 
after over two centuries of exist- 
ence, and who are not altogether 
ignorant of the causes of these re- 
peated and signal failures, are nat- 
urally anxious to see a repetition 
of the sad {.nd terrible calamity 
avoided. 

"It is our conviction that one 
of the reasons for the character 
which Christianity now manifests 
in Africa is the fact that it has 
been held too long in a state of de- 
pendence ; and that it has been too 
long in the habit of looking to its 
foreign parent for immediate guid- 
ance ana direction in almost every- 
thing, and this you will admit, does 
not make much for the development 
of that manly independence and 
self-reliance which are so essential 
for the development of a strong 
people and a vigorous institution. 

" We are not blaming our teach- 



1898.] 



INTERNATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 



289 



era, who have sacrificed themselves 
on the altar of love for lis. We do 
Dot underrate any of their achieve- 
ments, for which we are, and ever 
hope to be, grateful. We are not 
impatient of the presence of Euro- 
peans amongst us, as we have un- 
lortunately been too often mis- 
takenly represented by some of our 
foreign friends to be, but are invi- 
ting attention to a state of things 
which we are persuaded they would 
like to see changed." 

They argued that the episcopate 
of Bishop Crowther demonstrated 
their ability to conduct their own 
affairs successfully, tho that had 
the drawback of sensitiveness about 
the control of their affairs being 
only one remove further back, be- 
cause Bishop Crowther himself was 
kept under such limitations from 
direction by the authorities in 
England. They believed that the 
bishop and the native churches 
would have made a much better 
showing had the entire responsibil- 
ity of administration, uncontrolled 
by Europeans altogether, been en- 
trusted to them. They might have 
made mistakes, but they would 
have learned by experience, and 
would have developt a governing 
faculty all the more rapidly. Yet 
they believed the episcopacy of 
Bishop Crowther, as a negro 
bishop, itself showed that they were 
capable of self -direction and devel- 
opment under absolute autonomy. 
That episcopacy covered the space 
of twenty-seven years. They said: 

"The elevation of the late Bishop 
Crowther to the episcopate in 18(U 
was declared by the C^liurch Mis- 
sionary Society — which, under God, 
was mainly instrumental in bring- 
ing it about, and whose servant he 
was, and which has, from the fact 
of its being the honored founder of 
the West African chuixshes, held 
the patronage of these chiu-ches in 
its own hands — to be an experi- 
ment to prove the capacity of ne- 
groes for evangelizing important 
sections of the African Continent 
by themselves and without the 
stimulus of the presence and super- 
vision of Europeans, and for exer- 
cising the higher offices in the 



C^hurch — an experiment whose suc- 
cess was very p;enerally desired in 
England, especially on account of 
the very heavy mortality which 
had alwavs prevailed among Eu- 
ropean missionaries in the African 
mission all through its long course. 
The clergy and lay agents that 
workt under this episcopate, which 
waa often exercisea amidst circum- 
stances of peculiar difficulty and 
trial, were almost always natives." 

They did not attempt to claim 

any perfection of administration. 

They were only endeavoring to 

show that even when handicapt 

by the semi-control of the church 

authorities in P^ngland, they had 

done well enough to justify further 

enlargement of their independence. 

They argued thus: 

"But attempts have been made 
the last few years — on account 
of moral weakness discovered in 
some of the infant churches that 
have been gathered in, and serious 
faults in some of the agents and 
the like — to pronounce the experi- 
ment a failure and the negi'o inca- 
pable for a responsible trust and for 
an independent life ; and in spite of 
the century of training and teach- 
ing he has had, unfit still to be set 
free from his pupilage and the lead- 
ing-strings of European superin- 
tendence. 

" We, on our part, do not find 
ourselves able to subscribe to this 
pronouncement with the facts of the 
missi(m to which we have already 
referred before us, and also the fact 
that some of the apostolic churches 
of which we read in Scripture were 
not exempt from serious faults, and 
that the churches even in Europe, 
which have been in possession of 
Christianity many centuries, and 
those in other parts of the world, 
do not, many of them, form an ex- 
ception." 

This was not said in any **fu 
quoque^* spirit, but was a plain 
reference to the history of all be- 
ginnings, and the incipient stage of 
all church organizations. 

The report of that able and spir- 
ited discussion reacht the writer at 
the time, not through any mission- 
ary periodicals, in which it might 
properly have been lookt for, but 
through the local secular press in 



290 



INTERNATIONAl. DEPARTMBNT. 



[April 



West Africa, and was preserved as 
a valuable contribution to the per- 
manent discussion of this funda- 
mental feature of missionary eco- 
nomics. He did not present the sub- 
ject at the time in these columns, 
partly through delicacy lest such 
course might be esteemed unfriend- 
ly to the missionary administra- 
tion, whose action provokt a 
heated controversy. It is doubt- 
ful if the caution wa49 justified. 
That discussion was educative, and 
ought to have had wide attention 
of the churches generally. Unfor- 
tunately, there is no provision for 
a common council of missionary 
administrators and missionaries for 
the consideration of questions 
which, like this, affect all missions. 
It is certainly desirable that this 
Ecumenical Conference of 1900 shall 
consider whether it can not provide 
for the erection of some common 
representative body to meet, say 
biennially, to deal with questions of 
fundamental nature, like this, in 
which they have all common inter- 
est. What these African brethren 
assert about the failure of a century 
of missions to produce an indige- 
nous type of Christianity in their 
country is, there is room to fear, 
not peculiar to their locality. The 
episcopal churches have not ele- 
vated natives to the episcopacy, 
and they only represent what the 
non-episcopal churches have failed 
to do within their several econo- 
mies. It may be quite true that 
the native churches have not exhib- 
ited the qualities for such responsi- 
bility and leadership, but the deeper 
question is whether this condition 
is not attributable largely to their 
never having had responsibility 
thrust upon them. Men grow under 
responsibility, just as lads do, or as 
peoples do in new territory, where 
they can not avoid assuming lead- 
ership. This problem deserves att€»n- 
tion. Its discussion ought to be ad- 
vanced on the calendar. 



Work Among Sjiian Ohrirtiaiu, Indifti 

BT J. G. GRB080N, MANCHB8TEB, 
ENGLAND. 

For over thirty years t labored 
in India without any knowledge of 
the power of the Holy Ghost work- 
ing within me. Recently I re- 
visited the country and was invited 
to hold meetings among the Syrian 
Christians, in Travancore, South- 
em India. 

These people belong to the re- 
form party in the Syrian Church, 
which they believe was founded by 
St. Thomas, at Quilon, on the 
Malabar coast, in the year 52 A. D. 
The reform took place about twenty 
years ago, by the bishop renouncing 
the confessional, prayer to the 
saints and Virgin Mary, prayers 
for the dead and masses, but until 
recently they knew nothing of spiri- 
tual truth and power through the 
baptism of the Holy Spirit. The 
reform had been more in outward 
ceremonies than in spiritual living. 

The center of this movement is 
Aiyroon, on the river Ranee, where 
the people came night after night 
in vast crowds of between two and 
three thousand persons. The ser- 
vices were far too short to satisfy 
their desire to hear and learn more 
al)out spiritual things. At the close* 
of the meetings we usually waited 
upon God, in silence, for a few 
moments, and then one after an- 
other of the audience would pray 
aloud. It would be impossible to 
conceive of anything more moving 
than to listen to these vast crowds, 
in which each individual prayed 
aloud to God to guide him into all 
truth, and very specially to reveal 
the possibilities of a holy life, lived 
out by His Spirit. 

My second mission was one of 
constant traveling through the 
churches and living amongst the 
people. I found them simple- 
minded, hospitable, and earnest. 
In some parishes, where they were 



1898.] 



INTEBNATIONAJL DEPARTMENT. 



291 



beginning their rice harvest, they 
gave up work and often came miles 
to attend the meetings. In many 
places the churches were too small 
to hold the crowds, so that we had 
to meet outside in the open air. 
When the meeting was over, many 
would remain to a late hour, asking 
questions and carefully examining 
the Scriptures concerning the 
truths they had heard. 

Christmas day is kept on January 
8th, and a g^^^at festival it is. The 
Christmas service begins just be- 
fore dawn, a little after three 
o'clock, when the explosion of 
bombs and the clanging of bells 
arouse the sleepers to the con- 
sciousness that it is Christmas 
morning. The first ceremony is 
around a camp-fire in front of the 
church, where they sing and pray, 
like the shepherds who kept watch 
by their fires at night. The service 
in the church begins about four 
o'clock, and goes on without a 
pause till eleven or twelve o'clock. 
At the invitation of the priest, I 
preacht the sermon on Christmas 
day, and in the afternoon had a 
meeting with the Sunday-school 
children. The boys and girls were 
remarkably bright and happy, tho 
one little lad greatly surprised me 
with a text, which was given in re- 
sponse to my request. He rose and 
said very gravely : "Oh, wretched 
man that I am, who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ? " 
I felt that my young friend must 
go home with a brighter text than 
the one he had given me, so I gave 
him instead : "Rejoice in the Lord 
always." 

One of the most encoiu'aging 
signs in connection with the mis- 
sion has been in having a good 
many young men attending the 
meetings who have been educated 
in English and read our lit/erature. 
These young men have formed a 
Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, and are deeply interested in 



an evangelistic movement among 
the heathen, who are their farm 
servants. The Syrian Christians 
are the farmers of Travancore, and, 
in many instances, cultivate their 
own lands. The chief products are 
rice, tapioca, sugar-cane, and cocoa- 
nuts. 

Another encouraging evidence 
of their desire to know more fully 
what Ood has in store for them, 
is to be found in the eagerness with 
which the women attend the meet- 
ings. They are taken up with 
household cares and duties, and 
have but little time to attend to 
spiritual things. Several of the 
elderly women were deeply con- 
cerned about living a holy life in 
the power of the Holy Spirit. Tho 
the Syrian women are not shut up 
in zenanas, they have a life of 
drudgery, and are treated more 
like household servants than as 
wives. They are married when 
they are quite children, through ar- 
rangements made by their parents, 
and submit to the position in which 
they live, according to the customs 
of their forefathers. 

For this work men and money 
are needed, and my belief is, that 
when He calls forth His 4aborers 
He will provide the means required 
to send them forth. The need is for 
sanctified messengers who have re- 
ceived the baptism of the Holy 
Ghost, and are thereby endued with 
the power of the Holy Ghost, and 
divinely qualified to go as living 
witnesses to the uttermost parts of 
the earth.* 



Does the Homan Oatholic Ohnroh Want 
an " Open " Bible in Soman 
Oatholio Oonntries ? 
We are furnisht with fresh evi- 
dence of the antagonism of the 
Roman Catholic Church to a free 
and open Bible, in an episode which 

• Mr. GreGTson returned to Travancore In 
November, In response to a request to con- 
duct a three years* mission among the 
Byrians.— £o. 



•»*".»» 



nrTWX3 ±Tlt >^ XL, DePABTXEST* 



[April 



and Arr#T)C<*d Mai^iiw." Wqac th*!- 

*'>r of Fr*i^ 3C2L4tf>nrj Btukv- he. l:»»i» 
fi^Tt^KA^. fit rfa*^ p*irvi«»-w of uhL** p#^- 
ftfiir^U B»*t li^'m. A- SaTh«*riarni. 
Oran/l Maj*r^T of tlw^ firami L#xi^ 
of Fr**e arid Ar:r*=-pc«i 3fa^>i» of 
f h^ ?^far^ »>f X^^-ir York, ha^* ent«>rp<i 
fh#^ ar^rnaaA a rhamp»ion of an op^n 
BiW#i aA afEain.«t on** fKri^tian 
iMm, Grand Ma.«t«Y of MafM»D:« in 
P*^rn. If appears fr»>in tb#? irrital 
in a rirnilar, which we jndgp- i^ n«»t 
#^<(<*ffric to Ma^^inry, that thi^ 
Orand Maj«tfr frf MasoiLs in Peni 
annonnc:^?! to th<je»e iind^^r his juri*- 
dirtion that " a^rr-ordinj? to Cath«>- 
liH^in the Bihie In a aacred bor»k in 
which the revealed word h* dep«i«i*- 
ited and a» such <^n not he freelv 
examined and criticized; that the 
Bible can nf»t he <r*>nsidered as a 
fountain of scientific knowledge 
or hi*it«>ry, nor A3 a basis of mriral- 
ity; " and he dr>es •'decree that on 
all )fasonic altars the Bible shall 
lie renif»ved and replaced hy the 
Constitution of the order of Free 
Masonry, and that in all our ritu- 
als the word * Bible ' shall be strick- 
en out and the words, *the Con- 
stitution of the Grand Lodge of 
Peru * put in its place." 

The cimilar signed by William 
A. Sutherland as Grand Master 
f»rm;#?#*rls ti> affirm, ** By virtue of 
the fKiwers and prerogatives in me 
veHted as Grand Master of Masons 
jn the State of New York, I do 
annoimce and declare that the said 
e^lict and the decree of the said 
CFiristinn Dam has terminated all 
relations heretofore existing l)e- 
iwei-n the (irand Lcnlge of Peru 
and the (irand IxKlge of New 
York ; " and as Grand Master Mr. 
Sutherland commands all under the 
Jurlsdictirm of the Grand l»dge of 
New York to "abstain from all 
MiiHoni(; intercoui-wi with the so- 
called (irand Lodge of Peru until 
the said edict of the said Christian 



Dam -ibiul bt^r^after be refii«>wd 
and r^TiiiAted-'* 

The N^w Y»3rk Frmnmam'j§ JoHr- 
ntii. iL«?riciii^ thin expiit<i«>o and 
r**prL«iiari»-.n. *y€ the Grand LiMi|ee oi. 
P*?ni. a.'*k*: "IThat will be the result 
it the Grand L^^ise of IVra in turn 
expel:} the Grand L«)d«se of New 
Yi>rk fr»-»in the order of Free and 
Accepted Ma:««>n:«? Of the wh«>le 
matter a:» an inter-Ma.<«>nic affair, 
whatever its merit* pn>%vr ct^n^ this 
peri«>lical kn«>ws D«»thing. and with 
it has nothing to do. But, a^ssiun- 
imr that Mr. Sutherland is well ac- 
quainted with the fact:« in the cai!«e* 
and aware of his abilitv, and that 
he is an eminent and authorized 
attorney in the State of New York, 
we take it for granted that what he 
affirms of the authoritative expul- 
sion of the Bible from the scMralled 
** Masonic altars ^ of Pern, and the 
reasons for it, are matters of fact, 
and we make reference to it only 
in evidence of the general spirit 
of the Roman Catholic Cliurch to- 
ward the Bible in every hind it 
dominates, and as a fresh illustra- 
tion of the need of the presence and 
power of Protestant missions in 
countries dominated, as is Peru, by 
the Roman Catholic hierarchr. 

The Freeman^s Journal volun- 
teers in explanation of the course 
of the Peru lodge, that it is in evi- 
dence of and a part of the lamen- 
table infidelity of the times. But 
will the Journal tell us in what 
Roman Catholic country the eccle- 
siastics of the church have not 
antagonized the circulation of the 
Scriptures among the people, or 
in which of these countries it 
has taught that the Scriptures 
might be "freely examined" by 
the laity? The Plenary Coun- 
cil of Baltimore may have said 
that they desired to see the Bible 
(presumably the Douay edition) in 
every home, but that is in a strong 
Protestant country, and amidst 
tendencies which they did not orig- 



1898.] 



INTERNATIOKAL DEPABTMENt. 



293 



inate, and is not in evidence for 
Roman communities which they 
overshadow. Does it not^)ccu^ also 
to the Journal that it is dealing 
with the product of three centuries 
of unrestricted domination of the 
Roman Catholic Church in Mexico 
and in South American communi- 
ties, when it speaks of infidelity 
which results from Roman Catholic 
administration? We have long 
known that the Roman hierarchy 
wasted no affection on Free Mason- 
ry in Roman Catholic countries, 
hut we had supposed that that 
hatred was toward it in common 
with all other secret societies. It 
Eeems very probable, however, that 
it is in accord with the spirit of the 
Roman Catholic Church, that the 
Peru lodge excluded the Bible from 
its altar, and not because of infidel- 
ity, since the ground of the expul- 
sion, and the argument based on it, 
is that the Bible is a " sacred book in 
which the revealed word is deposit- 
ed." There does not seem to be ar- 
rant infidelity in that, but there 
is a pronouncement of what the 
Grand Lodge of Peru understands 
to be the permanent policy of the 
Roman Catholic Church in all Ro- 
man C^atholic lands, in the assertion 
that the reason for the expulsion 
is that ** according to Catholicimn " 
the Bible is too "sacred" to be 
"freely examined," we assume, by 
the laity. 

There will not be much zeal for 
the circulation of the Scriptures, 
by any church or people holding 
this theory concerning the Scrip- 
tures. If the republics of South 
America and Mexico ever get this 
Bible in "every home," they will 
probably only have that blessing 
through the Protestant Bible so- 
cieties and the Protestant missions 
of those lands. 

The Freeniaii'a Journal says : 
"CThristian Dam has simply been 
more frank than his South Amer- 
ican confreres." We admit and 



believe that to be true, not because, 
as the Journal says, it expresses 
the infidelity of Masons in South 
America, France, and Italy, but in 
that it plainly blurts out Ss the 
basis of its action, that ** according 
to Catholicism" the Bible is too 
" sacred " to be " freely examined." 
It is that policy which has resulted 
in the revolt against the Roman 
Catholic religion which the Free- 
nian*8 Journal styles infidelity, 
and which it alleges the Masonic 
orders of Roman Catholic lands rep- 
resent. 



ITnifonnity in Miadonary Statistioai 

It was mentioned in the report of 
the Missionary Officers* Sixth An- 
nual Conference, that a committee 
which has been patiently working 
for some years to mature a formula 
for statistical reports from the sev- 
eral foreign fields, has been success- 
ful in preparing such a schedule as 
the American and Canadian socie- 
ties had generally agreed upon, and 
this conference called attention to 
it as possibly affording a sufficiently 
comprehensive and yet analytical 
formula for general use over the 
missionary world. We make room 
for the headings of these several 
columns that missionaries every- 
where may take note of the same, 
and if the brotherly spirit which 
dominated the American Officers' 
Conference shall prevail in attempt- 
ing to work it, this or something 
better will greatly aid in reducing 
the present confusion, which makes 
the foreign churches, at least in one 
respect, not unlike heaven, in being 
a company which "no man can 
number." The formula has blanks 
for returns in the following order: 

"TABLES OP 8TATIRTICS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING 

Name of Station^ Town or Vil- 
lage — When establisht ; population 
of field. Mis»ionarl€H — Ordained ; 
unordained (not physicians) ; phy- 
sicians (men); physicians (women) ; 



^ •r 



r*T2a:f t^nt h. 



3HP ».-2nH3r5:. 



r*^ 



Arru 






"ill* T'*f»r 



«w:'-Mi;pT>jr^..''.ijr : rr.niai'in.i^smiit ; 
arl«t«>*1 '-I'X rr.nt'f-^w*!! n v.*ar*: aith**r- 

^#:<#i(r>^;ii ^no.i.'*; ■♦ri*ii*-nr.4 in T-ht^v- 
U*v. » 'a I ^ ra . r. ; r.*" f • .r r r.e m . r. i^rry ; 
^t'.;«i*-n*4 in ''» i.^-flTAf^ tra^n.iui': 
iv^r'1.r»ar ar.»i h.^i i< h*> L* : pupil** 

p»»p..H '>iV'» : pl.t:*:* ;jnr!> : tocil 
n'irr.^>*^r im*J^r in«*rr»irri..n : arh*-.!?* 

Wj» — For ^n irr-h Ar.d ri*inrr»-iicaLti»jrwil 
^Tp*^;^*-^ ; for *<l.irari«,n : fi.r b»iia»i- 
ir.ic And T*'\*\\r^ : for h»*fr.^ an«i f« r- 
*- vn r/ji'^-ion.'* ; t^/fal n-*r:v#- contri- 
h'i'i^/n.'*; apprt>pnat#-*l hr b«jAni : 
fr»r rh'in^h*-?* an/i «iriranon -nariv**- 
» '^#rk •. J/^^y ifftl S*t ftt rnfi ry — Tb^ 
U^Uij* ^u^^f-^tf-i\ ar*-, n'iiiih*-r of hijts- 
pitaN ; fvkUi\ffrTi>i ^l*-<i» ; nuniJjerof 
iu'frfiticnt'^z niiinV**-r of di^pen^a- 
ri*^ ; nIIm^**r^ of ouf-pati^rnt'* ; 
fofal fxpfTiJ**^, in/']iirlintr aj««-i'»t- 
antrt r^ rw-#ript?* in f*-*^, I'nd^r the 
(U'lfA rt rn^n t of /'ri n fing Preim i he 
ir/^n.H are — nIJIn^ler of pHntinires^ 
ta>f)i«ihrnerit« : nll^nbe^ of pacres 
prinferl during^ the jhat; nuuiber 
of \ffii(*'n tftit it^\ from t^Kinnin^ ; 
fiijrnJ»*Toi Scrripture |>orti«>ns: nuni- 
fffT iff other ^KK»k.H ; t'»tal expense 
of ninniriK pr*^?** inr-hiding »iip- 
pli<-M ; t/»tai HaUft for the year. 

Thin formula iHai^-crrmipanied with 
the ft^]\^^^^inf/^ hii^k*'**^**'^ notes* : 

'^DiiM )ilankran t>eu.H«*d forstation 
rejKiHi, or to make up the totals of 
a mMMion, ffompriMinji^ the statist i'^s 
from a niimlMfr of stations. 

Adherents inelude all communi- 
rantSf hHpti/>*d ehildren,t inquirers 
under inst met ion or receivcKi on 
prohattrm* and re^ilar church at- 
t^'udantH. All contrihutions, fees, 
or w*elety ^ants are understood to 
ffM'Hn for the year clf>sing the re- 
|Hfrt. J>ay'Sch(Hds should allow 

♦ TIm* wor<l '* SA}>y*ath '' was tmggenied as 
M mu}fH\UnU* tor "Sunday.'* 

t Hf/t lnr:liiflln{( Malariefl of foreig^n mission- 
I Or ^Mpiiztnl noD-communlcanta. 



na.r •> r*iA .*nr' iment. A '. 1 
^t n^T* "ni*^:! nsw antl s*)- 

^ -«. -irriiii'y. Exp^tn****** ■ ^r ci arri- 
btirn ii!» •»nr#*rpii m. •ce ci i nun 
-tnitu.ii ru r rH» •»nr«Hr»^i m ani-caer 
•!• rimn. Tb** ••auirv i.r a pr»»su:h»^ 
t^mcu^i rn vai-ri i:r d'lmnr the 
w»*»*ii 'till Uit i T»* • L TTii»-ti r>*rw«rtrii ci ^n- 
sc*»tfri.rn Oiii •*Tp»*ns<e* ADfi s«'C«j»»l 
t»Tp»-nr*«**»w !Ti tne pr»'pt^rtii a to 
wrL.i-n h** •ievit**^* hi* "lait?- '••"* ettfch. 
M'^riziiZ pLi«'*»* ^hi/iilti Lii«*i-i«ie or- 
idkr.jz^i <:2.ir»-ae*. Ic is dt— .irahie 
c*> zr».iip t.-wTiij and villaat*** by 
rht^LT r»*ian« c* t»> an oncajiize*! 
chir^h. ..r hy cirr'iit*. ra''h«-'r than 
CM •'nir-r chr*Qi ^ph«kb^cically. 

TTbi'? •*T'>»^Lrt*nt t^Me is hy far the 
m'-t^t ci-c^pi»-te and satisfactory 
tJi'i» far i^wied. and mach would be 
piLiie«i r>y ir.^ an: v^rrsal adoption by 
n*U'«*-ionary bt^ards. There aie, h«*w- 
ev«»r. a4«cL.e h«:fa*iinjBrs which may 
»rlll permit niisiinderstandintr. 
^%'benever sach p«5**ibiliry exists 
s«>nie are <irre to make use of it: 

L >ieth««ii<t. EpiscopaL Presby- 
terian, and other organizations may 
put diifH-rent interpretations on the 
wt»rd orriniitffi, 

2. It worild be weU to distinguish 
b»^t ween paid and unpaid. Christian 
and non-1'hristian. tuttire helpers, 

3k. (. o in tn H n irti n i* should inci ude 
only full members* and should be 
distinguish t from those who join 
on pn>l>ation. 

4. Adtit^i bjf confession might by 
S4>Die be more clearly understood if 
defined as meaning those ^'received 
into full communion.** 

5. It would be helpful to have a 
distinction made between Christian 
and non-4.*hristian pupiis» 

6. Total (pupils) under insirtic- 
Hon should tie stated not to include 
those in Sunday-sch<M>Is. 

7. I '/I ited icith ihechu rch du n ng 
the year is, we suppose, intended to 
refer only to pupils under instrac- 
tion, and not to include those 
merely baptized or received on pro- 
bation. — D.] 



Protestant IGsnonariee in TnAsj, 

We admire the frankness of the 
New York Freeman'* s Journal^ a 
Koman Catholic paper, in the fol- 
lowing, which it says under the 
caption of "A Correction : " 

*' Some weeks ago we commented 



1898.] 



OBNBRAL MISSIONARY INTELLIOCNCfi. 



295 



on reports, sent from Washing^n 
to the New York press, concerning 
Protestant missionaries in Ar- 
menia. These reports represented 
the missionaries as encouraging the 
revolt against the Turkish govern- 
ment, and as presenting exorbi- 
tant bills of damages for property 
destroyed by the Turks. Weight 
was g^ven to these reports by repre- 
senting them as based on official 
information from Dr. Angell, 
American Minister to Turkey. As- 
suming the correctness of the re- 
ports, and seeing no contradiction, 
we made our comments. 

"Concerning the ci*editing of 
these reports to our minister to 
Turkey, the Rev. John Lee, of 
Chicago, sends us the following let- 
ter, which, in answer to an inquiry, 
he received from the Assistant 
Secretary of State : 

"Rev. John Lee, 57 Washington 
Street, Chicago, 111.: 

" Sir : I have to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 21st 
inst., in which you say that a 
prominent New York paper states 
that complaint was made some 
time ago that much of the trouble 
in Armenia was caused by the con- 
duct of Protestant missionaries, 
and that our minister at Constan- 
tinople, in his report to the State 
Department giving details of the 
recent attack on Turkish villages 
by Armenian brigands, justifies the 
complaint. You request a copy of 
said report. 

" In reply I have to inform you 
that no report of the character 
stated has oeen received from our 
minister to Constantinople, and 
the statement that you have quoted, 
which has been persistently current 
in the press, has been repeatedly 
denied. Respectfully yours, 
"William R. Day, 

" Assistant Secretary. 

"As the author of the reports 
falsely attributes them to our min- 
ister, no reliance can be placed on 
what he says. His statement is 
detrimental to the character of the 
missionaries, and must be con- 
sidered as worthless. And any re- 
marks of ours based on those false 
reporte are, of course, withdrawn." 



BeBone Work in India. 

Rev. J, O. Denning, M.A., prin- 
cipal of the Hardwicke Christian 
Boys* School, Narsinghpur, India, 
Dec. 22, 1897, acknowledges a dona- 
tion for the support of his orphan 
boys, and communicates some facts 
of interest, which we give in sub- 
stance: 

"Narsinghpur is one of the four 
districts of the central provinces 
suffering worst by famine. 

"Over two years a^o a mother 
brought her three children, want- 
ing to sell the girl of twelve years 
for ten rupees ($3.25), but suppos- 
ing no one would take the two 
boys, younger, at any price, after 
a little talk, she gave me all three 
for nothing. From that time till 
now, two years, hundreds of people 
have been dying all around us ; the 
ghastly looks of the living skele- 
tons crying for bread ; the sores 
and other diseases resulting from 
hunger ; children sucking empty 
breasts or crying beside a dead 
mother; the pitiful appeals for 
food, which we were unable to meet, 
were enough to make one's hair 
turn gray, 

"We rescued over seven hundred 
children, nearly all orphans, and 
sent them to various mission- 
schools. Our boys' school here 
soon filled up to about sixty, but 
having no more room, we sent 
others away. Last February we 
bought a large building here, nearly 
new, for about two-fifths of its 
cost, and put the boys in it. Last 
March we began relief work. A 
lady gave money to employ people 
— hungry, yet able to work. Others 
did likewise. For six months I had 
about 300 of these working people, 
and have 100 yet. They have g^atly 
enlarged and improved the school 
buildmgs, and there is room now 
for 400 or 500 boys. 

" Everyone on entering the school 
leaves off his heathenism and be- 
gins Christian form. Many of the 
older boys have really found the 
Savior. 

Most of the boys will probably 
follow trades or some business, but 
no small per cent, will be preachers 
and teachers to their people. In the 
first English class, a sweeper-boy 
stands first ; in the second, a Brah- 
min, while a Mussulman is proba- 
bly first on a general average. 



296 



FIELD OF MONTHLY SURVEY. 



[April 



IV. -FIELD OF MONTHLY SURVEY. 

India,* BTirma,t Oeylon,t Hmduifim,§ Woman's Work,! Native Agent&lf 

BY DELAY AN L. PIER80N. 



The Awakening of India. 

More earnest believing prayer, 
and more absolute self-surrender 
and dependence upon the power 
and guidance of the Holy Spirit, is 
the great need of the Church to-day 
for the work both at home and 
abroad. The Church of Christ has 
the money and the men ; what is 
needed is the consecration and ener- 
gizing of these forces. More prayer 
is of greater importance than more 
work. India is possest of a legion 
of devils which can not be cast 
forth but by prayer and fasting. 
The missionaries are awakening to 
a realization of this, and observed 
December 12th last as a day of prayer 
for India. The fruits are already 
being made manifest, first in the 
quickening of the spiritual lives of 
the missionaries and of the native 



* See also pp. 8«8 (May, 1897); 517, 541 (July); 
579, 591 (August); 669, 682, 687 (September); 
18, 86 (January, 1898»: 119, 139 (February;; 
197 (March); 249, 256, 260, 275 (present issue). 

New Books: *' India, the Horror Stricken 
Empire ; " " Twelve Indian Statesmen," 
Qeoree Smith, LL.D ; '"Missionary Pioneers 
in India," John Rutherford, D.D ; "Life of 
Valpy French," Hubert Birke; "Christian 
Services Amon/? Educated Bengalese," 
R. P. Wilder; " Life and Travels in India," 
Anna Leonowen; " British India," R. "W. Fra- 
zer; " Hindu Manners, Customs, and Cere- 
monies," Abbe du Bois. 

Recent ART1CI.E8: "Indian Discontent and 
Frontier Risings/' Quarterly Review (Octo- 
ber, '97); "England and the Famine in In- 
dia," Forxim (November, '97) ; " Bubonic 
Plag^ue in India," Chautauquan (March). 

t See also pp. 284, 270 (present issue). 

New Books: "Picturesque Burma," Mrs. 
E. Hart. 
t See also pp. 588 (August, 1897). 

New Books: " Letters from Ceylon," Fan- 
nie Gre^son. 

{ See also pp. 445 (June, 1897), 579 (August). 

New Books: "The Upanishads," F. M. Miil- 
ler. 

Rbc^bnt ARTrcLEs: " Early Religion of the 
Hindus," Bihliotheca Sacra (January). 

I See also pp. 643. 669 (September, 1897); 197* 
(March, 1898>; 249, 27H (prej»ent issue). 

^ See also pp. 204 (present issue). 



Christians, and second in the birth 
of souls into the Kingdom. 

We rejoice and give thanks for 
the blessing already received and 
the progress already made. At 
the beginning of this century Prot- 
estant missions had only just been 
commenced in India, and were on 
a very small scale. In 1851 the 
native Christians numbered 91,100; 
in 1861 they had increast to 138,700; 
in 1871 there were 224,300; in 1881, 
417,400 ; and in 1800 they were re- 
turned as 559,700. At the present 
time there are probably more than 
750,0(X). There were very few chil- 
dren in mission-schools at the be- 
ginning of the century. In 1851 
there were m,000 ; in 1861, 76,000 ; 
in 1871, 122,400 ; in 1881, 187,700 ; in 
1890, 200,700. There are now 300,- 
000 children under Christian in- 
struction. A writer in the Harvest 
Field summarizes the present work 
in India as follows : 

** There are to-day nearly three- 
fourths of a million of Protestant 
( -hristians ; half a million of chil- 
dren are under Christian instruc- 
tion ; there are also 1,(XX) European 
and Eurasian preachers, another 
1,000 lady workers, 5,000 native 
preachers, and 10,000 native tea«h- 
. ers at work spreading Christian 
truth among the people." 

The growth indic^ited in these 
fig^ires is cheering, but when we re- 
member that in London alone there 
are six times as many ordained 
preac^hers of the Gospel and proba- 
bly twice as many other workers as 
in the whole of India, the need of 
more laborers in this great field 
will be api)arent. 

Bishop Thoburn writes of the 
present opportunities in India, as 
contrasted with 40 years ago: 

"It was no longer necessary to 



1898.] 



SlfiLD 09 MONTHLY SURVEY. 



297 



fp to the jungles to find inquirers, 
n many parts of India thousands 
are manifesting a practical interest 
in the Christian religion. Thirty 
years ajgo the great difficulty 
was to nnd converts who desired 
instruction. To-day enough Chris- 
tian teachers can not be found 
to instruct the applicants for bap- 
tism. This is not the time for dis- 
couragements, but for prayer, 
faith, and fidelity. May God in- 
spire His people to rise up in their 
spiritual might and meet the stu- 
pendous responsibilities of the 
present hour." 

As to the need of an awakening 
Rev. G. H. Parsons cites the fact 
that in his own society (the C. M. 
S.) there was in one year an average 
of but two adult baptisms to every 
three European and native workers. 
And this he takes to be a fair ex- 
ample of the state of affairs in In- 
dia. No wonder that he calls upon 
his brethren for more waiting until 
they be endued with power. 

Rev. W. B. Boggs, D.D., of Se- 
cunderabad, indicates the following 
requisites for the awakening of the 
missionaries and a new outpouring 
of spiritual power: 

1. A renewed and deepened con- 
viction of the unfailing power of 
the old Gospel, and its perfect 
adaptation to India's need. Faith 
is the first requisite in the over- 
throw of Satan's strongholds. 

2. A new evangelistic crusade. 
Faith without works is dead. More 
loving, faithful, patient devotion 
to the work of saving souls will 
not fail to be rewarded. 

3. A new era of prayer. In 
closet communion lies the secret of 
(/hristian life and spiritual power. 
May God give us a new knowledge 
of the power of prayer ! 

It is always easier to recognize 
a mighty manifestation of God's 
power in the past, or to believe that 
it may come in the future, than it 
is to expect that He will do great 
things in the present. There is 
nothing too hard for God. Jesus 
C'hrist is the same yesterday and 
forever. All acknowledge the need, 



all believe in the power. Spirit- 
filled workers are the missing link, 
but they need not be missing long. 



Hindu Sooial Sefenn. 

The following are the resolutions 
past by reform Hindus at the 
eleventh social conference at Am- 
raoti.* They are suggestive of 
much thought, showing that Chris- 
tian aims and principles are being 
foisted on to Hinduism in many 
directions. Resolved: 

I. That in the opinion of this 
conference no permanent improve- 
ment of our social arrangements 
is possible, without a wider spread of 
female educafiati and the elevation 
of the standards at present taught 
in our public schools ; and that the 
best way to attain this end is (1) 
the larger employment of qualified 
female teachers trained in special 
normal schools ; (2) the continua- 
tion of the school education in 
private houses by means of home 
classes ; and (3) the taking steps to 
secure a body of self-sacrificing In- 
dian sisters, who will devote their 
lives to the cause — sacrificing in the 
manner of Christian sisters of 
charity and mercy. 

II. The conference notices with 
satisfaction that in promoting the 
cause of temperanve^ the associa- 
tions should make common cause 
with the temi)erance workers till 
we succeed in securing for the ma- 
jority of the total abstainers the 
power of determining the number 
and locality of licensed liquor- 
shops in each large town, or some 
adaptation of the principle of local 
option. 

V. That the conference notes 
with satisfaction that the reports 
of most of the associations furnish 
evidence of an earnest desire to 
postpone t\\e viannages of children 
to twelve at least in the case of 
girls, and eighteen in the case of 
boys, and it recommends , 

that the consummation be post- 
poned till at least 14 and 20 in the 
case of girls and boys respectively. 

VI. TntBit in the opinion of the 
conference the practise of men of 
more than 50 years of age marrying 
young girls below 12, is opposed to 
the spirit of the Shastras, and is 

* Condenst from The Bombay Ouardian, 



2$8 



f tELt) OP MONTHLY StJRVEY. 



[April 



extremely prejudicial to the inter- 
est of the community. 

VII. That the experience of the 
last 40 years' working of the Widow 
Marriage Act of 1856 has estab- 
lisht the fact that the act fails to 
secure to the remarrying widow 
the full enjoyment of her natural 
rights in the following respects : (1) 
That such widow is made to forfeit 
her life interest in her husband's 
immovable property for doing a 
lawful act, when such forfeiture 
would not have resulted if she had 
misconducted herself ; (2) that there 
is a general impression that she loses 
proprietary right over her mov- 
ables in favor of her husband's 
relatives ; (3) in many cases she 
and her second husband are not 
only excommunicated, but their 
right of worship in public temples 
and access to public places has been 
denied to them; (4) in some parts of 
the country she is subjectea to dis- 
fig^urement without any freedom to 
her to exercise her choice. The 
conference is of opinion that steps 
should be taken by the social reform 
associations to adopt remedies to 
relax the stringency of caste usages, 
and to secure a reconsideration of 
the principles of the act with a 
view to remedy its defects. 

VIII. The conference notes with 
satisfaction that in several prov- 
inces, notably in Bengal, Gujerat, 
and the Punjab a few attempts 
have been made to bring about the 
fttsion of sxib'CasteSy and the con- 
ference recommends that all castes 
and sub-castes who can dine to- 
gether, should, as a rule, strive to 
promote intermarriage among their 
members. 

IX. The conference records with 
satisfaction that in nearly all parts 
of India efforts are being made to 
discourage Nautch and indecent 
songs and obscene festivities at the 
Holi. This is only one department 
of the purity niovenieyit, and the 
conference is of opinion that a wider 
scope should be given and greater 
emphasis laid on the claims of this 
movement in all matters of per- 
sonal, family, and public life. 

X. The conference notes with 
satisfaction the efforts made by the 
Maharastra Village Education So- 
ciety at Baramati, and the Prar- 
thaua Saniaj at Satara, to educate 
the low castes, and to raise their 
status in Hindu society, and it 
recommends that every effort be 
made to secure their education and 



industry so that they may attain 
positions which wiU remedy the 
aisadvantages of their condition, 
and not to induce them to join 
other faiths. 

XIV. That the conference is of 
opinion that the imprisonment of 
women in execution of decrees for 
the restitution of conjugal rights 
should be abolisht, as such coercive 
process is not sanctioned by any 
enlightened code of laws, and as 
the legislature has already abolisht 
imprisonment of women in execu- 
tion of decrees for money. 

XVI. That as the law at present 
stands, there is apparently no pro- 
tection to a widow or an unmarried 
girl livingunder her guardian's pro- 
tection, above 12 or below 16, who 
is a consenting party to an act 
of personal dishonor at the hands 
of strangers. In the opinion of 
the conference the consent of such 
a girl between 12 and 16 should, as 
in the case of kidnapping, be held 
to be inoperative to protect the 
man who violates her honor. 



Prize Essay on India's Beligion.* 

The Saxon Missionary Confer- 
ence, whose object is to arouse and 
maintain interest and intelligence 
at home respecting missions among 
the heathen, proposes, in union 
with the Preachers* Conference of 
the Lower Erzgebirge, a prize of a 
thousand marks ($250 or £50) for 
an essay in furtherance of the 
missionary cause in India. This 
essay is to have the form of a 
scientific dissertation of the follow- 
ing tenor : 

**A presentation of the funda- 
mental views of the Hindus, relig- 
ious and philosophical, according 
to the Vedas, Upanishads, and of 
the Brahmanic (especially the Ve- 
danta) philosophy, and an estimate 
of the same from the Christian 
point of view." 

I. This prize has been proposed 
in view of three facts : 

(1.) The observation that, in the 
intellectual struggle which has 
been evokt bv missions in India, 
the cultivated Hindus are, indeed, 
ready to throw over the popular 
religion, but cling so much the 

• Translated by Rev. C. C. Starbuck. 



1898.] 



mmjr> op hokthly 60rvbiy. 



299 



more tenaciously to '*the primeval 
Aryan religion** contained in the 
Vedas, the Vedanta, and the 
Bhagavad Gita, and endeavor to 
strengthen themselves and others 
in the fancy that in this "primeval 
religion " the fundamental concep- 
tions of Christianity are also to be 
found. 

(2.) The assertion, continually 
reiterated in the journals of India, 
that this position of the Hindus is 
confirmed by the comprehensive la- 
bors of European scholars in the 
domain of Sanskrit literature and 
comparative religion. 

(3.) The observation, that many 
tendencies of the circles in Europe 
and America which are estranged 
from Christianity, as, for instance, 
spiritism and theosophy, have, in 
some measure, allied themselves 
with "young India," and are en- 
deavoring to make propaganda at 
home for the Brahman ic doc- 
trines. 

In view of these phenomena the 
prize essay must be addrest to 
serve a double end : at hanie to in- 
struct educated friends of missions 
in the true genius of the Hindu 
religion, and its fundamental dis- 
tinction from Christianity, as well 
as abroad to sustain the missionary 
in his conflict with the giant might 
of Hindu heathenism. 

II. As respects the contents and 
farm of the prize essay, it is meant : 

(1.) To afford the proof (a) that 
this so-called "Aryan religion," 
neither in itself nor in its histor- 
ical evolution is a homogeneous 
system, capable of satisfying the 
religious needs of a people, not to 
say of taking the place of Chris- 
tianity, {b) That it is an error to 
assume that Christian Indologue 
as a body would favor a "renais- 
sance " Brahmanism, now half dead, 
(c) That Christianity alone is, in its 
scheme, essence, and destiny, suited 
to become the world's religion. 

(2.) The prize essay must rest 
upon a knowledge of sources and 
literature corresponding to the 
present stage of Indological in- 
quiries, and demonstrate this ade- 
quate knowledge by citations fru- 
gally and carefully selected and 
Illustrated on all sides. 

(3.) It should limit itself to the 
main points of the religious view 
of Brahmanism, as it has espe- 
cially defined itself in the Vedas, 
the Upanisfaads, and the Vedanta, 
and has modified itself in the 



Bhagavad Gita. Special presenta- 
tion must be made on this basis of 
the following : Doctrine of God, 
cosmogony, man, transmigration, 
and, above all, redemption. 

(4.) A further limitation of this 
wealth of material may be made by 
laying chief weight on the final 
aims (the practical results) of 
Brahmanism (especially Nirwana) 
against those of Christianity. 
There the extinction of the person- 
ality, here life eternal ; there the 
contemptuous abandonment of the 
great masses, here the "seeking 
to save the lost,*' etc. 

(5.) The author, however, must 
take great pains to throw into the 
light the elenietits of truth in those 
writings on which he founds his 
course of argument, and which, 
moreover, may render this better 
intelligible to Hindu readers. 

(6.) It is desirable that there 
should be the greatest possible ac- 
commodation to the Indian man- 
ners of thought. Whether the 
author shall even use the form of 
the dialogue, such a favorite form 
of Hindu composition, it is for him 
to decide. 

(7.> The judgment past upon the 
Hindu religion must be given from 
the positively Christian point of 
view, from that of faith in revela- 
tion. The counter pi*esentation of 
the Christian truth will of itself be 
indispensable for the illustration of 
the labyrinthine aberrations of Hin- 
duism. 

(8.) The essay, which may be 
written either in German or Eng- 
lish, should not go beyond 20 
Srinted sheets (about the size of 
•Idenberg's Religion der Veda). 
Copyright is reserved to the author. 

(9.) The manuscript must be 
easily legible, and superscribed 
with a motto, answering to the 
superscription of a sealed letter ac- 
companying, giving the exact name 
of the writer, as well as of his call- 
ing and dwelling-place. It must be 
sent in before June 3(), 1809, addrest 
An den Vorsta^id der Sdchsischen 
Missionskonferenz, z. H, des Mis- 
sionsseniors R, Handmann, Leip- 
zig, Amdtstrasse 22, Germany, 

(10.) The judges are : Professors 
Dr. Windisch and Dr. Lindner at 
licipsic, and Dr. von Schroeder at 
Innsbruck. 

Die Sdchsische Missionskonferenz : 

P. Dr. Kleinpaul, Vorsitzender. 
Brockwitz bei Coswig, July, 1897. 



-• • 



ir.!T -s: iL, ZfU^x 



'\zrl 



v.- 



Tut ZigaxMA^ 'd 









fi« f^i* 



^*T*-» ft f0'..''^-^ air.«l r#*i-r. *rA*''.r.jr :n- 

f! ♦^^•■^'^ wr.-/ft, *pr,n fir*r>-r ir*- 

a r.rl ^ y rr. f j<i * r»*^ ;/r d*^ : r*- f . >r f »» *1 <♦ 
^M^'^win^ iifK/n t;**r fji-«*p-> of tr-4t 
rii^tn^t, art/i th*T inform *? ion wa.<v 
f^yr f h^ ff./^^f. jr»rr. sriir.M fpt»:n va- 

ar»f,* in p»^;ird to the •*<'arijpJ^l- 
li^'^.'' a^ th'-jr w^-re inad%'*TT*-iitlT 
f'ftlU'fl, in orf#f in mh'i^e Chri-^tian 
/•h;»ra/t*^ and spirit we ha*-e the 
i$futf0^t f:*tui'vWiU'*r — a confidtf-nce 
whi/h i«i »itr*Tij^h*'ned by fiirth#-r 
f''>jftinttft'u'itt'i4fn on tlie fiiihjf^-t. 
Aft^-r a r-ar*'fij| in ventilation our 
i'4,rri-^\9(f%if\fut writ'-*: 

**Th#? ti'nrm 'Cainph^'llite* and 
'^'^fripU'lliMfn* were iLsed Hiniply 
fif rri;ike riiy«M'lf more flea rlyunrter- 
«i»/»*f'l, and Ntdinting-iiiHh then) from 
^ hrl'tianHaod di>4<:ipl<*H in the other 
t'Utht'f'\w*h, I now rej^ret having 
im^'d f>«'rm«tdiMpleaHinx to these peo- 
f»)e, whom f would not willingly 
wound, 

** Ke^nrding thw chimrh in the 
hUtft tViHU'u't I made fumiewhat 
hr'OH«| Htat^'mentM which were 
foiir»ded on hearnay rather than on 
fM'rH'inal kriowlefl^e of factH. At 
your re<|iieHt, I have gone among 
lhet»<« \HUiuU-, U) inquire into their 
l>«'liefH. J have interviewed mem- 
\H'Vn and ailherentHof thiHc*hurc;h in 
thiH diMf ri<'t, and my inquirieH have 
er»rivinred me that they are eurneHt 

• We wIthhoM thnnameof oiircorreMpond- 
Mjl, not by ri*<{iiPMt,biita<;(;orilinK to our own 
Jii<lt(ni«4iit. 



■n»«u -M*^ iir *• 4aj.w^ •>:•£'* W.-ri 
*.iit '■ f i-» *▼ .1. 



4:iii • 



.• 



l-»-T^ Tii-fcr J-^i* • hr>c i* ri>f !> -n of 
• r •! ani y iir >aT-. rr" Ai»cher 
T. yi ir.»* ih-ic caz*ii«iAt^-» are ad- 
=1.— »-ii •■"«- -fi>h. r^-ptrCAiur*, con- 
f-^fL. c> A-«i '<*c*:L*n*-" R#-p»riiiAiice, 
h** r^r' r>*r *t.i*»-ii. nii>c be • not 
fr-ci *!£>* t-H^c- •'fit fr»ci tl»e heart-' 
A rn^c Ei-^^-t a1s«> bnrak off fn»in 
evil h-ir .la- Aii«i give ev>i«riire of 
ir'i^ r»-p»-?i'Am.i?- -Of OKirve.' he 
«a:ii. * we Lav*- mfr-rE^^^r* irbo are a 
r»-pr'jA<-h t«» the ch-irch. Bat the 
Lvi-* ..f thr-^e «i«> i>»t represent the 
tr;** L : TifiT* of t h»r ch 'irvh- ' 

*- i am zi^«l of this invest icrat ion, 
a* it hAi* c»»?:vin«>=>*i me of the ear- 
Ti*^xn*-^ • »f : h»- l*-aders « >f t he church 
in 4'jcr*tii»n. and has shown tome 
that, as a pettpie, they honor the 
Word I if God. ... I am further 
c»»nvin<-»*d of the loyalty of these 
pet^ple to the d>rd Jesus I'hrist. 

'•It is. htiwever. my h«>nest con- 
viction that somewhere among the 
petiple is a great failure to honor 
the Spirit of Ottd.* They affirm 
their belief in the personal Holy 
Spirit, and say, ' W nere the Bible 
speaks, we speak ; where the Bible 
is silent, let a S4>lemn hush prevail,' 
to which I sav Amen. But there 
are great truths about which God 
is not 'silent* regarding the per- 
sonality, character, office, and 
works of the Holy Spirit, which, 
tho thev mav be articles of belief, 
are not prominent subjects of 
preaching/ 



n 



We have a further communica- 
tion from one of the "Christians" 
of Madison County on the doctrinal 
position of the '* Disciples of 
Christ " in that district,t and from 
this we make copious extracts : 



• TJils i«, unfortunately, only too true of 
many other ehurcheA, even where not trace- 
able to erroneous doctrines. It Is often a 
failure of empha»iH more than of faith. 

t Henry Clay Amnions. 



1898.J 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



301 



"(1.) Oiip church is known by the 
name 'Church of Christ,* or 'Chris- 
tian Church.' We regard the nick- 
name * Campbellites ' as an insult, 
because we absolutely refuse to 
bear any human name, .... 
and we claim that no mortal has 
any right to apply a name to God's 
church other tnan that found in the 
Bible. 

•* (2). If there is a disciple in this 
coiuity who does not hold most 
firmly to the doctrine of the Trin- 
ity, it is unknown to me. We be- 
lieve in God the Father, and in 
Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son 
of God. We believe in the Holy 
Spirit as that Holy Personal Spirit 
sent forth from God to convict, 
convert, and save sinners, and to 
dwell in all saints, to comfort and 
guide them unto the end. 

•*(3). We believe that all sinners 
must be regenerated by the word 
and Spirit of God in order that one 
should enter the Lord's kingdom, 
and that regeneration is the divid- 
ing line between the saved and un- 
saved. . . . 

'*(5). The only salvation that we 
ever heard of, conditioned on the 
Gospel, is /jerjsro?ia/ salvation. Each 
person must hear the Gospel for 
nimself, believe it for himself, re- 
pent for himself, and obey for him- 
self, and then he can rejoice that he 
is personally saved in Christ. . . . 

" All we ask is to have our doc- 
trine clearly understood. . . . We 
are poor in this county, but, for the 
glorious doctrines set forth above, 
there is not one of us who would 
not go to the stake with sours if 
need be. Persecutions have knit 
us togethei as one man. We hate 
no one, we love all men who love 
our one Lord. We love peace — 
we even court it. . . . And now, 
brother, 'With charity for all, 
with malice toward none,' let us 
g^ on to finish the work in which 
we are engaged, to bind up all 
needless wounds, and to stand by 
every hero of our common cross, 
to the end that the world shall be 
taken for Christ, and our rightful, 

glorious King shall reign in all 
earts." 

This testimony is fully corrobo- 
rated by other witnesses from whom 
we have not space to quote. We 
rejoice at this vindication of our 
brethren in North Carolina, and 
regret that we were so misinformed 



as to have unwillingly caused of- 
fense, and so have given currency 
to unjust reports.* This may serve, 
however, to vindicate them more 
thoroughly than if they had not 
been accused. Our one aim is glory 
to God, and peace among men. 
May the Lord more closely unite 
the Christians of all creeds to Him- 
self, to the end that they may be 
more closely linkt together, in loy- 
alty of heart, and labors of love. 

I). L. P. 



Dangerous Teaching. 

With no little surprise and sor- 
row we have noticed, nt)t only in 
the daily and secular papere, but in 
some of the religious weeklies the 
reported opinions concerning the 
question "Can an agnostic enter 
heaven ? " with the favorable 
answers, not only of Dr. Lyman 
Abbott and Dr. Heber Newton, but 
of Drs. Faunceand Mc Arthur (Bap- 
tist), Lloyd (Congregationalist), and 
North and Upham (Methodists), the 
last a professor in a Methodist 
Theological Seminary. The quota- 
tion of such opinions does not sanc- 
tion them, but to quote without 
comment is to give currency to mis- 
chievous sentiments. At risk of 
seeming illiberal and narrow, we 
feel constrained to say that in our 
opinion such exprest views tend 
only to encourage infidelity and 
promote indifference to even the 
search after the highest truth. On 
subjects concerning which a (-hris- 
tian minister and teacher has no 
revelation, even if he ventures to 
havean oyn/iio/i, it behooves him to 
be silent. It is a quest icm whether, 
indeed, it is safe to form even an 
opinion where there is no Biblical 
basis. ** Preach the preaching that 
I bid thee "— *• preach The Word "— 
these are the Divine glides for us 

* The editorial note In our February 
Issue was printed before we received speciflc 
denials of the reports as touchlnfi; Madinon 
(^ounty, and before we had time to investi- 
gate. 



z^yi 



[April 



;n th^ M>if^tnn work of 
^rxjli*. Th^ for«^iDO(ft preacher of 
to-^^ M, p^rrfaapR, Dr. AlexADdfer 
Maf^iarvfi, of 3fanrh#»«ter. If he 
haA an J prirat^ opinKtiu that so 
h*»y^ifid t h^ #r^presB t^achin^ of Holy 
Sri pt lire, faii^ aennoiks* reaching 
ihrfMnteh a half cv^ntTiry, have never, 
in a '4in«'i#^ ca^e. b^rtrayed them. He 
haA danpfi to r-r^nfine his preaching to 
the Scriptur*^^ and has helpC to 
nK>ld tnf^re Biblical teachers than 
an J ot her li vi n^ man. Beyond the 
clear rerelat ion of the TITord, we, as 
God's witnesses, can not safely go. 
It is possible that agnostics are 
often ** vrillingly ignorant.** and do 
not even care to examine into 
Christian truth. It has been well 
said that ** if it is of no consequence 
what a man's opinions are, pro- 
vided he be sincere, it is not worth 
while to search for truth, or when 
found, to embrace it.** And we have 
no hesitation in saying that such 
sentiments, when not only pri- 
%'ately held, but publicly declared, 
tend to knfjck the bottom out of all 
missions, both home and foreign. 
If men are in no danger without 
Christ, all missions become at best 
only a philanthropic and humani- 
tarian scheme, and we feel con- 
strained in loyalty to God to ask 
whether in the judgment of the great 
day one would prefer to stand 
among those who have gone beyond 
the Word of the Lord, or with such 
men as Dr. Maclaren, C. H. Spur- 
geon, Archibald Brown, Andrew 
Thomson, D.D., William Fleming 
Stevenson, D.D., and men of this 
class across the sea, and with such 
as Drs. R. S. Storrs, Theodore L. 
(.*uyler, A. J. Gordon, Stephen H. 
Tyng, and Bishop Simpson, on this 
side the water. And as for foreign 
niissionH, the men who have most 
vigorously and nobly prosecuted 
thom are, every one of them, men 
who hold by tho old Bible. Wit- 
n#'MH Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, George 
M filler, the grand missionaries and 



biaiiopB di the Church 
Soeierr. ITilliaiii Carev 
and Adi^mrain Jodsoiu Dr. Doff 
and Dr. J<:>hn \llLsoo, Griffith John, 



bam. and a hotst of others. If "" by 
their fruits ye shall know them*** it 
is a proi>f that the m«3dem lax views 
of Scripcnres and human peril are 
not of God. for they nnd^nmiie the 
of mLsHons. As Dr. 
said. "* We cannot afford 
to export doubt to the foreign 
field.** We write in no conscious 
intolerant spirit, bat from |wt>- 
foond conviction that those irho 
would be loyal to God must preach 
not a negative but a positive 
Go^ieL Goethe said, **Give ds 
your conviction*; as for doiuhts^ we 
have enough of our own." With 
tenderness, but faithfulness, we 
would exhort our brethren not to 
go beyond the Word of the Ijord, 
as the only course whereby we shall 
*"' save ourselves or them that hear 
us." 



Our friend, A. R. Cavalier, of the 
Zenana Bible and Medical Mission, 
or Indian Female Normal School 
and Instruction Society, writes 
from London: 

*' Our society is the first establisht 
mission specially to reach the wo- 
men in the zenanas, and has for up- 
ward of 40 years devoted its atten- 
tion to work amongst women and 
girls in India." Mr. Cavalier, re- 
ferring to statements, page 613 of 
the September Review, that one- 
twelfth of the women in India are 
widows, says: "The actual number, 
at the last census of 1S91 was 22,- 
657,420; the proportion of widows is 
therefore nearly one-sixth." 

The number, 8,000, for widows 
under ten was a typog^phical er- 
ror, intended for 80,000; and in- 
stead of 175,000 under 14, it should 
have read "between 10 and 14." 

The census is as follows: 

Widows under 4 years of age. 18,878 

between 5 and 9 years 64,010 

" " 10 " 14 " 174,689 

Total number under 14 is 268,450 

"According to the same census 



J 898.] 



EDITORIAI. DEPARTMENT. 



303 



there were 38,047,354 grirls under 15 
^ears of age, and of these, includ- 
ing all girls' schools, both govern- 
ment and missionary, only 313,777 
were under instruction, so that for 
every girl who is being educated, 09 
at least are growing up without 
education." 



At the Cambridge Conference of 
the Evangelical Alliance in Septem- 
ber, Mrs. JBishop, l)earing witness to 
the harmony ofspirit and brotherly 
union which exist among Protes- 
tant missionaries, said : "I shall 
be happy to say what I have 
seen or the Alliance spirit among 
missionaries in various narts of the 
world. I have traveled for seven 
and a half years in Asia, and have 
visited in that time, I think, about 
170 mission-stations between the 
eastern shores of Japan and the 
Sandwich Islands, and those wil- 
low-shaded streams by which the 
Jewish exiles wept over memories 
of Zion ; from the snows of Sibe- 
ria to the fierce glow of the Equator 
in the Malay Archipelago. In 
Central Asia, China, Fersia, Asia 
Minor, Arabia — wherever I have 
met with missionaries in all these 
lands, I have met with the Alliance 
spirit, with work for the good of 
man, carried out in faithnil obe- 
dience to the last command of our 
Lord, while the workers have been 
holding 'one Lord, one faith, one 
baptism, one hope of their call- 
ing,' and one hope of eternal life. 
I have found tnem meeting to- 
gether for prayer and Scripture- 
reading in all the mission-stations, 
loving each other as brethren ; 
holding their own denominational 
views, many of them very strongly 
— but these denominational views 
never, except in one particular case, 
interfering with that bond of 
brotherhixkl in which all were 
working for the welfare of man- 
kind. It was instructive to see this 
bond of brotherhood so markt that 
one never knew to what church or 
society these devoted men and 
women belonged. All met together 
in love and harmony, seeking the 
same aims and loving the same 
Lord. This Alliance spirit, this 
blessed observance of the unity of 
the Spirit in the bond of peace, was 
communicated by these workers to